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68204  >m 






Compiled  and  edited 





AMEN  HOUSE,  E.G.  4 

London  Edinburgh  Glasgow  New  York 
Toronto  Melbourne  Capetown  Bombay 

Calcutta  Madras 



THE  aim  of  this  book,  as  designed  by  the  publishers,  is  to 
present,  in  convenient  form,  information  which  the  ordinary 
reader,  not  only  of  the  literatures  of  Greece  and  Rome,  but  also 
of  that  large  proportion  of  modern  European  literature  which 
teems  with  classical  allusions,  may  find  useful.  It  endeavours  to 
do  two  things :  in  the  first  place  to  bring  together  what  he  may 
wish  to  know  about  the  evolution  of  classical  literature,  the 
principal  authors,  and  their  chief  works ;  in  the  second  place, 
to  depict  so  much  of  the  historical,  political,  social,  and  religious 
background  as  may  help  to  make  the  classics  understood. 
Accordingly,  for  the  first  of  the  above  purposes,  articles  in 
alphabetical  arrangement  (1)  explain  the  various  elements  of 
classical  literature — epic,  tragedy,  comedy,  metre,  &c ;  (2)  give 
an  account  of  the  principal  authors;  and  (3)  describe  the 
subjects  or  contents  of  their  works,  either  under  the  name  of 
the  author,  or,  where  more  convenient,  under  the  title  of  the 
work  itself.  Interesting  points  of  connexion  between  the  classics 
and  medieval  and  modern  English  literature  are  noticed.  In 
general  the  book  confines  itself  to  the  classical  period,  but  some 
authors  of  the  decline,  such  as  Plutarch  and  Lucian,  Jerome  and 
Ausonius,  are  included,  because  of  their  exceptional  interest  or 

In  addition,  to  effect  the  second  of  the  above  purposes, 
articles  are  added: 

(1)  on  the  principal  phases  of  the  history  of  Greece  (more 
particularly  Athens)  and  Rome,  down  to  the  end  of  the 
period  of  their  classical  literatures,  and  on  their  political 
institutions  and  economic  conditions ;  outstanding  histori- 
cal characters,  inseparable  from  literature,  such  as  Pericles 
and  Pompey,  are  separately  mentioned ; 

(2)  on  Greek  and  Roman  religion  and  religious  institutions, 
and  the  principal  schools  of  philosophy ; 

(3)  on  various  aspects  of  the  social  conditions,  under  such 


headings  as  Houses,  Women  (Position  of),  Slavery,  Educa- 
tion, Food,  Clothing,  and  Games ;  the  art,  industry,  com- 
merce, and  agriculture  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  periods 
are  also  noticed ; 

(4)  on  the  more  important  myths  and  mythological  charac- 
ters, as  an  essential  element  in  Greek  and  Roman  litera- 

(5)  on  geographical  names   of  importance  in  a  literary 
connexion,  as  the  birthplaces  of  authors,  or  as  the  scene  of 
events  frequently  alluded  to ;  something  is  said  of  the 
topography  of  Athens  and  Rome,  and  further  geographical 
information  is  furnished  by  maps  and  plans ; 

(6)  on  the  manner  in  which  ancient  books  were  written,  and 
the  texts  transmitted  and  studied  through  the  ages ; 

(7)  on  such  things  as  Roman  camps,  roads,  and  aqueducts, 
ancient  ships  and  chariot-races,  horses  and  elephants  in 
antiquity,  and  domestic  pets. 

It  should  be  remembered,  nevertheless,  that  this  work  does 
not  list  antiquities  as  such,  but  only  those  antiquities  which 
concern  the  study  of  classical  literature. 

The  compiler  of  a  book  such  as  this  is  necessarily  under  a 
heavy  debt  to  previous  writers.  It  would  be  impossible,  within 
the  limits  of  a  preface,  to  enumerate  the  works,  whether  editions 
of  and  commentaries  on  ancient  authors,  or  treatises  on  various 
aspects  of  antiquity,  which  have  been  consulted  in  the  course 
of  its  preparation.  Of  such  works  I  may  specially  mention, 
rather  as  an  illustrative  sample  than  as  giving  any  indication  of 
the  extent  of  my  obligations,  the  works  of  Werner  Jaeger  on 
Aristotle,  of  Prof.  'Gilbert  Murray  on  Aristophanes,  of  C.  M. 
Bowra  on  Homer,  of  Sir  J.  C.  Sandys  on  Epigraphy  and  on  the 
History  of  Scholarship,  of  A.  W.  Pickard-Cambridge  on  the 
evolution  of  the  Greek  drama,  of  F.  G.  Kenyon  and  F.  W.  Hall 
on  ancient  books,  of  W.  W.  Tarn  on  Hellenistic  Civilization,  of 
R.  C.  Jebb  on  the  Attic  Orators,  and  of  R.  G.  Collingwood 
on  Roman  Britain.  Apart  from  this  general  acknowledgement 
of  my  indebtedness,  I  must  confine  myself  to  naming  a  few 


works  from  which  I  have  more  especially  and  more  frequently 
sought;  ^guidance,  viz,:  in  the  matter  of  Greek  Literature,  the 
histo^es  of  the  subject  by  A.  and  M.  Croiset,  Prof.  Gilbert 
Murray,  and  Prof.  Rose ;  Latin  Literature,  the  works  of  J.  W. 
Mackail,  R.  Pichon,  J.  Wight  Duff,  and  Prof.  Rose;  Greek 
mythology  and  religion,  Prof.  Rose's  'Handbook  of  Greek 
Mythology'  and  M.  P.  Nilsson's  'History  of  Greek  Religion'; 
Roman  religion,  the  works  of  W.  Warde  Fowler  and  Cyril  Bailey 
and  Sir  J.  G.  Frazer's  commentary  on  Ovid's  *  Fasti';  Greek 
and  Roman  History,  the  works  of  G.  Glotz,  M.  Gary,  J.  B.  Bury, 
M.  Rostovtzeff ,  G.  Ferrero,  and  the  Cambridge  Ancient  History. 
On  antiquities  in  general  I  have  obtained  much  assistance  from 
the  Cambridge  Companions  to  Greek  and  Latin  Studies,  from 
the  dictionaries  of  Darexnberg  and  Saglio  and  of  Seyffert 
(Sandys  and  Nettleship),  and  from  Stuart  Jones's  'Companion 
to  Roman  History';  on  points  of  biography  from  Liibker's 
'Reallexikon' ;  and  on  certain  matters  from  the  'Real-Encyclo- 
padie '  of  Pauly-Wissowa. 

I  must  also  acknowledge  the  helpful  suggestions  which  I  have 
received  from  several  people  who  were  concerned  with  this  book 
in  its  various  stages:  from  Dr.  Cyril  Bailey;  Mr.  J.  B.  Poynton 
of  Winchester  College ;  Mr.  W.  H.  Walsh  of  Merton  College, 
Oxford;  Mr.  A.  H.  M.  Jones  of  All  Souls  College,  Oxford;  Mr. 
H.  A.  Murray  of  King's  College,  Aberdeen;  Mr.  J.  M.  Wyllie; 
Mr.  S.  W.  Steadman;  and  Miss  C.  M.  M.  Leask  of  Aberdeen; 
also  from  the  staff  of  the  Clarendon  Press.  Such  value  as  the 
book  may  have  is  largely  due  to  them.  H.P.H. 

September,  1937. 


Detailed  description  .  .  .  465-8 


1.  Greek  and  Roman  Houses. 

2.  Roman  Villas  and  Roman  Camp. 

3.  Greek  Armour. 

4.  Roman  Armour. 

6.  Greek  and  Roman  Theatres. 

6.  Greek  and  Roman  Temples. 


7.  Asia  Minor  and  the  East:  Routes  of  Xerxes,  Cyrus, 

Alexander,  and  the  March  of  the  Ten  Thousand. 

8.  Greece  and  Asia  Minor. 

9.  Roman  Empire. 

10.  Italy. 

11.  Gaul. 

12.  Roman  Britain. 

13  (a).  Athens.     (6).  Piraeus. 

14  (a).  Rome  under  the  Republic. 

(6).  Centre  of  Rome  under  the  Early  Empire. 


THE  following  selected  list  indicates  the  headings  under  which 
information  on  general  subjects  can  be  found. 

Administration,Public  (Athens,  §  9 ;  Rome, 




Architecture,  Greek  (for  Koman  Archi- 
tecture, see  Art). 


Art,  Roman  (for  Greek  Art  Bee  Architec- 
ture, Painting,  Sculpture,  Toreutic  Art). 

Augury  and  Auspices. 

Augustan  Age. 


Birthplaces  of  Greek  and  Roman 

Books,  Ancient. 

Burial  and  Cremation. 

Byzantine  Age  of  Greek  Literature. 



Chariot  races. 

Ciceronian  Age. 


Clothing  and  Toilet. 



Corn  Supply. 



Didactic  poetry. 



Economic  Conditions  (Athens,  §  10  J 
Rome,  §  13). 

Editions  of  Collections  of  the  Classics. 








Finances  (Athens,  §  II;  Rome,  §  14). 

Food  and  Wine. 





Hellenistic  Age. 

Historians,  Ancient,  and  Modern. 

Homeric  Age. 


Houses  and  Furniture. 


Judicial  Procedure. 

Law,  Roman. 



Lyric  Poetry. 




Migrations  and  Dialects,  Greek. 


Money  and  Coins. 












Painting,  Greek  (for  Roman  Painting  see 


Papyri,  Discoveries  of. 


Provinces,  Roman. 

Roman  Age  of  Greek  Literature. 

Satyric  Drama. 
Sculpture,  Greek  (for  Roman  Sculpture 

see  Art). 

Texts  and  Studies. 
Weights  and  Measures. 
Women,  Position  of. 

A  date  chart  of  Greek  and  Latin  authors  and  of  events  contemporary  with 
them  is  given  on  pages  455-62. 



PROPER  names  are  entered  as  head -words  in  the  form  in  which  they 
are  most  familiar  to  ordinary  readers,  e.g.  A'jax,  A'ristotle, 
Menela'us,  Phi'dias,  Te'rence.  The  Greek  v  appears  as  y,  K  as  c,. 
and  final  -os  as  -us  where  these  are  the  more  familiar  forms.  The 
correct  transliteration  of  Greek  names  and  the  full  Latin  names  are 
added  in  brackets  where  required:  e.g.  A'jax  (Aids),  A'ristotle 
(Aristoteles),  Menela'us  (Meneldos),  Phi'dias  (Pheidids),  Te'rence 
(Publius  Terentius  Afer) .  (Less  familiar  names,  not  head- words,  such 
as  Asopichos,  Pherenikos,  are  given  in  transliterated  form.) 

Latin  proper  names  appear  under  the  person's  nomen  unless  he  is 
generally  known  by  his  cognomen ;  e.g.  Cicero  appears  under  that 
name,  not  under  'Tullius '.  In  a  few  cases  the  names  are  given  under 
the  praenomen,  e.g.  Appius  Claudius,  where  this  is  the  customary 

The  ordinary  English  pronunciation  of  names  is  shown,  by  stress 
and  quantity  marks,  in  head- words  only  (i.e.  in  the  words  printed  in 
heavy  black  type  at  the  beginning  of  each  article).  Where  the 
quantities  in  the  English  pronunciation  differ  from  those  in  Greek  or 
Latin,  the  name  is  repeated  in  brackets  with  the  Greek  or  Latin 
quantities.  The  quantities  shown  in  all  names  and  common  nouns 
other  than  head-words  are  their  quantities  as  Greek  or  Latin  words, 
and  are  not  necessarily  an  indication  of  their  accepted  pronunciation 
in  English.  For  instance 

(1)  Catullus,  GAIUS  VALERIUS, 

(2)  Clau'dius  (Tib&rius  Claudius  N&ro  Qermanicua), 

(3)  a  river  in  Pamphylia, 

where  Catullus  and  Clau'dius  represent  the  ordinary  English 
pronunciation,  while  Glfus,  VALERIUS,  Tiblriua,  Nlro,  Qermanicus, 
Pamphylia,  show  the  quantities  of  the  Latin  or  Greek  names. 

In  general  only  the  long  vowels  are  marked,  and  vowels  are  to  be 
taken  as  short  unless  marked  as  long ;  but 

(1)  a  syllable  in  which  the  vowel  is  long  (or  common)  by  position, 


under  the  ordinary  rules  of  Greek  and  Latin  prosody,  as  being 
followed^by  two  consonants,  is  usually  not  marked;  e.g.  the  first 
syllables  in  Thersites,  Petronius ; 

<•  (2)  the  vowels  of  Latin  case-endings  which  are  long  by  the  ordi- 
nary rules  of  Latin  prosody,  for  instance  -o,  -a,  -is  of  the  ablative, 
-i,  -orum,  -arum  of  the  genitive,  are  not  marked;  e.g.  De  Amlcitia. 

(3)  short  vowels  are  occasionally  marked  with  the  short  sign, 
e.g.  for  emphasis,  as  where  a  vowel  which  is  short  in  Greek  or  Latin 
is  usually  pronounced  long  in  English ;  e.g.  So'lon  (Solon),  Ti'tus 

Where  a  vowel  is  common  (sometimes  short,  sometimes  long)  other- 
wise than  under  (1)  above,  this  is  indicated  by  the  sign  -;  e.g. 
Diana.  Where,  in  a  name  of  some  importance,  a  quantity  is  un- 
known or  uncertain,  the  fact  is  stated. 

The  groups  of  letters  AE,  AI,  Atr,  EI,  EU,  otr,  are  to  be  taken 
as  diphthongs  unless  it  is  indicated  that  the  letters  are  to  be  pro- 
nounced separately,  e.g.  Alphe'us,  Anti'nous. 

Where  a  name  which  appears  as  a  head-word  occurs  also  elsewhere 
in  the  course  of  an  article,  the  quantities  are  not  always  again  in- 
dicated there.  For  instance,  where  *  Socrates'  occurs  in  the  article 
on  Plato,  it  is  printed  without  indication  of  the  quantities.  The  great 
majority  of  the  names  of  persons  and  places  mentioned  in  the  course 
of  articles  are  given  also  as  head- words,  if  only  for  purpose  of  cross- 
reference  ;  and  this  applies  also  to  Greek  and  Latin  common  nouns 
such  as  ecdesia,  venationes.  Accordingly  a  reader  who  desires  to  know 
the  quantities  of  the  syllables  of  such  a  name  or  noun  should  first 
look  for  it  among  the  head- words.  If  it  does  not  appear  there  and 
no  quantities  are  marked  where  it  is  found  in  an  article,  it  may  be 
inferred  that  its  syllables  are  short. 


ad  fin.:  adfinem,  at  or  near  the  end. 

b. :  born. 

c. :  century. 

cc.:  centuries. 

c. :  circa,  about. 

cf.:  confer,  compare. 

d. :  died. 

dr.:  daughter. 

et  seq. :  et  sequentes,  and  following. 

fl.i  floruit,  flourished. 

gen. :  genitive. 

Gk.:  Greek. 

L.  or  Lat. :  Latin. 

m. :  married. 

O.T.:  Old  Testament. 

q.v. :  quod  vide,  which  see. 

qq.v,:  quae  vide,  both  which,  or  all 

which,  see. 
sc.:  scilicet,  understand  or  supply. 

The  abbreviated  names  of  authors  and  works,  such  as  'Horn.  Il/, 
'  Virg.  Aen.',  appearing  in  this  book  are  for  the  most  part  sufficiently 
familiar  to  need  no  explanation ;  but  the  following  may  be  noted: 

Apoph.  Keg.:    Apophthegmata  Re- 

Ep.:  Epistulae  (Epistles). 
Epod.:  Epodes. 
Nub.  :Nubes  (Clouds). 

Phaedr.:  Phaednis. 

Ran. :  Ranae  (Frogs). 

Sep.  c.  Th. :   Septem  contra  Thebas 

(Seven  against  Thebes). 
Vesp. :  Vespae  (Wasps). 


Abbreviations  denoting  certain  editions 

of  the  Classics,  etc. 

ALG.  Anthotogia  Lyrica  Graeca. 

Bude.  Collection  des  University  de  France, 
publiee  SOILS  le  patronage  de  I'Assoc. 
Guillaume  Bude. 

CAF.   Comicorum  Atticorum  Fragmenta. 

CAH.  Cambridge  Ancient  History. 

CGF.   Comicorum  Oraecorum  Fragmenta. 

CIE.   Corpus  Inscriptionum  Etruscarum. 

GIG.   Corpus  Inscriptionum  Graecarum. 

CIL.   Corpus  Inscriptionum  Latinarum. 

CLA.  Codices  Latini  Antiquiores. 

Cl.  Qu.  Classical  Quarterly. 

Cl.  Rev.  Classical  Review. 

GPL.  Corpus  Poetarum  Latinorum. 

CRP,  Comicorum  Romanorum  Fragmenta. 

FdV.  Fragmente  der  Vorsokratiker. 

FHG.  Fragmenta  Historicorum  Oraecorum. 

HRR.  Historicorum  Romanorum  Reli- 

IG.  Inscriptiones  Graecae  (Berlin,  1873- 

IGA.  Inscriptiones  Graecae  Antiquissimae 
(Berlin,  1882). 

JHS.  Journal  of  Hellenic  Studies. 

OCT.  Oxford  Classical  Texts. 

PLG.  Poetae  Lyrici  Graeci. 

RE.  Pauly-Wissowa,  Real-Encyclopddie. 

Rev.  Arc.  Revue  Archeologique. 

SEG.  Supplementum  Epigraphicum  Grae- 

SVF.  Stoicorum  Veterum  Fragmenta. 

Teubner  or  BT.  Dibliotheca  scriptorum 
Graec.  et  Lot.  Teubneriana. 

Thes.  L.L.  Thesaurus  Linguae  Latinae. 

Abde'ra  (ra  "Afloypa),  a  Greek  city  on  the 
coast  of  Thrace,  founded  in  the  7th  c.  and 
refounded  in  the  6th  by  lonians  (of  TeQs  in 
Asia  Minor),  the  birthplace  of  Protagoras 
and  Democritus  (qq.v.);  nevertheless  pro- 
verbial for  the  stupidity  of  its  inhabitants. 

Absy'rtus  (Apsurtos),  brother  of  Medea ; 
see  Argonauts. 

Aby'dos  (Abudos),  see  Colonization,  §  2, 
and  Leander. 

Acad&'mica*  a  dialogue  by  Cicero  on  the 
philosophical  theories  of  knowledge,  com- 
posed in  45  B.C.  In  its  first  form  the 
treatise  consisted  of  two  books,  and  the 

interlocutors  were  L.  Licinius  Lucullus 
(q.v.),  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus,  an  aristocratic 
leader  (consul  in  78  B.C.),  Q.  Hortensius 
(q.v.),  and  Cicero.  The  two  books  of  this 
first  edition  were  called  *  Catulus'  and 
'Lucullus'  after  the  chief  interlocutors. 
Cicero  then  camo  to  the  conclusion  that 
these  interlocutors  could  not  agree,  and 
as  Varro  had  asked  that  a  work  should  be 
dedicated  to  him,  Cicero  altered  his  plan 
and  dedicated  a  new  edition  to  him. 
He  rearranged  the  work  in  four  books, 
and  made  the  interlocutors  Varro,  Atticus, 
and  Cicero.  We  have  the  first  book  (i.e. 
the  first  quarter)  of  the  second  edition 
(sometimes  known  as  'Academica  Pos- 
toriora'),  and  the  second  book  (i.e.  the 
second  half, '  Lucullus')  of  the  first  edition 
(sometimes  known  as  *  Academica  Priora'). 
The  scene  of  the  conversations  is  laid  at 
various  villas  on  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of 
Naples.  The  date  of  the  conversations,  in 
the  first  edition,  was  supposed  to  be  before 
60  B.C.  ;  in  the  second,  near  the  time  of 

In  Book  I  of  the  second  edition  Varro 
expounds  the  evolution  of  the  doctrines 
of  the  Academy  (q.v.),  from  the  dog- 
matism of  the  old  school  to  the  scepticism 
of  Arcesilas  and  Carneades.  In  Book  II 
of  the  first  edition  Lucullus  attacks  the 
position  of  the  sceptics.  Cicero  defends 
the  sceptic  view  and  Carneades'  doctrine 
of  probability. 

Acptie'mus,  see  Academy. 

Academy  (Akademeia),  a  grove  of  olive- 
trees  near  Athens,  adjoining  the  Cephlsus, 
sacred  to  the  hero  Academus  (see  Dios- 
curi), and  containing  a  gymnasium  (q.v.). 
It  was  in  this  grove  that  Plato  and  his 
successors  taught,  and  his  school  of  philo- 
sophy was  in  consequence  known  as  the 

the  olive  grove  of  Academe, 
Plato's  retirement,  where  the  Attic  bird 
Trills  her  thick -warbl'd  notes  the  summer 
long.          (Milton,  P.R.  iv.  244  et  seq.). 
Sulla  cut  down  the  trees  during  his  siege 
of  Athens,  but  they  must  have  grown 
again,  for  Horace,  who  studied  at  Athens, 
refers  to  the  *  woods  of  Academus'  (Ep.  n. 
ii.  45).   Plato  was  buried  near  the  grove. 


Achaean  League 

His  immediate  successors  as  leaders  of 
the  school  were  Spousippus,  Xenocrates, 
Polemo,  and  Crates,  and  the  Academy 
under  these  leaders  was  known  as  the 
Old  Academy.  A  brief  account  of  the 
general  character  of  the  Platonic  teaching 
will  be  found  under  Plato,  §  3.  Arcesilas  of 
Pitane  (c.  315-240  B.C.),  who  introduced 
the  doctrines  of  Pyrrhonian  scepticism 
(see  Sceptics)  into  the  teaching  of  the 
school  and  engaged  in  controversy  with 
the  Stoics  on  the  question  of  the  certitude 
of  knowledge,  was  the  founder  of  what  is 
known  as  the  Second  or  Middle  Academy. 
This  sceptical  attitude  was  further  de- 
veloped by  Carneades  (q.v.)  in  the  2nd 
c.  B.C.  Antiochus  of  Ascalon  in  the  1st 
c.  B.C.  effected  a  reconciliation  with  tho 
Stoic  school  and  claimed  to  restore  the 
Old  Academy.  See  also  Neoplatonism. 

Aca'stus  (Akastos),  son  of  Pelias  (see 
Argonauts)  and  father  of  Laodameia  (sec 
Protesilaus).  See  also  Peleus. 

Acca  Lare'ntia  or  LAURE'NTIA,  probably 
originally  an  Italian  goddess  of  the  earth 
to  whom  the  seed  was  entrusted.  She  was 
worshipped  at  the  Ldrentdlia  on  Dec.  23. 
In  legend  she  was  the  wife  of  the  herdsman 
Faustulus  and  the  nurse  of  Romulus  and 
Remus.  For  a  discussion  of  her  possible  con- 
nexion with  tho  Lares  (q.v.)  see  Frazer  on 
Ov.  Fast.  iii.  55. 

Accents,  GREEK,  were  invented  by  Ari- 
stophanes of  Byzantium  (q.v.),  about  tho 
beginning  of  the  2nd  c.  B.C.,  with  a  view 
to  preserving  the  correct  pronunciation, 
which  in  the  Hellenistic  Age  was  being 
corrupted  by  the  extension  of  tho  Greek 
language  to  many  new  countries.  The 
accents  indicated  not  stress  but  varia- 
tions in  the  pitch  of  the  voice.  The  grave 
accent  signified  the  ordinary  tone,  the 
acute  a  rise  in  tho  voice,  the  circumflex 
a  rise  followed  by  a  fall.  In  tho  period  of 
papyrus  rolls  (see  Books)  accents  are  as 
a  rule  only  occasionally  indicated.  The 
use  of  them  became  generalized  about 
the  3rd  c.  A.D.  The  most  important  work 
on  accentuation  was  that  of  Herodian 
(q.v.).  H.  W.  Chandler's  Greek  Accentua- 
tion (2nd  ed.  1881,  Clarendon  Press)  is  a 
standard  treatise  on  this  subject. 

A'ccius  or  A'rnus,  Ltfcrus  (170-C.86 
B.C.),  a  Latin  poet,  probably  of  Pisaumm 
in  Umbria,  of  a  humble  family.  He  was 
a  younger  contemporary  of  Pacuvius 
(q.v.),  whom  he  rivalled  as  a  great 
Roman  tragedian.  Cicero  records  that  he 
conversed  with  him.  We  have  the  titles 
of  some  45  of  his  tragedies,  which  dealt 
with  Greek  themes  such  as  Andromeda, 
Medea,  Philoctetes.  He  also  wrote  two 

praetextae  (q.v.)  (on  Decius  Mus  and 
Brutus  the  liberator)  and  works  on 
literature  ('  Didascalica',  a  short  history 
of  Greek  and  Latin  poetry,  perhaps  in 
verse  and  prose,  thus  anticipating  tho 
' Menippean  Satires'  of  Varro),  agriculture 
(in  verse),  and  history  (annals,  of  rather  a 
mythological  and  theological  character, 
in  verse).  He  was  the  first  great  Latin 
grammarian  of  whom  tradition  tolls.  His 
tragedies  were  marked  by  dignity  of  style 
and  by  the  faculty  of  depicting  terror, 
pathos,  and  fortitude.  He  is  perhaps  the 
first  Latin  poet  to  show  some  appreciation 
of  the  beauty  of  nature.  His  'Atreus' 
contained  the  tyrant's  phrase  'Oderint 
dum  metuant',  said  by  Suetonius  to  have 
been  frequently  in  Caligula's  mouth. 
Ace'stes,  in  the  'Aeneid',  son  of  the 
Sicilian  river-god  Crimisus  and  a  Trojan 
woman  (Egesta  or  Segesta).  He  enter- 
tains Aeneas  and  his  comrades  in  Sicily. 

Achae'a,  Achae'ans  (Achaia,  Achaioi). 
'Aohaeans',  according  to  a  view  widely 
held  by  modern  students,  was  the  name 
by  which  the  first  Hellenic  invaders  of 
Greece  were  called  (see  Migrations  and 
Dialects),  and  Achaea  was  the  name  of 
two  territories  in  Greece,  the  region  where 
they  first  settled  in  tho  north  (the  name  was 
subsequently  restricted  to  the  mountains 
of  Phthiii),  and  a  strip  along  the  southern 
shore  of  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  which  they 
occupied  later.  But  it  is  pointed  out  that 
there  is  no  evidence  of  any  tradition 
that  tho  Achaeans  were  Invaders,  and  that 
Herodotus  and  Pausanias  speak  of  them 
as  autochthonous.  Homer  xiscs  the  term 
in  two  senses:  in  a  narrower  sense  of  a 
people  inhabiting  the  kingdom  of  Achilles 
near  the  Spercheus  in  Thessaly,  and  in  a 
wider  sense  of  the  Greek  army  besieging 
Troy  and  of  the  Greeks  generally,  no 
doubt  because  the  Achaeans  were  a 
prominent  tribe  among  them. 

The  Achaeans  of  the  Peloponnese  were 
tho  founders,  probably  in  the  8th  c.  B.C., 
of  the  important  group  of  colonies  at  the 
southern  extremity  of  Italy  (including 
Sybaris  and  Croton)  which  formed  the 
greater  part  of  what  was  known  as  Mag- 
na  Graecia.  Much  later,  Peloponnesian 
Achaea  became  important  in  the  history 
of  the  3rd  c.  B.C.  as  the  centre  of  the 
Achaean  League  (q.v.).  In  a  later  age 
again  Achaia  was  the  name  given  by 
the  Romans  to  the  province,  comprising 
the  greater  part  of  Greece,  formed  by 

Achaean  League,  a  league  of  cities  of 
Achaea  in  the  Peloponnese  which  had 
detached  themselves  from  the  rule  of 
Antigonus  Gonatas  (see  Macedonia,  §  3) 



In  275  B.o.  Its  constitution  is  interesting 
because  the  affairs  of  the  League  were 
administered  by  a  Council  composed  of 
delegations  from  the  cities  in  proportion 
to  their  population;  each  delegation  was 
chosen  by  its  city,  but  we  do  not  know  by 
what  method.  It  was  the  nearest  approach 
to  representative  government  which  we 
find  in  Greece.  The  power  and  influence 
of  the  League  increased  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Aratus  of  Sicyon,  who  from  245 
was  for  thirty  years  the  director  of  the 
League's  policy,  and  in  alternate  years 
its  general  (he  wrote  his  'Memoirs',  now 
lost,  and  there  is  a  life  of  him  by  Plutarch, 
including  a  vivid  description  of  his  capture 
of  Corinth).  He  made  the  League  the 
leading  power  in  the  Peloponnese,  with 
Corinth  as  its  chief  stronghold.  On  the 
military  side  the  League  subsequently 
derived  great  strength  from  the  ability 
of  Philopocmen  (q.v.),  and  was  finally  (in 
188)  able  to  overcome  Sparta  herself.  But 
its  high-handed  policy  brought  it  into 
conflict  with  Rome.  After  the  defeat  of 
the  Macedonians  at  Pydna  (168),  Rome, 
as  a  measure  of  future  security,  deported 
to  Italy  a  thousand  Achaeans  suspected 
of  hostility  to  her  cause ;  among  these  was 
Polybius  (q.v.).  In  148,  when  the  surviving 
exiles  (other  than  Polybius)  had  returned 
to  Greece,  there  was  again  trouble  between 
the  League  and  Sparta.  Rome  intervened 
and  imposed  harsh  terms  on  the  League. 
The  League  rebelled  and  declared  war,  but 
after  a  short  struggle  was  completely  de- 
feated by  Mummius  hi  146  and  dissolved. 

Achaeme'nidae,  the  first  royal  house 
of  Persia,  so  named  from  the  hero 
Achaemenes  (Pers.  Hakhdmanis),  founder 
of  the  family.  To  this  family  belonged 
Cyrus,  Cambyses,  and  Darius  (see  Persian 

Acha'rnfans  (Acharnes),  a  comedy  by 
Aristophanes,  produced  at  the  Lenaea  in 
425  B.C.,  his  first  surviving  play. 

The  Athenians  had  for  six  years  been 
suffering  the  horrors  of  the  Peloponnesian 
War,  the  devastation  of  their  territory* 
plague  in  the  overcrowded  city,  and  shor- 
tage of  food,  but  their  spirit  was  unbroken. 
The  Acharnians  (inhabitants  of  an  Attic 
deme  lying  NVV.  of  Athens  near  the  foot 
of  Mt.  Parnes),  of  whom  the  chorus  of 
this  play  is  composed,  had  been  among 
the  chief  sufferers,  for  their  territory  had 
been  repeatedly  ravaged.  The  comedy, 
which  is  a  plea  for  peace  as  the  only 
rational  solution,  was  produced,  not  in 
the  name  of  Aristophanes,  who  was  still  a 
youth,  but  in  that  of  Callistratus,  probably 
also  a  comic  poet.  It  won  the  first  prize, 
in  spite  of  the  unpopularity  of  the  theme. 

Dikaiopolis,  an  Athenian  farmer,  sits 
awaiting  the  meeting  of  the  Assembly, 
sighing  for  the  good  times  of  peace.  A 
Demigod  appears,  sent  by  the  gods  to 
arrange  peace  with  Sparta,  but  unfortun- 
ately lacking  the  necessary  travelling- 
money.  This  Dikaiopolis  provides,  but 
the  treaty  with  Sparta  is  to  be  a  private 
one  for  himself  alone.  The  Demigod 
presently  brings  the  treaty,  narrowly 
escaping  from  the  chorus  of  infuriated 
Acharnians.  Dikaiopolis  celebrates  his 
peace  with  a  procession  consisting  of  his 
daughter  and  servants,  and  this  leads 
to  a  dispute  between  Dikaiopolis  and  the 
chorus  on  the  question  of  peace  or  war, 
in  which  Lamachus  (q.v.),  the  typical 
general,  takes  part.  Dikaiopolis  is  allowed 
to  make  a  speech  before  being  executed  as 
a  traitor ;  and  to  render  this  more  pathetic 
borrows  from  Euripides  some  of  the  stage 
properties  that  make  his  tragedies  so  mov- 
ing. As  a  result  the  chorus  are  won  over 
to  the  view  of  Dikaiopolis.  After  the 
parabasis,  in  which  the  poet  defends  his 
position,  there  is  a  succession  of  amusing 
scenes  illustrative  of  the  benefits  of  peace. 
A  Megarian  (Athens  had  been  trying  to 
starve  out  Megara  by  a  blockade)  comes 
to  Dikaiopolis  to  buy  food,  offering  in 
exchange  his  little  daughters  disguised  as 
pigs  in  sacks.  A  Boeotian  brings  eels  and 
other  good  things,  and  wants  in  return 
local  produce  of  Attica;  he  is  given  an 
Informer  tied  up  in  a  sack.  A  yeoman 
wants  peace -salve  for  his  eyes,  which  he 
has  cried  out  for  the  loss  of  his  oxen ;  and 
so  forth.  Finally  Lamachus  has  to  march 
off  through  the  snow  against  the  Boeo- 
tians, and  returns  wounded  by  a  vine- 
stake  on  which  he  has  impaled  himself, 
while  Dikaiopolis  makes  merry  with  the 
priest  of  Bacchus. 

Acha'tes,  in  the  'Aeneid',  the  faithful 
friend  and  squire  of  Aeneas,  frequently 
referred  to  as  'fldus  Achates'. 

A'cheron  (Acheron),  in  Greek  mythology, 
one  of  the  rivers  of  the  lower  world  (see 
Hades).  The  name  was  that  of  a  river 
in  southern  Epirus,  which,  issuing  from 
a  deep  and  gloomy  gorge,  traversed  the 
Aoherusian  swamps,  and  after  recieving 
the  waters  of  the  tributary  Cdcytus  fell 
into  the  Thesprotian  Gulf. 
AchillS'id  (AchilUis),  an  epic  poem  in 
hexameters  by  Statius  (q.v.)  on  the  story 
of  Achilles  (q.v.),  of  which  only  one  book 
and  part  of  a  second  were  written.  The 
poem  describes  how  Thetis,  anxious  that 
her  son  shall  not  take  part  in  the  Trojan 
War  (from  which  she  knows  he  will  not 
return),  removes  him  from  the  care  of  the 
centaur  Chiron  (q.v.)  to  Scyros.  It  relates 

Achilles  • 

his  adventures  there  in  the  disguise  of  a 
girl,  his  discovery  by  Ulysses,  and  de- 
parture for  Troy.  The  work  was  begun  in 
A,D.  95  and  was  probably  cut  short  by  the 
writer's  death. 

Achi'ltes  (Achil(l)eus),  son  of  Peleus  and 
Thetis  (qq.v.),  the  chief  hero  on  the  Greek 
side  in  the  Trojan  War  (q.v.).  When  an 
infant,  he  was  plunged  by  his  mother 
in  the  Styx,  and  rendered  invulnerable 
except  hi  the  heel  by  which  she  held  him. 
She  later  hid  him,  disguised  as  a  girl,  at 
the  court  of  Lycomodes,  King  of  Scyros, 
hi  order  that  he  should  not  take  part  in 
the  Trojan  War;  but  he  was  discovered 
by  Odysseus  (q.v.),  who  sot  arms  before 
him,  for  Achilles  betrayed  himself  by  the 
fondness  with  which  he  handled  them. 
(There  is  a  play  by  Robert  Bridges, 
*  Achilles  in  Scyros').  By  Deidamia, 
daughter  of  Lycomedes,  Achilles  had  a 
son,  Neoptolemus  (q.v.).  At  the  siege  of 
Troy,  Achilles  was  leader  of  the  Myr- 
midons (see  Aeucus).  He  is  represented  as 
a  man  of  fierce  and  implacable  temper. 
When  he  sulked  in  his  tent  in  conse- 
quence of  his  quarrel  with  Agamemnon,  as 
related  hi  the  'Iliad',  the  Greeks  were 
driven  back  to  their  ships  and  almost 
overwhelmed.  Then  followed  the  inter- 
vention of  his  friend  Patroclus  (q.v.)  in 
the  battle,  the  death  of  the  latter,  and 
the  terrible  grief  of  Achilles.  After  ho  had 
been  reconciled  with  Agamemnon,  he  slew 
Hector,  and  later  Penthesilea,  queen  of  the 
Amazons,  who  was  fighting  on  the  Trojan 
side.  Mourning  her  for  her  beauty,  ho  was 
mocked  by  Thersitcn  (q.v.)  and  killed  him 
in  a  rage.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  shot 
in  the  heel  by  Paris  (q.v.),  or  by  Apollo, 
and  killed.  Odysseus  saw  him  in  Hades 
(Od.  xi),  but  it  was  said  later  that  he 
lived  immortal  in  an  island  in  the  Euxine 
(see  under  Colonization,  §  2,  for  his  worship 
there).  After  the  fall  of  Troy  his  ghost 
claimed  Polyxena,  daughter  of  Priam,  as 
his  prize,  and  she  was  slain  on  his  tomb. 
Landor  has  an  'Imaginary  Conversation* 
between  Achilles  and  Helen  on  Mt.  Ida. 
The  'heel  of  Achilles'  is  proverbial  for  a 
vulnerable  spot. 
Achi'lles  Ta'tius,  see  Novel. 
A'cis  (Akis),  see  Galatea. 
A'cragas  (Akrag&s),  see  Agrigentum. 
Acri'sius  (Akrisios),  see  Danae. 
Acre/polls  ('Upper  Town'),  the  citadel, 
standing  on  high  ground,  of  a  Greek  town. 
The  Acropolis  of  Athens  is  a  rocky  plateau, 
about  200  ft.  high  and  about  300  yds.  long 
by  150  yds.  wide.  It  was  surrounded  by 
walls,  which,  with  the  buildings  within 
them,  were  destroyed  by  the  Persians  in 


480  B.C.  ;  the  walls  were  rebuilt  by  Themi- 
stoclcs  and  Cimon  (qq.v.).  In  the  centre 
stood  a  colossal  statue  of  Athene  Pro- 
machos  ('the  Champion')  whose  golden 
spear-point  could  be  seen  by  mariners 
from  the  sea.  On  the  N.  side  stood  the 
Erectheum,  the  original  temple  of  the 
tutelary  deities  of  Athens,  Athene,  Posei- 
don, and  Ercchtheus  (qq.v.),  burnt  by 
the  Persians  and  rebuilt  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  5th  c.  hi  the  Ionic  style,  with 
Caryatides  (q.v.)  supporting  its  southern 
porch.  In  the  age  of  Pericles  were  added, 
the  Parthenon  and  Propylaea  (qq.v.). 
There  also  was  erected  after  the  peace 
of  421  B.C.  (see  Peloponnesian  War)  the 
beautiful  little  temple  of  Athene  Nike 
(' Victory'),  which  survives  reconstructed. 
It  stood  on  a  bastion  adjoining  the  Pro- 
pylaea and  was  demolished  by  the  Turks 
about  1685  to  make  place  for  a  battery. 
Other  sanctuaries,  such  as  that  of  Artemis 
(q.v.)  Brauronia,  and  many  statues  and 
altars,  stood  on  various  parts  of  the  rock. 
There  were  also  a  large  number  of  marble 
slabs  and  columns,  with  inscriptions  of 
decrees,  memorials,  casualty -lists,  treaties 
and  alliances,  public  accounts,  inventories, 
etc.  Many  of  these  inscriptions,  more  or 
less  mutilated,  have  survived. 

Actae'on  (Actaiori),  in  Greek  mythology, 
son  of  Aristae  us  (q.v.)  and  Autonoe, 
daughter  of  Cadmus  (q.v.).  For  some 
offence,  either  because  ho  boasted  that 
he  was  a  better  hunter  than  Artemis  or 
because  he  came  upon  her  bathing,  the 
goddess  changed  him  into  a  stag,  and  he 
was  torn  to  pieces  by  his  own  hounds. 

A'ctium,  a  promontory  in  the  south  of 
JLpirus,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ambracian 
Gulf,  off  which  Octavian  defeated  the  fleets 
of  Antony  and  Cleopatra  in  31  B.C.  (see 
Rome,  §  7).  This  battle  marked  the  end  of 
the  Roman  republic  and  introduced  the 
Roman  empire.  Early  in  31  Octavian  had 
landed  an  army  in  Epirus  hi  the  hope  of 
surprising  Antony  fs  fleet  in  the  Ambracian 
Gulf.  In  this  hope  ho  had  been  disap- 
pointed, for  Antony  had  succeeded  in 
bringing  up  his  army  for  the  defence  of 
the  fleet  and  establishing  it  at  Actium. 
For  several  months  the  armies  and  fleets 
of  the  two  generals  confronted  each  other. 
At  last,  late  in  August,  Antony  decided  to 
fight  a  battle  at  sea;  but  what  precisely 
were  his  plans  is  uncertain.  The  fight 
began  at  dawn  on  2  September.  At  first 
the  heavier  ships  of  Antony  appeared 
to  be  prevailing;  but  presently  the  sixty 
Egyptian  ships  forming  the  contingent 
of  Cleopatra  were  seen  to  set  sail  and  make 
off  southwards.  Antony  himself  followed 
her  in  a  swift  quinquereme.  Antony's 

Ad  Herennium 

fleet  was  destroyed,  and  his  army  shortly 
went  over  to  Octavian. 

Ad  Here'nnium,  Rhetorica,  see  Rhetoriea. 

Ade'lphoe  (or  Adelphi,  'The  Brothers'), 
a  comedy  by  Terence,  adapted  from  Mcn- 
ander  and  Diphilus  (see  Comedy,  §4), 
produced  in  160  B.C. 

The  two  sons  of  Demea,  Aeschinus  and 
Ctcsipho,  are  brought  up,  the  former  by 
his  uncle  Micio  in  the  town,  the  latter  by 
his  father  in  the  country,  and  the  theme 
of  the  comedy  is  the  contrast  between 
their  methods  of  education.  Dcmea  makes 
himself  hated  and  distrusted  by  his  harsh- 
ness and  frugality;  Micio  makes  himself 
loved  and  trusted  by  his  indulgence  and 
open-handedncss.  Aeschinus  has  seduced 
an  Athenian  lady  of  small  means,  loves 
her  dearly,  and  wishes  to  marry  her. 
Ctesipho,  whom  his  father  believes  a 
model  of  virtue,  has  fallen  hi  love  with  a 
music-girl.  Aeschinus,  to  help  his  brother, 
carries  off  the  girl  from  the  slave-dealer 
to  whom  she  belongs  and  brings  her  to 
Micio 's  house.  He  thereby  incurs  the 
suspicion  of  carrying  on  an  intrigue  with 
this  girl  at  the  very  moment  when  the 
lady  whom  he  has  seduced  has  most  need 
of  his  sympathy  and  support.  The  truth 
becomes  known.  Aeschinus  is  forgiven  by 
Micio  and  his  marriage  arranged.  Demea 
is  confounded  at  discovering  the  pro- 
fligacy of  Ctesipho.  Finding  that  his 
boasted  method  of  education  has  earned 
him  only  hatred,  ho  suddenly  changes  his 
attitude  and  makes  an  amusing  display 
of  geniality — forcing  his  old  bachelor 
brother  into  a  reluctant  marriage  with 
the  bride 's  mother,  endowing  her  relative 
with  a  farm  at,  Micio 's  expense,  and 
obliging  the  latter  to  free  his  slave  and 
start  him  in  life — showing  that  even 
geniality  can  bo  overdone. 

The  *Adelphoe'  was  played  at  the 
funeral  games  of  Aemilius  Paullus  (q.v.). 

Adme'tus  (Admatos),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, son  of  Pheres  and  king  of  Pherao 
in  Thessaly.  When  Zeus  killed  Asclepius 
(q.v.)  for  restoring  Hippolytus  to  life, 
Apollo,  the  father  of  Asclepius,  furious  at 
this  treatment  of  his  son,  took  vengeance 
on  the  Cyclopes  (q.v.)  who  had  forged 
Zeus's  thunderbolt,  and  slew  them.  To 
expiate  this  crime  he  was  made  for  a  year 
the  serf  of  Admetus,  who  treated  him 
kindly.  Apollo,  having  learnt  from  the 
Fates  that  Admetus  was  destined  to  an 
early  death,  from  gratitude  to  him 
cajoled  the  Fatss  (with  the  help  of  wine) 
into  granting  Admetus  longer  life,  pro- 
vided that  at  the  appointed  hour  of  his 
death  he  could  persuade  some  one  else 


to  die  for  him.  The  father  and  mother  of 
Admetus  having  refused,  his  wife  Alcestis 
consented,  and  accordingly  died.  Just 
after  this,  Heracles,  on  his  way  to  one  of 
his  labours,  visited  the  castle  of  Admetus. 
The  latter,  in  obedience  to  the  laws  of 
hospitality,  concealed  the  death  of  his 
wife,  and  welcomed  the  hero.  Heracles 
presently  discovered  the  truth,  went  out 
to  intercept  Thanatos,  the  messenger  from 
Hades,  set  upon  him  and  took  from  him 
Alcestis,  whom  he  restored  to  her  husband. 
For  Euripides'  treatment  of  the  story 
see  Alcestis. 

Administration,  PUBLIC,  see  Athens, 
§  9,  Rome,  §  12. 

Ado'niazii'scic,  see  Theocritus. 
Adonic,  see  Metre,  §  3. 

J^do'nia,  in  Greek  mythology,  a  beautiful 
"youth  sprung  from  the  unnatural  love 
of  Myrrha  (or  Smyrna)  for  her  father 
Cinyras  (q.v.),  king  of  Cyprus,  with  which 
she  had  been  smitten  by  Aphrodite  for  re- 
fusing to  honour  the  goddess.  When  Ciny- 
ras, discovering  the  crime,  sought  to  kill 
Myrrha,  she  was  changed  into  a  myrtle, 
from  which  Adonis  was  born.  Aphrodite 
(q.v.)  fell  in  love  with  him  and,  when  he 
was  killed  by  a  boar  while  hunting,  caused 
the  rose  or  tho  anemone  to  spring  from 
his  blood  (or  the  anemone  sprang  from 
the  tears  that  Aphrodite  shed  for  Adonis). 
Both  Aphrodite  and  Persephone  (q.v.) 
then  claimed  him,  and  Zeus  decided  that 
he  should  spend  part  of  the  year  with 
each.  Tho  name  Adonis  is  probably  the 
Semitic  word  Adon,  lord,  and  the  myth 
is  symbolical  of  the  course  of  vegetation* 
His  death  and  survival  were  widely  cele- 
brated (in  tho  East  under  the  name  of  his 
Syrian  equivalent,  Thamuz',  cf.  Milton, 
P.L.  i.  446-52).  As  a  feature  of  his  wor- 
ship, the  image  of  Adonis  was  surrounded 
with  beds  of  rapidly  withering  plants, 
'Gardens  of  Adonis'.  These  are  referred 
to,  e.g.,  in  Spenser's  'Faerie  Queene', 
in.  vi.  29,  hi  Shakespeare's  '  1  Henry  VI', 
i.  vi,  anjfljba  Milton,  P.L.  ix.  440.  The 
story  of  the  Tore  ot~Venus  for  Adonis  is 
tho  subject  of  Shakespeare 's  poem  '  Venus 
and  Adonis'. 

Adra'stus  (Adrastos),  legendary  king  of 
Argos  at  the  time  of  the  conflict  of 
Polynices  and  Eteocles  for  the  kingdom 
of  Thebes  (see  Oedipus).  Polynices  mar- 
ried his  daughter  Argeia,  Tydeus  married 
her  sister  Deipyle;  and  Adrastus  col- 
lected and  led  the  army  of  the  'Seven 
against  Thebes'.  When  tho  expedition 
was  defeated,  Adrastus  escaped,  thanks 
to  the  swiftness  of  his  horse  Arion,  the 
offspring  of  Poseidon  and  Demeter.  In 



Aemilius  Paullus 

his  old  age  ho  led  the  second  expedition 
against  Thebes,  that  of  the  Epigoni  (q.v.) 
and  died  on  his  way  home,  after  its  suc- 
cessful conclusion,  from  grief  for  the  loss 
of  his  son,  who  alone  had  fallen  in  the 

Ae'a  (Aia),  in  the  story  of  the  Argonauts 
(q.v.),  the  realm  of  Aeetes  (q.v.),  later 
identified  with  Colchis. 

Ae'acus  (Aiakos),  in  Greek  mythology, 
son  of  Zous  and  the  nymph  Aegina.  He 
was  the  father  of  Telamon  (father  of  the 
greater  Ajax)  and  of  Peleus  (father  of 
Achilles)  (qq.v.).  He  was  a  man  of  great 
piety,  and  when  the  inhabitants  of  his 
island,  Aegina,  were  destroyed  by  a  plague, 
Zeus,  to  reward  him,  created  human  beings 
out  of  ants  (murmekes)  to  repeople  it,  and 
these  were  called  Myrmidons,  the  name 
by  which  the  subjects  of  Peleus  and 
Achilles  are  known  in  Homer.  See  also 
Minos,  Rhadamanthus,  and  Aeacus. 

Aeae'a  (Aiatt),  in  the  *  Odyssey',  tho 
island  of  Circe,  situated  in  the  stream 
Oceanus  (q.v.). 

Ae'diles  (Aedues)  of  the  plebs,  at  Home, 
originally  two  plebeian  magistrates  (named 
'aediles*  from  the  aedes  or  temple  of  Ceres, 
where  they  preserved  the  decrees  of  the 
people),  who  bad  the  charge  of  temples, 
buildings,  markets,  and  games.  To  them 
were  later  added  two  Curule  Aediles  repre- 
senting the  whole  people.  The  aediles 
were  charged  with  the  corn-supply  of  the 
metropolis  until  this  was  entrusted  to 
special  officers  (see  Annona). 

Ae'don,  in  Greek  mythology,  daughter  of 
Pandareos  and  wife  of  Zethus  king  of 
Thebes.  She  was  envious  of  Niobe  (q.v.) 
her  sister-in-law  (wife  of  Amphion  brother 
of  Zethus)  because  she  had  many  children, 
and  plotted  to  kill  them.  By  mistake  she 
slew  her  own  child,  Itylus  (or  Itys),  and 
mourned  for  him  so  bitterly  that  the  gods 
changed  her  into  a  nightingale.  Swinburne 
has  a  poem '  Itylus'  on  this  legend.  Cf.  the 
story  of  Procne  (see  Philomela). 

Aee'tes  (Aieies),  in  Greek  mythology, 
son  of  Helios  (q.v.),  king  of  Colchis, 
brother  of  Circe  (q.v.),  and  father  of 
Medea.  See  Athamas  and  Argonauts. 

Aega'tes  I'nsulae,  islands  off  Lilybaeum 
in  Sicily,  near  which  was  fought  in  242  B.C. 
the  naval  battle  in  which  Q.  Lutatius 
Catulus,  the  Roman  admiral,  defeated 
the  Punic  fleet,  thereby  terminating  the 
First  Punic  War  (see  Punic  Wars). 

Aegean  Sea  (Aigaios  Pontos),  the  part 
of  the  Mediterranean  between  Greece  and 
Asia  Minor.  The  etymology  of  the  name  is 

Ae'geus  (Aigffus),  see  Theseus  and  Medea 
(Euripides'  tragedy). 

Aegi'na  (Aigina),  (1)  a  nymph,  the 
mother  of  Aeacus  (q.v.).  (2)  An  island  in 
the  Saronio  Gulf  which  was  occupied  by 
tho  Dorians  (see  Migrations).  In  the 
6th  c.  it  was  a  strong  naval  power  and 
at  enmity  with  Athens.  When  Persia 
threatened  Greece  early  in  the  5th  c.,  it 
was  feared  that  the  Aegine'tans  would 
support  tho  invaders.  By  tho  intervention 
of  Sparta  Aegina  was  forced  to  give 
Athens  hostages  for  her  good  conduct,' 
and  an  indecisive  war  between  Aegina 
and  Athens  followed,  beginning  probably  in 
488.  Aegina,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  fought 
bravely  on  the  Greek  side  at  Salamis. 
After  the  Persian  Wars  she  opposed  the 
imperial  policy  of  Athens  and  was  sub- 
dued in  457-6.  During  the  Peloponnesian 
War  the  inhabitants  were  expelled  and  the 
island  was  colonized  (c.  429)  by  Athenian 
cleruchs  (q.v.).  The  island  was  an  impor- 
tant centre  of  Greek  sculpture  and  con- 
tained a  famous  temple  of  Aphaia  (see 
Britomartis),  of  which  the  fine  pediments 
survive  (at  Munich).  In  mythology  Aegina 
was  the  realm  of  Aeacus  (q.v.) 

Aegi'sthus  (Aigisthos),  see  Pelops. 

Aegospo'tami  (Aigospotamoi,  'Goat's 
Rivers'),  a  small  river  in  the  Thracian 
Chersonese,  off  the  mouth  of  which  Athens 
suffered  her  final  naval  defeat  in  the 
Peloponnesian  War  (q.v.)  in  405  B.C. 

Aegy'ptus  (Aiguptos),  (1)  see  Danaus; 
(2)  see  Egypt. 

Ae'lian  (Claudius  Aelianus)  (fl.  c.  A.D. 
200),  author  of  fourteen  books  (in  Greek) 
of  'Historical  Miscellanies'  (PoikUe  His- 
torid),  showing  wide  but  uncritical  learn- 
ing about  political  and  literary  celebrities ; 
and  of  a  work  '  On  the  Characteristics  of 
Animals'  in  seventeen  books.  Both  works 
(the  former  partly  in  epitomized  form) 

Ae'lius  Aristi'des,  see  Aristides. 

Ae'lius  Lampri'dius,  see  Historia  Au- 

Ae'lius  Spartia'nus,  see  Historia  Au- 

Aemi'lius  Paullus,  LCcius  (d.  160  B.C.), 
son  of  the  Aemilius  Paullus  who  fell  at 
Cannae  (q.v.),  was  consul  for  the  second 
time  in  168  B.C.,  when  the  Macedonian 
War,  owing  to  the  incompetence  of  the 
Roman  generals  and  the  indiscipline  of  the 
army,  was  going  ill  for  Rome.  He  restored 
discipline  and  in  a  single  campaign 
brought  the  war  to  a  successful  end  by  his 
victory  at  Pydna.  He  formed,  with  the 


books  that  had  belonged  to  the  Ma- 
cedonian king  (Perseus),  the  first  private 
library  at  Rome.  The  proceeds  of  the 
booty  gained  at  Pydna  were  enormous, 
and  were  scrupulously  paid  into  the  Ro- 
man treasury.  He  combined  old  Roman 
virtue  with  Greek  enlightenment.  He  \vas 
father  of  Scipio  Aemilianus  (q.v.).  There 
is  a  life  of  him  by  Plutarch. 

Aene'as  (Gk.  Ainaias),  son  of  Anchisea 
and  Aphrodite  (qq.v.)  and  a  member  of 
the  younger  branch  of  the  royal  family 
of  Troy  (see  genealogy  under  Troy).  In 
the  '  Iliad '  he  is  represented  as  under  the 
disfavour  of  Priam  and  is  a  secondary 
figure.  But  it  is  there  stated  (xx.  307)  that 
*  his  might  shall  reign  among  the  Trojans, 
and  his  children's  children,  who  shall  bo 
born  in  the  aftertime*.  There  was  an 
early  tradition  that  he  escaped  when  Troy 
fell,  and  went  to  some  place  in  Italy. 
Timaeus  (q.v.)  appears  to  have  been  the 
first  to  make  him  the  originator  of  the 
future  Roman  State.  The  tale  of  Aeneas's 
wanderings  to  Italy  was  perhaps  told  by 
Stesichorus  (q.v.),  and  we  have  it  in  its 
fully  developed  form  in  the  '  Aeneid'  (q.v.) 
of  Virgil.  That  the  legend  was  officially 
recognized  in  the  3rd  c.  B.C.  is  shown  by 
the  fact  that  after  the  1st  Punic  War  the 
Acarnanians  requested  the  help  of  Rome 
against  the  Aetolians  on  the  ground  that 
their  ancestors  alone  of  all  the  Greeks  had 
not  taken  part  in  the  expedition  against 
Troy.  The  legend  was  adopted  by  l^abius 
Pictor  in  his  history,  and  by  the  poets 
Naevius  and  Ennius.  See  also  Tabula 
Iliaca.  For  the  reconciliation  of  the 
legend  with  the  story  of  the  founding  of 

Z"  me  by  Romulus  see  Rome,  §  2. 
fneid  (Aeneis),  an  epic  poem  in  twelve 
books  of  hexameters  by  Virgil,  composed 
in  seclusion  in  Campania  during  the  last 
eleven  years  of  his  life,  30-19  B.C.  (that 
is  to  say,  after  the  battle  of  Actium  had 
finally  established  the  principate  of 
Augustus).  The  poem  was  left  unfinished 
and  Virgil  is  said,  when  dying,  to  have 
ordered  it  to  be  destroyed.  He  had  read 
portions  of  the  work  to  Augustus  and  his 
family  hi  23  B.C. 

The  poem  is  a  national  epic,  designed 
to  celebrate  the  origin  and  growth  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  The  groundwork  is  the 
legend  that  Aeneas  (q.v.),  after  the  fall 
of  Troy  and  long  wanderings,  founded  a 
Trojan  settlement  in  Latium,  the  source 
of  the  Roman  race  (see  Rome,  §  2).  This 
afforded  scope  for  the  mythical  and 
supernatural  element  found  in  Homeric 
epic,  for  recalling  the  ancient  beliefs  and 
practices  of  magic  and  religion,  for  glori- 
fying the  Roman  people  and  their  chief 

7  Aeneid 

families  by  representing  their  ancestors 
in  the  heroic  age,  and  for  recounting, 
by  the  device  of  prophecy,  the  historical 
triumphs  of  Rome  and  of  Augustus.  The 
striking  feature  of  the  poem  is  the  con- 
ception of  Italy  as  a  single  nation,  and  of 
Roman  history  as  a  continuous  whole  from 
the  founding  of  the  city  to  the  full  expan- 
sion of  the  Empire.  The  greatness  of  the 
theme  made  a  profound  impression  on  the 
Roman  people ;  the  dignity  with  which  it 
Is  set  forth  is  enhanced  by  the  poet's 
tender  contemplative  spirit,  his  sympathy 
with  suffering  humanity,  and  his  feeling 
for  nature.  The  poem  has  been  criticized 
hi  certain  respects.  Its  mythology  is  stiff 
and  conventional;  the  Homeric  Olympus 
was  discredited  in  Virgil's  day  (for  the 
poet's  treatment  of  religion  see  under 
Virgil).  Many  of  the  characters  are  said 
to  lack  force  and  distinctness.  The  epis- 
ode of  Aeneas  and  Dido  has  been  the  sub- 
ject of  the  most  frequent  censure.  It  is  out 
of  harmony  with  our  ideas  of  right  and 
wrong  that  Dido,  deserted  by  Aeneas, 
should  perish,  while  Aeneas  goes  shabbily 
away  scot-free.  It  is  unlikely  that  Virgil's 
contemporaries  would  have  taken  this 
view.  A  marriage  with  Dido,  a  foreign 
woman,  is  not  one  of  which  they  would 
have  approved;  Dido's  passion  had  en- 
tangled Aeneas,  but  the  will  of  the 
gods,  they  would  have  said,  must  prevail 
over  human  passion;  and  the  incident 
has  many  parallels  in  Greek  mythology 
(Theseus  and  Ariadne,  Jason  and  Medea, 
&c.).  It  is  perhaps  unintentionally  that 
the  poet  so  powerfully  enlists  our  sym- 
pathy for  Dido.  Conington  says  that 
Virgil  in  this  episode  'struck  the  chord 
of  modern  passions,  and  it  vibrated  more 
powerfully  than  the  minstrel  himself 
expected '. 

Virgil,  in  composing  the  Aeneid,  drew  on 
many  sources;  primarily  on  the  'Iliad' 
and  the  'Odyssey',  combining  in  his 
poem  the  travel -adventures  of  the  latter 
with  the  warfare  of  the  former,  and 
modelling  on  Homer  many  episodes  (e.g. 
the  funeral  games  in  Bk.  V,  the  visit  to 
the  nether  world  in  Bk.  VI,  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  shield  in  Bk.  VIII).  Virgil 
also  drew  on  the  Homeric  Hymns  and 
Cyclic  poets,  the  *Argonautica*  of  Apol- 
lonius  Rhodius,  the  Greek  tragedians, 
and  on  his  own  immediate  predecessors, 
Ennius,  Lucretius,  and  others.  His  pic- 
ture of  the  lower  world  appears  to  be  a 
poetic  treatment  of  the  various  opinions 
about  it,  popular  and  philosophical, 
prevalent  in  his  day.  The  contents  of 
the  work  may  be  briefly  summarized  ae 
follows : 

Book  I.    Aeneas,  who  for  seven  years 


since  the  fall  of  Troy  has  been  pursuing: 
his  way  to  Latium,  has  Just  left  Sicily. 
Juno,  knowing  that  a  race  of  Trojan 
origin  will  in  future  ages  threaten  her 
beloved  city  Carthage,  incites  Aeolus  to 
let  loose  a  storm  on  the  Trojan  fleet.  Some 
of  the  ships  are  wrecked,  and  the  fleet  scat- 
tered; but  Neptune  pacifies  the  sea  and 
Aeneas  reaches  the  Libyan  coast.  The 
remaining  ships  also  arrive  and  the 
Trojans  are  kindly  received  by  Dido, 
qiieen  of  the  newly  founded  Carthage  and 
widow  of  Sychaeus.  She  has  fled  from 
Tyre,  where  her  husband  had  been  killed 
by  his  brother  Pygmalion,  king  of  the 
land.  Venus,  though  Jupiter  has  revealed 
to  her  the  future  destiny  of  Aeneas  and 
his  race,  dreading  the  hate  of  Juno  and 
the  wiles  of  the  Tyrians,  designs  that 
Dido  shall  be  smitten  with  love  for  Aeneas. 

Book  JI.  At  Dido's  request,  Aeneas 
relates  the  fall  of  Troy  and  the  subsequent 
events:  the  building  of  the  Trojan  Horse, 
the  guile  of  Sinon,  the  death  of  Laocoon 
(qq.v.),  the  firing  of  the  city,  the  desperate 
resistance  of  Aeneas  himself  and  his  com- 
rades, the  death  of  Priam,  and  his  own 
final  flight  by  the  order  of  Venus;  how 
ho  carries  off  Anchises  his  father  on  his 
shoulders  and  takes  his  son  lulus  (As- 
canius)  by  the  hand;  his  wife  Creusa 
follows  but  is  lost.  Her  ghost  tells  him  the 
destiny  that  awaita  him. 

Book  III.  (Aeneas  continues  his  narra- 
tive.) He  and  his  companions  build  a 
fleet  and  set  out.  They  touch  at  Thrace 
(where  Aeneas  hears  the  voice  of  his 
murdered  kinsman  Polydorus  from  his 
grave)  and  Delos.  The  Delian  oracle 
bids  them  sock  the  land  that  first  bore 
the  Trojan  race.  This  is  wrongly  inter- 
preted to  mean  Crete,  from  which  they 
are  driven  by  a  pestilence.  Aeneas  now 
learns  that  Italy  is  meant.  On  their 
way  the  Trojans  land  on  the  island  of 
the  Harpies  (q.v.)  and  attack  them. 
The  Harpy  Cclacno  prophesies  that  they 
shall  found  no  city  till  hunger  compels 
them  to  eat  the  tables  at  which  they 
feed.'  At  Buthrotum  in  Chaonia  they 
find  Helenus  the  seer  (son  of  Priam)  and 
Andromache,  and  the  former  instructs 
Aeneas  in  the  route  he  must  follow,  visiting 
the  Cumaean  Sibyl  and  founding  his  city 
where  by  a  secluded  stream  he  shall  find 
a  white  sow  with  a  litter  of  thirty  young. 
Aeneas  pursues  his  way  and  visits  the 
country  of  the  Cyclops  (q.v.)  hi  Sicily; 
his  father  dies  at  Dropanum.  Thence  he 
reaches  Libya. 

Book  IV.  Dido,  though  bound  by  a 
vow  to  her  dead  husband,  confesses  to  her 
Bister  Anna  her  passion  for  Aeneas.  A 
hunting  expedition  is  interrupted  by  a 



storm;  Dido  and  Aeneas  take  refuge  in 
a  cave  and  are  united  by  the  design  of 
Juno  and  Venus.  The  rumour  of  their 
love  reaches  the  neighbouring  larbas,  who 
has  been  rejected  by  Dido  and  who  now 
appeals  to  Jupiter.  Jupiter  orders  Aeneas 
to  leave  Carthago.  Dido  discovers  Aeneas's 
preparations  for  departure  and  makes  a 
piteous  plea.  Her  lover's  sorry  excuses 
for  his  desertion  call  down  on  him  Dido's 
withering  rejoinder.  But  Aeneas  is  stead- 
fast. Dido,  distraught  by  anguish  and 
fearful  visions,  makes  a  last  entreaty  for 
delay,  and  when  this  is  unavailing  pre- 
pares for  death.  When  she  sees  the 
Trojan  fleet  sailing  away,  she  takes  her 
own  life,  heaping  in  her  frenzy  curses  on 
Aeneas  and  his  race. 

Book  V.  The  Trojans  return  to  Sicily, 
landing  hi  the  territory  of  their  com- 
patriot Acestes  (q.v.).  The  anniversary 
of  the  death  of  Anchises  is  celebrated  with 
sacrifices  and  games.  First,  a  race  between 
four  ships.  Gyas  in  '  Chimaera '  is  leading ; 
ho  heaves  his  pilot  overboard  for  not 
hugging  close  enough  the  turning  point; 
ho  is  passed  by  Cloanthus  in  'Scylla'. 
Sergestus  in  'Centaur'  runs  aground. 
Mnestheus  in  'Pristis'  presses  hard  on 
Cloanthus,  but  the  latter  wins.  Then  a 
foot-race,  in  which  Nisus,  leading,  slips 
and  falls  and  deliberately  trips  Salius 
so  as  to  give  the  victory  to  his  friend 
Euryalus.  A  boxing  match  follows  be- 
tween Dares  of  Troy  and  Entellus  of 
Sicily ;  the  former  is  worsted  and  Aeneas 
stops  the  fight.  Finally  a  shooting-match, 
and  a  riding  display  by  thirty -six  youths 
led  by  Ascanius  (see  Ludus  Troiae)*  Mean- 
while the  Trojan  women,  incited  by  Juno 
and  weary  of  their  long  wanderings,  fire 
the  ships ;  four  are  destroyed,  but  a  rain- 
storm quells  the  fire.  When  the  Trojans 
sail  away,  Palinurus  the  helmsman,  over- 
come by  sleep,  falls  into  the  sea  and  is  lost. 

Book  VI.  Aeneas  visits  the  Cumaean 
Sibyl,  who  foretells  his  wars  in  Latium. 
After  plucking  by  her  direction  the  Golden 
Bough  (see  Di,ana)  he  descends  with  her, 
through  the  cave  of  Avernus,  to  the  nether 
world.  They  reach  the  Styx  and  on  the 
hither  side  see  the  ghosts  of  the  unburiod 
dead;  among  them  Palinurus  (q.r.),  who 
recounts  his  fate  and  begs  for  burial.  The 
Golden  Bough  gains  for  Aeneas  permission 
from  Charon  to  cross  the  Styx.  Cerberus 
(q.v.)  is  pacified  with  a  drugged  honey 
cake.  Various  groups  of  dead  are  seen: 
infants,  those  unjustly  condemned,  those 
who  have  died  from  love  (among  whom 
Dido  receives  in  silence  the  renewed  ex- 
cuses of  Aeneas),  and  those  who  have 
fallen  in  war.  They  approach  the  entrance 
to  Tartarus,  where  the  worst  criminals 



suffer  torments;  but  turn  aside  to  Ely- 
sium, where  the  blest  enjoy  a  care -free 
life.  Here  Aeneas  finds  and  vainly  seeks 
to  embrace  Anchises.  Ho  sees  ghosts 
drinking  at  the  river  Lethe  (q.v.)  and 
Anchises  expounds  to  him  the  reincarna- 
tion of  souls  after  a  long  purgation  (a 
Pythagorean  doctrine  drawn  by  Virgil 
perhaps  from  the  Orphic  and  Eleusinian 
traditions).  Among  these  souls  he  points 
out  to  his  son  those  of  men  who  are  in  the 
future  to  be  illustrious  in  Roman  history, 
from  Romulus  and  the  early  kings  to 
the  great  generals  of  later  days,  Augustus 
himself,  and  his  nephew  Marcellus  (q.v.), 
to  whose  brief  life  the  poet  makes  touching 
allusion.  Aeneas  and  the  Sibyl  then  leave 
the  lower  world  through  the  Ivory  Gate, 
through  which  false  dreams  are  sent  to 
mortals  (perhaps  a  hint  that  what  the 
poet  has  described  is  no  more  than  a 
dream).  This  book  contains  the  memor- 
able lines  (851-3)  on  the  destiny  of  Rome, 
the  central  thought  of  the  whole  poem : 
Tu  regero  imperio  populos,  Romane,  me- 
mento ; 
Hae  tibi  crunt  artes:  pacisque  imponere 

Parcere  subjectis,  et  debellaro  superbos. 

Book  VII.  The  Trojans  reach  the  mouth 
of  the  Tiber ;  hero  the  Harpy's  prophecy 
(see  Bk.  Ill  above)  is  fulfilled,  for  the 
Trojans  eat  cakes  of  bread  which  they 
have  used  as  platters.  Of  this  land, 
Latium,  Latlnus  is  the  king.  His  daughter 
is  Lavmia.  The  goodliest  of  her  wooers 
is  Turnus,  king  of  the  Rutuli;  but  her 
father  has  been  divinely  warned  to  marry 
her  to  a  stranger  who  shall  come.  The 
embassy  sent  by  Aeneas  is  welcomed  by 
Latinus,  who  offers  alliance  and  the  hand 
of  his  daughter.  Juno  calls  out  the  Fury 
Allecto,  who  stirs  Amata  (tho  mother  of 
Lavinia)  and  Turnus  to  fierce  hostility 
against  the  Trojans.  Tho  wounding  of  a 
stag  from  the  royal  herds  by  Ascanius 
causes  an  affray;  Latinus  is  overborne, 
and  the  Italian  tribes  gather  to  expel  the 
Trojans.  Virgil  enumerates  these  and  their 
leaders;  notable  among  them  besides 
Turnus  are  Mezentius  'scorner  of  the 
gods',  a  tyrant  hated  by  his  people, 
Messapus,  Virbius  (son  of  Hippolytus, 
q.v.),  and  the  Volscian  warrior-maid, 
Camilla  (q.v.). 

Book  VIII.  Aeneas  faces  war  reluc- 
tantly, but  is  encouraged  by  the  god  of 
the  river  Tiber,  who  sends  him  to  seek 
the  alliance  of  the  Arcadian  Evandcr 
(q.v.),  the  founder  of  the  city  on  tho 
Palatine  hill,  part  of  the  future  Rome. 
On  the  bank  of  the  Tiber  Aeneas  sees  a 
white-  sow  with  her  litter,  as  foretold 
by  Helenus.  Evander  promises  support 


and  urges  alliance  with  the  Etruscans. 
He  leads  Aeneas  through  the  city  and  ex- 
plains the  origin  of  various  Roman  sites 
and  names.  Vulcan,  at  the  request  of 
Venus,  forges  armour  for  Aeneas.  The 
shield  is  described,  on  which  are  depicted 
various  events  in  the  future  history  of 
Rome,  down  to  the  battle  of  Actium. 

Book  IX.  While  Aeneas  is  thus  absent, 
Turnus  blockades  the  Trojan  camp. 
He  sets  the  Trojan  ships  on  fire,  but 
Neptune  turns  them  into  sea-nymphs. 
Nisus  and  Euryalus  pass  through  tho 
enemy  lines  at  night  to  summon  Aeneas. 
They  slay  some  of  the  enemy  in  their 
drunken  sleep,  but  fall  hi  with  a  hostile 
column  and  are  killed,  Nisus  gallantly 
striving  to  save  his  friend.  The  Rutulians 
assault  the  camp ;  Ascanius  performs  his 
first  exploit;  Turnus  is  cut  off  within 
the  rampart,  but  escapes  by  plunging  into 
the  river. 

Book  X.  The  gods  debate  in  Olympus, 
and  Aeneas  secures  tho  alliance  of  Tar- 
chon,  king  of  the  Etruscans,  and  returns 
to  the  scat  of  war,  accompanied  by  Pallas 
(son  of  Evander)  and  Tarchon.  Turnus 
opposes  them  on  the  shore,  to  prevent  the 
junction  of  the  Trojan  forces.  In  the 
battle  Turnus  kills  Pallas;  he  pursues  a 
phantom  of  Aeneas  contrived  by  Juno 
and  is  borne  away  to  his  city.  Aeneas 
wounds  Mezentius,  whose  son  Lausus  tries 
to  save  him ;  Aeneas  reluctantly  kills  the 
lad.  Mezentius  addresses  his  gallant  horse, 
Rhaobus,  and  again  faces  Aeneas;  horse 
and  man  are  killed. 

Book  XI.  Aeneas  celebrates  the  Trojan 
victory  and  laments  Pallas.  A  truce  with 
the  Latins  is  arranged.  The  Italian  chiefs 
debate.  Drances  proposes  that  the  issue 
shall  be  settled  by  single  combat  between 
Turnus  and  Aeneas,  and  Turnus  accepts. 
The  debate  is  interrupted  by  a  report  that 
Aeneas  and  his  army  are  moving  against 
the  city.  A  cavalry  engagement  follows 
in  which  Camilla  takes  the  lead.  Tarchon 
plucks  Vonulus  from  his  horse  and  carries 
him  off  before  him  on  his  saddle-bow. 
Camilla  is  killed  by  Arruns  and  is  avenged 
by  Opis,  messenger  of  Diana. 

Book  XII.  The  Latins  are  discouraged, 
and  Turnus  decides  to  meet  Aeneas  alone. 
Latinus  and  Amata  try  in  vain  to  dis- 
suade him.  A  compact  is  made  for  the 
single  combat.  But  Juturna,  sister  of 
Turnus,  stirs  up  the  Rutulians,  and  the 
general  fighting  is  resumed.  Aeneas  is 
wounded  by  an  unknown  hand,  but  healed 
by  Venus.  The  Trojans,  seeing  tho  city  of 
Latinus  loft  unguarded,  attack  and  fire 
it.  Amata  takes  her  life.  Turnus  returns 
from  his  pursuit  of  Trojan  stragglers  and 
the  opposing  forces  suspend  their  struggle 




while  he  and  Aeneas  fight.  Aeneas  wounds 
Turnus.  Even  now  he  would  spare  him; 
but  he  sees  on  his  body  the  spoils  of 
Pallas  and  in  fierce  anger  buries  his  sword 
in  his  enemy's  body. 

The  'Aeneid'  was  edited  after  Virgil's 
death  by  his  friends  Varius  Rufus  (q.v.) 
and  Plotius  Tucca.  For  famous  editions 
and  translations  see  under  Virgil.  It  may 
be  of  interest  to  recall  that  the  two  pas- 
sages of  the  'Aeneid'  which  Dr.  Johnson 
picked  out  for  their  wonderful  quality 
were  the  descriptions  of  the  tomb  of 
Polydonis  dripping  blood  (Hi.  19  et  seq.), 
and  of  the  Trojan  ships  turned  to  sea- 
nymphs  (ix.  77  et  seq.). 

Aeo'lians  (Aidleis),  see  Migrations  and 


Ae'olis,  the  northern  portion  of  the  coast 

of  Asia  Minor,  from  the  Troad  to  the  river 

Hennus,  which  was  occupied  by  Aeolian 

Greeks  (see  Migrations). 

Ae'olus  (Aiolos),  (1)  described  in  the 
'Odyssey*  as  the  son  of  Hippotes  and 
friend  of  the  gods,  who  lives  an  agree- 
able life  in  the  floating  island  Acolia.  He 
gave  Odysseus  a  leather  bag  in  which 
were  secured  the  winds  adverse  to  the 
latter's  voyage,  and  thus  he  later  came  to 
be  regarded  as  the  god  of  the  winds.  Virgil 
(Aen.  i.  50-9)  depicts  him  as  keeping  the 
winds  imprisoned  in  a  cave.  (2)  A  son  of 
Hellen  (see  Hellenes  and  Deucalion)  and 
the  legendary  ancestor  of  the  Aeolian  race 
(see  Migrations)  and  father  of  Sisyphus, 
Athamas,  Salmoneus,  Alcyone  (qq.v.), 
CalycS  (mother  of  Endymion,  q.v.),  and 
other  children, 

Ae'pytus  (Aiputos),  see  Merope. 
Aera'rium,  the  treasury  of  the  Roman 
republic.  It  was  maintained  under  tho 
empire,  but  distinguished  from  the  fiscus 
(q.v.)  or  imperial  treasury.  Its  chief 
source  of  income  in  imperial  times  was  the 
revenue  of  the  senatorial  provinces,  and 
it  appears  to  have  borne  the  cost  of  main- 
tenance of  public  buildings,  of  the  con- 
struction of  roads,  and  of  State  religion; 
it  issued  tho  copper  coinage.  Though 
nominally  under  the  management  of 
the  Senate,  the  control  of  the  emperors 
over  it  increased  with  time,  till  the  two 
treasuries  were  in  practice  almost  indis- 
tinguishable. The  aerarium  was  housed  in 
the  temple  of  Saturn  beside  the  Capitol. 
See  Rome,  §  14. 

The  aerarium  mUitare  was  a  pension 
fund  for  disabled  soldiers  instituted  by 
Augustus  in  A.D.  6. 

Ae'schines  (Aischinfe),  a  famous  Athen- 
ian orator,  was  born  about  390  B.C.  and 
was  thus  a  few  years  older  than  his  great 

rival  Demosthenes.  His  parents  were  in 
modest  circumstances  (his  father  Atro- 
metus  was  a  schoolmaster).  As  a  young 
man  he  won  some  distinction  in  military 
service  and  then  became  a  tragic  actor 
and  a  public  clerk.  He  first  appears  in 
political  life  in  348  as  an  envoy  sent 
by  Eubulus  (q.v.)  to  the  Peloponnese  to 
organize  Hellenic  resistance  to  Philip. 
But,  with  Eubulus,  he  soon  abandoned 
this  policy  and  became  an  advocate  of 
peace  with  Macedonia.  He  formed  part 
of  the  embassies  sent  to  Philip  for  tho 
negotiation  of  the  Peace  of  Philocrates 
and  in  343  was  impeached  by  Demos- 
thenes (q.v.)  for  his  conduct  on  these 
occasions.  His  defence  (which  we  possess) 
was  successful  and  he  was  acquitted. 
Demosthenes  was  to  have  been  associated 
with  one  Timarchus  in  the  accusation  of 
Aeschines,  but  Aeschines  had  retorted  by 
bringing  a  charge  against  Timarchus  of 
immoral  life.  His  speech  against  Timar- 
chus (345),  which  was  successful,  is  the 
first  of  the  three  speeches  of  Acschines 
that  have  survived.  He  next  came  into 
prominence  in  340,  when,  at  a  session 
of  the  Amphictyonic  (q.v.)  council,  the 
Locrians  of  Amphissa,  at  the  instigation 
of  Thebes,  were  to  bring  an  accusation 
of  sacrilege  against  Athens.  To  forestall 
this,  Aeschines  accused  the  Locrians  them- 
selves of  sacrilege  (see  Sacred  Wars). 
A  Sacred  War  was  decreed  against  Am- 
phissa, and  it  was  this  war  which  pro- 
vided the  pretext  for  the  invasion  of 
Philip  of  Maccdon  (q.v.)  that  culminated 
in  the  battle  of  Chaeronea  (q.v.).  Tho 
action  of  Aeschines  on  this  occasion  was 
made  the  ground  of  part  of  Demosthenes' 
denunciation  of  Aeschines  in  his  speech 
'On  tho  Crown*.  The  rivalry  between 
the  two  statesmen  finally  manifested 
itself  when  Ctesiphon  in  336  proposed  that 
Demosthenes  should  be  publicly  crowned 
for  his  services  to  the  state.  Acschines 
indicted  Ctesiphon  for  tho  alleged  illegality 
of  this  proposal,  and  in  his  speech  six 
years  later,  which  survives,  attacked  the 
whole  career  of  Demosthenes  as  injurious 
to  Athens.  The  jury  by  an  overwhelming 
majority  acquitted  Ctesiphon.  Aeschines 
retired  into  exile  and  died  there. 

The  speeches  of  Aeschines  reveal  his 
Inferiority  to  his  great  rival.  Ho  was 
excessively  vain,  and  deficient  in  nobility 
of  character  and  political  sagacity,  but 
there  is  no  proof  of  the  corruption  of 
which  Demosthenes  accused  him.  His 
speeches  are  in  a  lighter,  livelier  style  than 
those  of  Demosthenes;  he  had  had  no 
special  rhetorical  training,  but  his  stage 
experience  had  given  him  a  good  delivery 
and  a  wide  acquaintance  with  literature. 




Among  Lander's  'Imaginary  Conversa- 
tions' is  one  between  Aeschines  and 

Ae'schylus  (Aischulos)  (525-456  B.C.),  a 
great  Greek  tragic  poet,  born  at  Eleusis, 
near  Athens,  of  a  noble  family.  He  took 
part  in  the  Persian  Wars;  his  epitaph 
(composed,  it  is  said,  by  himself)  represents 
him  as  fighting  at  Marathon,  and  his 
description  of  Salamis  in  the  'Persians' 
suggests  that  he  was  present  at  that  battle 
also.  He  visited  Syracuse  at  the  invitation  of 
Hieron  I  (see  Syracuse,  §  1)  more  than  once 
and  died  at  Gela  in  Sicily;  an  anecdote 
relates  that  an  eagle  dropped  a  tortoise  on 
his  bald  head  and  killed  him.  He  appears 
at  some  time  in  his  life  to  have  been 
prosecuted  on  the  charge  of  divulging 
the  Elcusinian  mysteries,  but  to  have  ex- 
culpated himself.  Pericles  was  his  choregus 
(see  Chorus) &t  some  uncertain  date;  perhaps 
in  the  production  of  the  'Persians'  in  472, 
or  possibly  later.  Aeschylus  was  honoured 
as  a  classic  soon  after  his  death  and  special 
privileges  were  decreed  for  his  plays. 
Ho  had  a  son,  Euphorion,  like  himself  a 
tragic  poet. 

Aeschylus  wrote  some  ninety  plays 
(including  satyric  dramas),  of  which  seven 
have  come  down  to  us:  'Suppliants', 
'Persians',  'Seven  against  Thebes',  'Pro- 
metheus Vinctus'  (qq.v.);  and  'Agamem- 
non', ' Choephoroe ',  and  'Eumenides', 
forming  the  Orcsteia  (q.v.)  trilogy. 
He  also  wrote  paeans,  elegies,  and  epi- 
grams, of  which  very  scanty  fragments 
survive.  He  was  the  rival  in  his  early 
days  of  Pratinas,  Phrynichus  (qq.v.), 
and  Choerilus  (of  Athens,  /Z.  482),  and  in 
later  life  of  Sophocles.  He  won  his  first 
prize  in  484,  was  successful  again  with 
the  'Persians'  in  472,  was  defeated  by 
Sophocles  in  468,  and  won  his  last  victory 
with  the  'Oresteia*  in  458. 

Aeschylus  is  generally  regarded  as  the 
real  founder  of  Greek  tragedy:  by  the 
introduction  of  a  second  actor  ho  made 
true  dialogue  and  dramatic  action  pos- 
sible. Though  Aristotle  says  that  Sopho- 
cles introduced  scenery,  Aeschylus  must 
have  used  some  primitive  spectacular 
devices,  e.g.  in  the  'Prometheus'.  He 
also  developed  the  use  of  stage  dress.  His 
plays  show  rapid  progress  in  dramatic 
technique:  the  'Suppliants',  an  early 
play,  is  simple,  lacks  action,  and  has  no 
individual  characters;  the  'Oresteia'  has 
outstanding  individual  characters  and  a 
well  developed  plot.  Aeschylus  chose 
themes  of  the  utmost  grandeur,  often 
superhuman  and  terrible,  generally  from 
mythology  (the  'Persians'  is  an  excep- 
tion), and  delighted  in  picturesque,  sonor- 

ous  language  and  bold  metaphors.  His 
lyrics,  which  play  a  more  important  part 
in  his  tragedies  than  in  those  of  his  suc- 
cessors, reached  the  highest  point  in  that 
branch  of  poetic  art.  His  plays  are  per- 
meated with  the  religious  spirit;  he  ac- 
cepts the  traditional  mythology  without 
criticizing  it  in  the  manner  of  Euripides, 
but  tries  to  reconcile  it  with  morality. 
Among  the  ideas  prominent  to  his  plays 
are  those  of  destiny  or  fatality,  working 
through  the  divine  will  and  human  pas- 
sion ;  of  the  heredity  of  crime,  both  in  the 
sense  that  crime  provokes  vengeance  in 
the  next  generation,  and  in  the  sense  of 
the  inheritance  of  a  criminal  taint;  and 
of  the  vengeance  of  the  gods  on  over- 
weening pride  (hubris).  His  principal 
characters  are  drawn  without  complexity 
or  elaboration,  governed  by  a  single 
dominating  idea,  such  as  vengeance  (e.g. 
Clytemnestra  in  the  'Agamemnon').  For 
Aristophanes'  estimate  of  Aeschylus,  see 

Quintilian,  while  commending  the  sub- 
limity, dignity,  and  eloquence  of  Aeschy- 
lus, thought  him  at  times  uncouth  and 
lacking  in  harmony. 

Aescula'pius,  the  Latin  form  of  the 
Greek  name  Asclepius  (q.v.).  The  first 
temple  to  him  was  founded  at  Rome  in 
293  B.C.,  in  consequence  of  a  severe 
pestilence.  The  temple,  with  a  sana- 
torium, stood  on  the  island  of  the  Tiber. 

Ae'son  (Aison),  see  Argonauts. 

Ae'sop  (Aisopos),  the  traditional  com- 
poser of  Greek  fables  about  animals,  is 
said  by  Herodotus  to  have  lived  in  the 
reign  of  Amasis  of  Egypt  (middle  of  the 
6th  c.  B.C.),  and  to  have  been  a  slave  of 
ladmon,  a  Thracian.  Many  stories  about 
animals,  adapted  to  moral  or  satirical 
ends,  circulated  under  his  name,  and  we 
are  told  that  Socrates,  when  in  prison, 
put  some  of  these  into  verse.  A  collection 
of  them  was  turned  into  choliambic  verso 
by  Babrius  (q.v.),  and  five  books  of  Latin 
fables  after  Aesop  were  published  by 
Phaedrus  (q.v.).  An  apocryphal  life  of 
Aesop  was  written  by  Maximus  Planudes, 
a  14th  c.  Byzantine  monk.  Landor  has 
two  'Imaginary  Conversations'  between 
Aesop  and  his  fellow-slave  Rhodope  (q.v.). 

Aeso'pus,  CLAUDIUS,  a  celebrated  Roman 
tragic  actor  hi  the  1st  c.  B.C.  Horace 
places  him  on  an  equality  with  Roscius 
(q.v.),  the  great  comic  actor.  He  was  a 
friend  of  Cicero,  and  during  the  latter 's 
exile  contributed  to  move  popular  feeling 
in  his  favour  by  allusions  to  him  on  the 
stage.  Cicero  says  that  he  had  great  power 
of  facial  expression  and  gesture. 

Aethiopica  12 

Aethio'pica,  (Aithiopika),  see  Novel. 

Ae'thiopis  (Aithiopis),  a  lost  poem  of  tlie 
Epic  Cycle  (q.v.),  ascribed  to  Arctmus  of 
Miletus,  a  sequel  to  the  Iliad.  It  con- 
tained the  story  of  the  coming  to  Troy  of 
Penthesilea,  queen  of  the  Amazons,  and 
her  slaying  by  Achilles.  It  told  also  of 
the  coming  of  the  Ethiopian  Memnon 
(whence  the  name  of  the  poem),  who  like- 
wise was  killed  by  Achilles;  and  of  the 
death  of  Achilles  himself. 

Ae'thra  (Aithrd),  the  mother  of  Thesous 

Ae'tna,  a  Lathi  didactic  poem  in  644 
hexameters  attributed  by  its  MS.  and 
doubtfully  by  Donatus  to  Virgil,  buL  J 
probably  not  by  him.  It  was  perhaps  by*^ 
Lucilius,  the  friend  to  whom  Seneca  the 
Philosopher  addressed  his  *  Letters*.  It 
describes  and  purports  to  explain  the  erup- 
tions of  Mt.  Etna.  These  are  due,  not  to 
Vulcan  or  Enceladus  (see  Giants),  but 
to  the  action  of  wind  in  cavities  of  the 
earth  on  subterranean  fires  (substantially 
the  same  explanation  as  that  of  Lu- 
cretius, vi.  680  et  seq.).  The  poem  closes 
with  an  Illustration  of  the  moral  character 
of  the  forces  of  nature.  On  the  occasion 
of  a  sudden  eruption  the  inhabitants  of 
a  neighbouring  town  hastily  fled,  each 
carrying  the  property  ho  thought  most 
precious.  But  they  wore  overwhelmed. 
A  certain  Amphinomus  and  his  brother, 
however,  who  carried  away  nothing  but 
their  aged  father  and  mother  and  their 
household  gods,  were  spared  by  the  flames. 

Aetolian  League,  a  confederacy  of 
cities  or  districts  of  Aetolia,  developed 
after  the  death  of  Alexander.  It  was 
governed  at  first  by  an  Assembly  of  all 
free  Aotolian  citizens  (including  the  citi- 
zens of  federated  cities  adjoining  Aetolian 
territory) ;  at  the  head  of  it  was  a  general 
elected  annually.  There  was  also  a 
Council,  possessing  little  power,  composed 
of  delegations  from  the  League  cities  pro- 
portionate to  their  military  contingents. 
When,  with  the  expansion  of  the  League, 
administration  by  the  Assembly  became 
impossible,  a  small  committee  of  the 
Council  was  formed  which,  with  the 
general,  became  the  real  government  of 
the  League;  the  Assembly,  however,  re- 
tained the  decision  of  peace  and  war.  From 
about  290  the  League  occupied  Delphi, 
and  it  gradually  extended  its  territory  till 
by  220  it  controlled  the  whole  of  central 
Greece  outside  Attica,  and  became  the 
chief  rival  of  Macedonia  in  the  peninsula. 
But  the  Aetolians  were  a  predatory  people 
and  the  League  was  not  a  source  of 
Hellenic  unity  and  strength.  It  joined 


Antiochus  III  in  his  war  with  Rome  (see 
Selcucids) ;  and  his  defeat  in  190  brought 
about  the  League's  virtual  extinction. 

Afra'nius,  Lttcius  (b.  c.  150  B.C.),  a 
writer  of  Roman  comedies  (togatae,  q.v.), 
of  which  only  fragments  survive.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  desired  to  found  a  national 
comedy,  and  his  plays  depicted  Italian 
life  and  characters.  He  had  a  long  popu- 
larity, and  Horace  in  Ep.  11.  i.  57  says 
that  admirers  compared  him  to  Menandor 
('Dicitur  Afrani  toga  convenisse  Monan- 
dro*).  Afranius  acknowledges  hi5  indebt- 
edness to  Menander,  but  the  extent  of 
this  is  unknown. 

^Vgame'des,  see  Trophonius. 

'Agame'mnon  (Agamemnon),  in  Greekmy- 
thology,  son  of  Atreus,  brother  of  Mene- 
laus,  husband  of  Clytemnestra  (qq.v.), 
king  of  Mycenae,  and  leader  of  the 
Greek  host  in  the  Trojan  War  (q.v.). 
He  is  represented  in  the  'Iliad*  as  a 
valiant  fighter,  a  proud  and  passionate 
man,  but  vacillating  in  purpose  and  easily 

When  the  Greek  expedition  against 
Troy  had  assembled  at  Aulis  occurred  the 
incident  of  the  sacrifice  of  Agamemnon's 
daughter  Iphigenia  (q.v.).  During  the 
siege  the  most  famous  event  in  which 
Agamemnon  was  involved  was  his  disas- 
trous quarrel  with  Achilles  (see  Iliad). 
When  Troy  at  last  was  captured,  Aga- 
memnon returned  safely  home  with  his 
captive,  Cassandra  (q.v.).  But  now  the 
curse  of  the  house  of  Pclops  (q.v.)  over- 
took him.  Clytemnestra  had  never  for- 
given the  sacrifice  of  her  daughter  Iphi- 
genia, and  during  Agamemnon's  absence 
Aegisthus  had  become  her  paramour 
(see  Pelops).  She  now  received  Aga- 
memnon with  a  show  of  welcome,  and 
then,  with  Aegisthus,  murdered  him  and 
Cassandra.  It  was  to  revenge  his  death 
that  his  children,  Orestes  and  Electra,  later 
killed  Clytemncstra  and  Aegisthus  (see 
Orcsteia,  Orestes,  Electra). 
Agamemnon,  (1)  a  tragedy  by  Aeschy- 
lus ;  see  Qresteia.  (2)  A  tragedy  by  Seneca 
the  Philosopher,  perhaps  based  on  the 
'Agamemnon*  of  Aeschylus,  or  more 
probably  on  some  later  play.  It  is  far 
inferior  to  the  tragedy  of  Aeschylus  and 
shows  variations  of  detail.  The  ghost  of 
Thyestes  is  introduced  urging  Aegisthus 
to  the  crime,  and  Aegisthus  confirms  a 
weaker  Clytemnestra  in  her  purpose. 
Cassandra  is  not  murdered  with  Aga- 
memnon, but  later.  Electra  appears  and 
effects  the  escape  of  her  brother  Orestes. 

Agani'ppe,  a  spring  sacred  to  the  Muses 
on  Mt.  Helicon  (q.v.).  Cf.  Hippocrene. 


Aga'thocles  (Agathoktts),  see  Syracuse, 

A'gathon  (AgatMn),  an  Athenian  tragic 
poet,  the  most  important  of  the  successors 
of  the  three  great  tragedians.  His  first 
Tictory  was  gained  in  416  B.C.  It  is  the 
banquet  held  at  his  house  to  celebrate  this 
victory  that  forms  the  setting  of  Plato's 
'Symposium*  (q.v.).  Later  ho  wont  to  the 
court  of  Archolaus  of  Macedonia  and  died 
there  (c.  400).  Only  fragments  of  his  work 
survive.  Agathon  was  an  innovator:  ho 
was  the  first  to  construct  a  tragedy  on  an 
imaginary  subject  with  imaginary  charac- 
ters; he  made  the  songs  of  the  chorus 
mere  interludes  (embolima)  without  refer- 
ence to  the  subject  of  the  play,  thus  pre- 
paring the  way  for  the  division  of  the 
tragedy  into  acts ;  and  he  also  introduced 
some  changes  hi  the  character  of  the 
music.  His  lyrics  are  satirically  described 
by  Aristophanes  in  the  '  Thesmophoria- 
zusae'  as  like  the  walking  of  ants. 
Aristophanes  also  makes  fun  of  Agathon's 
effeminate  appearance. 

Aga've  (Agauc),  the  mother  of  Pentheus 
(see  Bacchae).  Statins  is  thought,  from  a 
passage  in  Juvenal  (vii,  82  et  seq.),  to 
have  written  a  libretto  *  Agave'  for  the 
pantomimic  dancer,  Paris. 

Age'nor,  In  Greek  mythology,  king  of 
Tyro,  and  father  of  Cadmus  and  Europa 

Ager  publicus,  land  acquired  by  con- 
fiscation from  States  conquered  by  Rome. 
In  theory  it  belonged  to  the  Roman 
People,  in  actual  practice  it  was  looked 
after  by  the  Senate  and  magistrates — 
consul,  censor,  quaestor.  There  wore  two 
chief  types  of  tenure.  (1)  It  might  be  held 
on  lease  at  a  yearly  rental,  e.g.  the  fertile 
Ager  Campanus ;  the  censors  wore  respon- 
sible for  this  rental.  (2)  It  might  bo  held 
by  squatters  (posscssores)  against  a  rental, 
but  not  on  lease.  They  wore  therefore  at 
liberty  to  go  when  they  liked  or  liable  to 
bo  expelled  at  the  State's  pleasure.  This 
rental  was  collected  by  the  local  govern- 
ments and  paid  to  the  censors.  There  was 
a  tendency  after  the  Punic  Wars  for  such 
squatters  to  absorb  largo  tracts  of  waste 
land  and  in  time  to  regard  it  as  their  own, 
despite  the  Licinian  (q.v.)  laws,  which 
limited  the  amount  of  land  which  could 
be  held.  Hence  arose  the  evictions  and 
disputes  in  connexion  with  the  legislation 
of  the  Gracchi,  who  desired  to  resume  the 
public  land  in  order  to  create  settlements 
for  distressed  citizens.  Stability  was 
restored  by  a  law  of  111  (for  which  see 
E.  G.  Hardy's  'Roman  Laws  and  Char- 
ters '),  but  the  question  of  public  land  came 

13  Agora 

up  again  after  Marius's  army  reforms. 
The  creation  of  a  professional  army  meant 
that  some  sort  of  a  pension  system  had  to 
be  devised,  and  until  Augustus  pensions 
took  the  form  of  grants  of  public  land. 
Hence  the  land  legislation  of  Saturninus, 
Sulla,  and  Julius  Caesar  (in  his  first  con- 
sulship). The  proposed  agrarian  law  of 
Rullus  (63)  had  a  different  object,  because 
it  was  really  an  attempt  by  Crassus  and 
Caesar  to  strengthen  their  position  against 
Pompey.  There  seems  to  have  been  no 
serious  problem  in  connexion  with  the 
ager  publicus  in  the  early  empire. 

Ager  Roma'nus,  see  Rome,  §  4; 

Agesila'us  (Agesildos)  (c.  444-361  B.C.), 
king  of  Sparta  from  about  398.  He  was 
chosen  king  in  place  of  his  nephew,  who 
was  the  direct  heir,  by  the  influence  of 
Lysander  (q.v.).  He  was  lame,  and  his 
opponents  drew  attention  to  the  warning 
of  an  ancient  oracle  against  a  'lame  reign' 
at  Sparta.  But  ho  was  a  man  of  great 
energy  and  intelligence.  His  successful 
campaigns  against  the  Persians  in  396-5 
and  his  victory  over  the  Thebans  at 
Coronea  are  related  by  his  friend  Xeno- 
phon  in  his  'Hellenica*.  He  was  less 
successful  in  the  wars  of  Sparta  with 
Thebes  379-362.  Sparta  needed  money, 
and  in  order  to  earn  a  subsidy  for  her, 
Agesilaus  conducted  an  expedition  in  aid 
of  an  Egyptian  prince  against  Persia  in 
361.  In  this  he  met  his  death.  There  is 
a  life  of  him  by  Ncpos,  and  see  below. 

Afjcsilaus,  one  of  the  minor  works  of 
Xenophon,  an  encomium  on  his  friend 
Agesilaus  (see  above).  Its  authenticity  as 
a  work  by  Xenophon  has  been  questioned, 
but  is  generally  accepted.  Xenophon 
relates  in  some  detail  the  campaign  of 
Agesilaus  against  Tissaphernes  in  395  and 
the  march  back  to  Greece  through  Ma- 
cedonia and  Thessaly,  and  gives  a  full 
description  of  the  battle  of  Coronea,  where 
Xenophon  may  have  fought  under 
Agesilaus  against  his  own  countrymen. 
The  remaining  events  of  his  reign  are 
touched  on  more  briefly.  The  author  then 
passes  from  his  deeds  to  his  virtues,  and 
illustrates  his  piety,  justice,  wisdom,  and 

A'gon  ('contest'),  (1)  see  Comedy,  §  2; 
(2)  at  Athens,  also  an  action  at  law ;  (3)  at 
Rome,  an  athletic  or  musical  contest 
forming  part  of  the  public  games,  see 
Ludi,  §  2. 

A'gora  (Agora),  in  Greece,  an  assembly 
of  the  people,  as  opposed  to  tho  Council 
(Boule,  q.v.).  In  tho  constitution  of 
Cleisthenes  (q.v.)  the  name  was  applied  to 
the  assembly  of  the  people  hi  each  tribe 

Agricola  14 

and  dome.  It  was  also  the  name  of  the  place 
of  assembly,  which  might  serve  besides  as 
a  market-place.  This  place  was  adorned 
with  temples  and  statues  and  planted  with 
trees.  In  the  Athenian  agora  stood  the 
famous  Stoa  (q.v.)  Poikile  and  the  Stoa 
BasilikS,  the  Council-house  of  the  Five 
Hundred,  statues  of  various  heroes,  certain 
temples,  and  a  row  of  Hermae  (q.v.),  in- 
cluding a  statue  of  Hermes  Agoraios  (*  of 
the  Market-place').  Here  in  the  open 
space  the  peasants  sold  their  produce,  fish- 
mongers and  bakers  had  their  stalls,  and 
bankers  and  money-changers  their  tables. 
It  was  a  general  place  of  meeting  and 
conversation.  Of.  Forum. 

Agri'cola,  a  laudatory  monograph  by 
Tacitus  on  the  life  of  his  father-in-law, 
Cn.  Julius  Agricola,  published  about 
A.D.  98;  Agricola  had  died  in  A.D.  93. 

Tacitus  recounts  Agricola's  distin- 
guished ancestry  and  early  military  ser- 
vice in  Britain  in  the  troubled  times  when 
Suetonius  Paulinus  was  governor  (the  days 
of  Boadicea),  his  advancement  to  the 
quaestorship  and  the  praetorship,  to  the 
command  of  the  20th  Legion  in  Britain,  to 
the  governorship  of  Aquitania  (A.D.  74-6), 
to  the  consulate,  and  finally  to  the 
governorship  of  Britain  (A.D.  77  or  78). 
Then  follows  an  account  of  Britain  and  its 
tribes,  the  continual  rain  and  cloud,  the 
long  days  and  short  nights  of  summer. 
Tacitus  is  very  hazy  about  its  geography, 
and  even  seems  to  regard  the  earth  as 
flat.  He  briefly  narrates  the  history  of 
the  successive  stages  of  the  conquest 
of  Britain  by  the  Romans,  culminating  in 
the  achievements  of  Agricola,  who  in  80 
or  81  secures  the  country  as  far  north 
as  the  line  Clota-Bodotria  (the  Clyde  and 
the  Forth).  In  82  or  83  he  passes  beyond 
this  line  and  invades  Caledonia,  winning 
in  83  OP  84  the  decisive  battle  of  Mt. 
Graupius,  the  site  of  which  remains  un- 
certain. Readers  of  Scott's  'The  Anti- 
quary* will  remember  that  Monkbarns 
claimed  to  have  found  the  scene  of  the 
battle  on  his  land  in  Forfarshire.  It  is 
in  the  speech  of  a  chieftain  before  the 
battle  that  Tacitus  places  the  well-known 
saying  'omne  ignotum  pro  magniflco'. 
The  narrative  passes  to  Agricola's  return 
to  Rome  and  to  the  prudent  conduct  by 
which  he  disarmed  Domitian's  jealousy. 
It  ends  with  his  death  and  an  eloquent 
apostrophe  a  to  great  Roman.  SQQ  Britain. 

§  1.  In  Greece 

The  territory  of  Greece  was  in  large 
part  mountainous  and  sterile,  and  fertile 
plains  were  few.  Where  possible  the  hill- 
sides were  terraced,  but  only  about  one- 


fifth  of  the  total  area  of  the  country  waa 
cultivable,  and  this  in  part  explains  the 
constant  search  of  the  Greeks  for  more 
fertile  lands  to  colonize.  The  deficiency 
of  rainfall,  aggravated  by  the  destruction 
of  the  forests  that  at  one  time  clothed  the 
Greek  mountains,  was  made  good  by 
groat  attention  to  irrigation,  and  the  mis- 
appropriation of  water  was  punished  by 
ancient  laws.  Agriculture  was  regarded 
as  an  honourable  occupation  for  freemen 
(except  at  Sparta)  from  Homeric  times, 
when  old  Laertes  busied  himself  in  his 
garden,  to  those  of  Philopoemen,  who 
used  to  work  along  with  his  vine-dressers 
and  ploughmen.  Xenophon  in  the 
'Oeoonomicus*  praises  agriculture  as  the 
most  honoured  and  the  most  beneficent 
of  the  arts.  It  retained  its  prestige  at 
Athens  even  when  that  city  had  become 
a  rich  commercial  and  industrial  centre, 
partly,  no  doubt,  because  foreigners  wore 
excluded  from  it  as  being  incapable  of 
owning  land. 

In  certain  aristocratic  States,  such  as 
Thcssaly,  the  system  of  large  estates  tilled 
by  serfs  prevailed.  In  democratic  States 
land  was  held  in  smaller  lots.  Attica  was 
a  country  of  small  estates,  of  which  the 
average  size  tended  to  diminish  with  the 
breaking  up  of  properties  on  inheritance. 
In  order  to  be  a  Zeugites  (see  Athens,  §  2) 
an  Athenian  had  to  own  some  50  acres  of 
corn-land  (assuming  that  it  yielded  the 
moderate  amount  of  eight  bushels  the 
acre  and  was  fallowed  alternate  years) 
or  a  much  smaller  acreage  of  vineyard. 
Seventy-five  acres  of  corn-land  would 
provide  the  qualification  of  a  knight, 
while  125  acres  would  bring  the  owner 
into  the  richest  class.  The  son  of  Aristides 
received  as  a  grant  from  the  State 
a  property  of  45  acres;  Demosthenes 
thought  this  a  relatively  large  area.  The 
average  value  of  eight  properties  referred 
to  in  speeches  of  Attic  orators  in  the 
4th  c.  is  under  7,230  drs.  (Glotz)  or  say 
£250.  The  process  of  subdivision  of  estates 
till  each  lot  was  too  small  to  support 
the  owner  led  to  the  indebtedness  of  the 
peasantry,  and  facilitated  in  turn  a  pro- 
cess of  concentration  of  land  in  the  hands 
of  wealthy  purchasers,  who  lived  in  the 
city  and  had  overseers  to  manage  their 

Agriculture  gradually  became  more 
scientific  during  the  5th  and  4th  c.,  and 
a  three-year  rotation  of  crops  on  corn  land 
was  adopted.  The  vine,  the  fig,  and  the 
olive  were  especially  suited  to  the  stony 
soil,  and  Athens  paid  great  attention  to  the 
production  of  a  good  quality  of  olive  oil. 
The  destruction  of  vines  and  olive-trees  by 
the  Spartans  in  the  Peloponnesian  War 



was  a  severe  blow  to  Attica.  Vegetables 
and  even  flowers  (which  were  in  demand 
for  religious  ceremonies)  were  cultivated  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Athens.  Oxen  were 
scarce,  but  pigs  were  plentiful.  The  sheep 
of  Attica  produced  an  exceptionally  fine 

For  the  system  of  land  tenure  at  Sparta 
see  Sparta,  §  2. 

§  2.  Italy 

Agriculture  in  Roman  territory  was  at 
first  domestic  and  elementary,  carried  on 
by  the  family  of  the  landowner  on  a  small 
scale  and  by  primitive  methods,  and  de- 
voted mainly  to  the  production  of  grain. 
It  was  tho  only  respectable  vocation  for  a 
Roman  citizen.  When  the  Volscian  and 
Sabine  hills  were  brought  into  tho  Roman 
territory  in  the  4th  c.,  they  provided 
summer  pasture  during  the  months  when 
the  grass  was  dried  up  in  the  plains. 
Sheep-  and  cattle-breeding  then  became 
profitable,  at  least  for  the  rich  farmer 
possessed  of  capital.  The  Punic  Wars 
brought  contact  with  the  more  scientific 
agriculture  of  Carthage  and  introduced 
tho  age  of  great  farms  and  slave  gangs 
working  under  overseers.  The  small 
peasant-proprietors  tended  to  disappear; 
many  were  ruined  by  compulsory  service 
in  the  frequent  wars  and  sold  their  farms, 
and  many  emigrated.  They  surged,  how- 
ever, in  reduced  numbers  in  most  parts  of 
Italy.  On  the  other  hand  slaves  were  abun- 
dant, and  there  were  wealthy  capitalists 
willing  to  take  up  large  areas  and  work 
them  with  slave  labour.  Another  tendency 
was  to  substitute,  in  suitable  districts  of 
Italy,  the  more  remunerative  culture  of  tho 
vine  and  olive  for  the  production  of  grain. 
The  latter  could  bo  obtained  cheaply  from 
Sicily  and,  after  the  destruction  of  Car- 
thago, from  Africa.  Ranches  for  cattle  and 
sheep  became  very  common  in  S.  Italy. 
Frequent  attempts  were  made  to  restore 
the  small  cultivator,  but  without  success. 
The  Gracchi  failed  to  solve  the  problem; 
the  settlement  of  Sulla  did  more  harm 
than  good  owing  to  the  confiscations  it 
involved.  In  imperial  times  cultivation  by 
slave  labour  gradually  gave  place  to  the 
system  of  coloni,  tenants  who  paid  part 
of  their  produce  as  rent.  This  was  perhaps 
because  slave  labour  was  found  not  to  be 
economical,  or  because  it  needed  closer 
supervision  and  was  more  troublesome. 
But  the  coloni  sank  into  mere  serfs,  and 
this  system  proved  little  more  satisfactory 
than  that  of  cultivation  by  slaves. 

Nevertheless,  agriculture  was  of  capital 
Importance  in  the  economic  life  of  the 
early  empire.  'It  is  no  exaggeration  to 
say  that  most  of  the  provinces  were  al- 


most  exclusively  agricultural  countries' 
(Rostovtzeff).  Moreover  agriculture  was 
extended  in  regions  where  it  had  pre- 
viously hardly  existed.  The  tendency  to- 
wards the  concentration  of  land  in  the 
hands  of  absentee  proprietors  and  of  the 
State  was  general  throughout  the  empire. 
The  tillage  of  corn  land  was  improved, 
and  attention  was  increasingly  given  to 
the  vine  and  the  olive,  vegetables  and  fruit, 
stock-breeding  and  poultry. 

The  importance  attached  to  agriculture 
in  the  early  Roman  community  is  attested 
by  the  large  number  of  religious  festivals 
connected  with  it,  such  as  the  Cerealia 
(see  Ceres),  the  Vinalia,  the  Fordicidia,  the 
Robigalia  (qq.v.).  That  it  continued  in 
high  estimation  is  shown  by  the  treatises 
devoted  to  the  subject,  from  the  *De 
Agri  Cultura*  of  Cato,  to  Varro's  'De  Re 
Rustica',  Virgil's  'Georgics',  and  the 
works  of  Columella  and  Palladius  (qq.v.). 

Agrige'ntum,  the  Roman  name  of  Ac- 
ragas  (modern  Girgenti,  recently  changed  to 
Agrigonto),  a  city  on  the  S.  coast  of  Sicily 
founded  by  Gela  (a  Rhodian  and  Cretan 
colony,  also  hi  tho  S.  of  Sicily)  about  580 
B.C.  It  attained  great  wealth  and  splen- 
dour under  Theron  (q.v.).  Its  prosperity 
was  cut  short  by  the  Carthaginians,  who 
sacked  it  hi  406 ;  and  although  it  was  re- 
founded  by  Timoleon  (see  Syracuse,  §  3), 
it  never  regained  the  position  it  held  in 
the  5th  c.  The  ruins  of  several  beautiful 
temples  are  still  to  be  seen  there.  Acragas 
was  the  birthplace  of  Empedocles  (q.v.). 

Agri'ppa,  Marcos  Julius.  See  Herod  (2). 

Agri'ppa,  MARCUS  VIPSANIUS  (c.  62-12 
B.C.),  a  friend  of  Octavian  in  his  youth, 
and  the  holder  of  important  military 
commands  under  him  in  the  Civil  War. 
He  was  one  of  Octavian 's  principal 
advisers,  especially  in  military  matters, 
when  the  latter  reached  the  principate. 
He  carried  out  some  notable  public 
works  at  Rome  and  in  the  provinces  (see 
also  Maps).  By  his  first  marriage,  with 
Pomponia,  daughter  of  Atticus  (q.v.),  he 
had  a  daughter  Vipsania  Agrippina,  whom 
Tiberius  married.  Among  the  children 
of  his  third  marriage,  with  Julia,  daugh- 
ter of  Augustus,  were  the  elder  Agrippina 
(q.v.),  wife  of  Germanicus,  and  Gaius 
and  Lucius  Caesar,  who  were  adopted  by 
Augustus  but  died  young.  See  the  ge- 
nealogy under  Julio-Claudian  Family.  He 
wrote  an  autobiography  which  is  lost. 

Agri'ppa,  POSTUMUS  (12  B.C.-A.D.  14),  son 
of  Marcus  Vipsanius  Agrippa  (see  above) 
and  Julia.  He  was  passed  over  by  Augus- 
tus for  the  throne  because  of  his  boorish 
ways,  and  put  to  death,  possibly  by 



Albinovanus  Pedo 

order  of  Tiberius,  soon  after  the  old  em- 
peror's death  in  14. 

Agrippi'na.  (1)  VIPSANIA  AGRIPPINA, 
daughter  of  Agrrippa  (q.v.)  and  Pompo- 
nia,  and  wife  of  Tiberius.  (2)  AGRIPPINA 
THE  ELDER,  daughter  of  Agrippa  (q.v.) 
and  Julia,  and  wife  of  Gormanicus  (see 
Germanicus  Julius  Caesar).  She  was  pre- 
sent at  his  death -bed  in  Syria  and 
brought  back  his  ashes  to  Home.  Tacitus 
has  a  moving  description  of  the  arrival 
at  Brundisiurn  and  the  general  grief 
(Ann.  iii.  1-2).  The  bitter  hostility  to 
Tiberius  that  she  subsequently  showed  led 
to  her  exile  and  her  death  by  starvation, 
A.D.  29.  She  was  mother  of  the  emperor 
Caligula.  (3)  AGRIPPINA  THE  YOUNGER, 
daughter  of  (2),  wife  first  of  Cn.  Domi- 
tius  Ahenobarbus,  by  whom  she  was 
mother  of  Nero,  secondly  of  the  emperor 
Claudius,  who  adopted  Nero.  She  is  said 
to  have  poisoned  Claudius,  but  this  is 
improbable.  She  was  a  haughty,  imperious 
woman  and  opposed  her  son's  inclination 
first  for  the  freedwoman  Acte,  then  for 
Poppaea  Sabina,  whom  Nero  proposed  to 
marry  by  divorcing  Octavia.  To  remove 
this  opposition  Nero  had  Agrippina  mur- 
dered. An  attempt  to  scuttle  the  ship  in 
which  she  was  returning  from  a  visit  to 
Nero  having  failed  (for  she  swain  ashore), 
she  was  killed  by  assassins  in  the  villa 
where  she  had  taken  refuge  (A.D.  5(.)). 
The  memoirs  that  she  left  were  used  by 
Tacitus  as  a  source  for  his  '  Annals. ' 

For  all  the  above,  see  the  genealogy 
under  Julio-Claudian  Family. 

Ahenoba'rbus  (later  AENOBARBUS), 
'red-beard',  the  name  of  a  distinguished 
Roman  family  of  the  Domitian  gens. 
Legend  related  that  the  Dioscuri  (q.v.)  had 
announced  to  an  early  member  of  the 
family  the  victory  of  Lake  Regillus 
(496  B.C.),  and  to  prove  their  supernatural 
powers  had  stroked  his  black  beard,  which 
had  immediately  turned  red.  Cn.  Domi- 
tius  Ahenobarbus,  after  fighting  against 
Caesar  at  Pharsalus  (48)  and  being  subse- 
quently pardoned  by  him,  was  one  of  the 
republican  leaders  after  Caesar's  death. 
He  was  later  reconciled  to  Antony,  ac- 
companied him  in  his  expedition  against 
the  Parthians,  and  was  with  him  hi 
Egypt.  He  finally  joined  the  cause  of 
Octavian.  Ho  figures  in  Shakespeare's 
*  Antony  and  Cleopatra'. 

Another,  Cn.  Domitius  Ahenobarbus, 
consul  in  A.D.  32,  married  Agrippina 
(q.v.  (3)),  daughter  of  Germanicus,  and 
was  father  of  the  emperor  Nero  (see  Julio- 
Claudian  Family). 
Aides,  Aidd'neus,  variant  forms  of 
Hades  (q.v.). 

A'jax  (Aids),  TBLAMONIAN,  sometimes 
called  'the  Greater  Ajax',  son  of  Telamon 
(q.v.)  and  leader  of  the  Salaminians  at  the 
siege  of  Troy,  depicted  by  Homer  as  a  man 
obstinate  in  his  bravery  to  the  point  of 
stupidity.  After  the  death  of  Achilles, 
Ajax  and  Odysseus  contended  for  the 
hero's  arms.  When  these  were  awarded 
to  Odysseus,  Ajax,  maddened  with  resent- 
ment, slaughtered  a  flock  of  sheep  hi  the 
belief  that  they  wore  his  enemies,  and 
afterwards  from  shame  took  his  own  life. 

A'jax  (Aids),  son  of  Oilelis,  and  captain  of 
the  Locrians  at  the  siege  of  Troy,  a 
man,  according  to  Homer,  *far  less*  than 
Telamonian  Ajax  (q.v.).  He  was  ship- 
wrecked on  his  way  home,  but  swimming 
ashore  with  Poseidon 's  help,  boasted  that 
he  had  escaped  in  spite  of  the  gods. 
Whereupon  Poseidon  threw  down  tho 
rock  on  which  he  stood,  and  Ajax  was 
drowned.  (See  also  Cassandra). 
A'jax  (Aids),  a  tragedy  by  Sophocles,  of 
uncertain  date,  perhaps  the  first  of  his 
surviving  plays. 

Ajax,  the  son  of  Telainon  (see  above), 
demented  by  resentment  because  the 
arms  of  Achilles  have  been  awarded  to 
Odysseus,  has  vented  his  wrath  by 
slaughtering  a  flock  of  sheep,  taking  them 
for  his  enemies.  Ho  is  first  seen  in 
his  madness,  then  after  hia  recovery, 
stricken  with  grief  and  shame,  while  his 
slave,  Tecmessa,  and  the  chorus  of  Sala- 
minian  sailors  try  to  soothe  him.  He 
calls  for  his  son  ICurysaces,  gives  him  his 
shield,  and  leaves  his  last  injunctions  for 
his  brother  Toucer.  He  then  takes  his 
sword,  to  bury  it,  as  he  says,  and  goes  to 
purge  himself  of  his  guilt  by  the  sea. 
Teucer  has  now  returned  from  a  foray  and 
has  learnt  from  tho  seer  Calchas  that,  to 
avert  calamity,  Ajax,  who  has  angered  tho 
gods  by  his  arrogance,  must  be  kept  within 
his  tent  for  that  day.  But  it  is  too  late. 
Ajax  is  found  transfixed  by  his  own  sword. 
Mcnolaus  forbids  his  burial,  as  an  enemy 
to  the  Greeks,  and  Agamemnon  confirms 
tho  edict,  but  is  persuaded  by  Odysseus 
to  relent,  and  Ajax  is  carried  to  his  grave. 

A  Latin  version  of  this  tragedy  was 
played  at  Cambridge  before  Queen  Eliza- 
beth in  15G4. 

Albinova'nus  P§do,  a  Roman  poet  of 
the  time  of  Augustus  and  Tiberius,  and  a 
friend  of  Ovid.  Seneca  tho  Rhetorician 
has  preserved  a  passage  from  what  ap- 
pears to  be  an  epic  by  him  on  the  Roman 
wars  against  the  Germans,  describing  a 
storm  which  the  Roman  fleet  encountered 
in  the  North  Sea.  The  majority  of  Ger- 
man authorities  are  of  opinion  that 
the  epic  dealt  with  the  expeditions  into 




Germany  of  Germanicus  (A  2  In  the 
article  Germanicus  and  Drusus)  to  whom 
Albinovanus  Pedo  was  praefectus  equitum 
in  A.D.  15.  Some  authorities  regard  the 
extant  fragment  as  referring  to  the  first 
naval  expedition  in  the  North  Sea,  com- 
manded by  Drusus  the  Elder  (A  1  in  the 
above-mentioned  article).  An  epic  on  the 
son's  achievements  would  not  preclude 
mention  of  similar  exploits  by  the  father. 
Tacitus  (Ann.  ii.  23)  has  described  a  storm 
which  shattered  the  fleet  of  the  son. 
Albinovanus  also  wrote  a  'Theseid',  epi- 
grams, and  elegies,  which  have  not  sur- 

Alcae'us  (Alkaios),  (1)  a  lyric  poet  of  the 
7th-6th  c.  B.C.,  born  at  Mytilono  in  Lesbos, 
a  contemporary  of  Sappho.  He  took  an 
active  part  in  the  war  with  Athens  which 
followed  the  seizure  by  the  latter  of  the 
Lesbian  fortress  of  Sigeum  at  the  entrance 
of  the  Hellespont,  and  in  the  local 
struggles  against  tyrants.  When  Pittacus 
was  given  dictatorial  power,  he  went  into 
exile.  His  poems,  of  which  only  fragments 
remain,  dealt  vividly  with  political  as  well 
as  personal  themes,  wine,  love,  his  suffer- 
ings and  hatreds.  Where  public  affairs  are 
concerned  he  shows  a  passionate  energy. 
One  of  his  odes,  of  which  the  opening 
survives,  was  addressed  to  Sappho.  Wo 
also  possess  a  fragment  of  what  may  bo 
her  reply.  He  also  wrote  hyrnns  to  various 
gods.  His  name  is  especially  associated 
with  the  Alcaic  stanza  (see  Metre,  §3), 
which  he  invented  or  adopted  and  fre- 
quently used.  Horace  (Od.  iv.  ix.  7-8) 
speaks  of  his  'minaces  Camonac',  and 
uses  his  metre  more  frequently  than  any 

(2)  In  Greek  mythology,  a  son  of 
Perseus  and  father  of  Amphitryon  (qq.v.). 
See  also  Alcides. 
Alca'ic,  see  Metre,  §§  3  and  5. 
Alce'stis  (Alkcstis),  a  drama  by  Euri- 
pides. It  was  the  fourth  play  in  a  tetralogy 
produced  in  438  B.C.  and  accordingly  con- 
tains a  certain  burlesque  element  (see 
Satyric  drama),  provided  by  the  character 
of  the  genial  Heracles  and  by  Euripides' 
general  treatment  of  the  subject. 

For  the  story  which  forms  the  subject 
of  the  play,  see  Admetiis.  Admetus,  the 
husband  of  Alcestis,  is  presented  at  first 
as  an  ingenuous  egoist,  fond  of  his  wife, 
deeply  grieved  to  lose  her,  and  indignant 
with  his  father  for  refusing  to  make  the 
required  sacrifice  in  her  place.  But  Ad- 
metus returns  from  his  wife's  burial  com- 
pletely changed,  having ' learnt  his  lesson'. 
Alcestis  is  a  simple,  unromantic  woman, 
devoted  to  her  husband,  and  accepting  as 
natural  the  duty  of  dying  for  him,  but 


perhaps  even  more  concerned,  in  a  prac- 
tical way,  for  the  future  of  her  children. 
Heracles  is  an  attractive  character,  relax- 
ing between  the  labours  that  form  the 
main  business  of  his  life,  to  revel  a  little 
and  do  a  good  turn  for  a  friend. 

This  is  the  play  that  Balaustion  recites, 
hi  II.  Browning's  *  Balaustion 's  Adven- 

Alcibi'ades  (Alkiblades),  an  Athenian  of 
noble  family,  born  shortly  before  450  B.C., 
a  man  of  remarkable  beauty  and  talent, 
but  arrogant,  unscrupulous,  and  dissolute. 
He  was  educated  by  Pericles,  and  was  a 
friend  of  Socrates.  He  became  a  dexterous 
politician  and  joined  the  democratic  party. 
His  experience  in  the  army  at  Potidaea 
and  Delium  led  to  his  election  as  strategus 
in  420.  His  influence  contributed  to  the 
renewal  of  the  Peloponnesian  War  (q.v.) 
after  the  Peace  of  Nicias,  and  to  the 
launching  of  the  Sicilian  Expedition,  of 
which  ho  was  appointed  one  of  the  three 
leaders.  The  mutilation  of  the  Hermae 
(q.v.)  just  before  its  departure  was  laid 
at  the  door  of  Alcibiades  and  his  accom- 
plices. It  was  nevertheless  decided  that 
he  should  embark  and  be  tried  later. 
When  summoned  back  to  Athens  for  this 
purpose,  ho  escaped,  and  was  condemned 
to  death  in  his  absence  and  his  property 
confiscated.  Alcibiades  went  to  Sparta, 
where  he  urged  vigorous  measures  against 
the  Athenians,  the  sending  of  a  Spartan 
general  to  aid  the  Syracusans,  and  the 
occupation  of  Decolea  in  Attica  as  a 
permanent  threat  to  Athens.  In  412  he 
went  to  Ionia  and  with  a  Spartan  squad- 
ron supported  the  Ionian  revolt  against 
Athens,  but  an  intrigue  with  the  wife  of 
the  Spartan  king  Agis  and  his  dealings 
with  Tissaphornes,  the  Persian  satrap, 
made  him  suspect  at  Sparta.  In  407  the 
restored  democracy  at  Athens  recalled 
Alcibiades,  hoping  to  find  hi  him  a  cap- 
able commander  and  a  means  of  alliance 
with  the  Persians,  but  the  defeat  of 
Notium  (407)  lost  him  his  prestige.  He 
retired  to  the  Chersonese,  where  the  good 
advice  he  gave  to  the  Athenian  comman- 
ders before  Aegospotami  was  disregarded. 
Ho  was  finally  assassinated  by  Persian 
order  hi  Phrygla  (404). 

The  chief  authority  for  the  career  of 
Alcibiades  is  Thucydidcs.  Alcibiades 
figures  in  the  dialogue  of  Plato  (q.v.) 
that  bears  his  name  and  also  in  his  'Sym- 
posium' (q.v.),  and  there  are  lives  of 
him  by  Nopos  and  Plutarch.  There  is  an 
interesting  reference  to  him  hi  Aristo- 
phanes' 'Frogs'  (1009  etseq.):  Euripides 
condemns  the  man  who  is  slow  to  help 
and  quick  to  injure  his  country,  while 



Alexander  of  Pherae 

Aeschylus  thinks  it  wiser  not  to  rear  a 
lion's  whelp,  but  if  you  do,  you  must 
accept  its  ways.  Two  speeches  of  Lysias 
and  one  of  Isocrates  (against  the  son  of 
Alcibiades)  refer  to  the  father's  career. 
Alcibiades,  a  dialogue  by  Plato  (q.v.,  §  2). 

Alci'des  (Alkeides),  (1)  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, meaning  *  descendant  of  Alcaous ',  a 
name  used  to  designate  Heracles,  whose 
stepfather,  Amphitryon  (q.v.),  was  son  of 
Alcaous.  (2)  A  Spartan  admiral  In  the 
early  part  of  the  Peloponnesian  War. 
Alci'n6us  (Alkinoos),  in  the  'Odyssey' 
(q.v.),  the  king  of  the  Phaeacians. 
A'lciphron  (Alkiphrdn)  (c.  A.D.  200),  a 
Greek  writer,  author  of  fictitious  letters 
(of  which  we  have  about  a  hundred)  pur- 
porting to  bo  by  Athenians  of  various 
classes  of  society,  depicting  Athenian  life 
in  the  4th  c.  B.C. 

Alcmae'on  or  A'lcmeon  (Alkmaion  or 
Alkmeon),  in  Greek  mythology,  son  of 
Amphiaraus  (q.v.).  In  accordance  with 
his  father's  command  he  took  part  in  the 
expedition  of  the  Epigoni  (q.v.)  against 
Thebes.  On  his  return,  in  further  execu- 
tion of  his  father's  commands,  he  avenged 
him  by  slaying  his  own  mother  Eriphyle. 
For  this  murder  he  was  (like  Orestes)  pur- 
sued from  place  to  place  by  the  Furies. 
At  PsSphis  hi  Arcadia  he  received  partial 
purification  from  Phegeus,  and  married 
his  daughter  Arsinoe.  To  her  he  gave  the 
necklace  of  Harmonia  (see  Cadmus  (1)). 
But  the  crops  of  the  country  began  to 
fail,  and  Alcmaeon  set  out  again  to  dis- 
cover a  land  on  which  the  sun  had  not 
shone  when  he  murdered  his  mother. 
This  he  found  in  an  island  newly  thrown 
up  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Achelous 
(between  Acarnania  and  Actolia).  Here 
he  married  Callirhoo,  a  daughter  of 
OencFQs  (see  Meleager)  king  of  Calydon. 
She  in  turn  begged  for  the  necklace  of 
Harmonia,  and  Alcmaeon  obtained  it 
from  Phegeus  on  a  false  pretence.  When 
Phegeus  discovered  that  he  had  been 
cheated,  he  caused  his  sons  to  waylay 
Alcmaeon  and  kill  him.  The  sons  of 
Alcmaeon,  Acarnan  and  Amphoteros, 
avenged  their  father  by  killing  Phegous 
and  his  sons;  and  the  fatal  necklace  was 
dedicated  to  Apollo  at  Delphi.  A  later 
story  tells  that  it  was  stolen  by  a  Phocian 
at  the  time  of  the  war  with  Philip  of 
Macedon,  and  brought  ill  luck  on  the  thief. 

Alcmaeo'nidae  (Alkmeonidai),  a  noble 
family  at  Athens,  which  came  into  promi- 
nence in  632  B.C.  when  Megacles,  an  Ale- 
maeonid,  was  archon.  A  young  aristocrat, 
Cylon,  with  a  band  of  supporters,  seized 
the  Acropolis  with  a  view  to  making  him- 

self tyrant.  He  was  besieged  by  Megacles, 
but  escaped,  with  his  brother,  to  Megara. 
His  associates  took  refuge  at  the  altar  of 
Athene  Polias.  They  were  lured  away  on 
promise  of  their  lives,  and  slaughtered. 
The  Megarlans,  urged  by  Cylon,  made  war 
on  Athens,  occupied  Salamis  and  deva- 
stated Attica.  This  reverse  was  attributed 
to  the  sacrilege  committed  against  Athene, 
and  the  Alcmaeonids  were  banished.  They 
returned  under  Solon  (q.v.),  withdrew 
again  during  the  tyranny  of  Pisistratus 
(q.v.),  and  returned  once  more  after  the 
fall  of  Hippias.  Among  famous  Alcmaeo- 
nids were  Cleisthenes  the  law-giver,  and 
Pericles  and  Alcibiades,  who  both  through 
their  mothers  belonged  to  the  family.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  Peloponnesian  War, 
Sparta  called  upon  Athens  to  expel  the 
Alcmaeonids,  having  Pericles  particularly 
in  view.  For  their  reconstruction  of  the 
temple  of  Apollo  at  Delphi,  see  Delphi. 

A'lcman  (AlJcmdn),  a  Greek  lyric  poet  of 
the  second  half  of  the  7th  c.  B.C.,  born  at 
Sardis,  who  came  to  Sparta  and  there 
composed  choral  lyrics  for  the  festivals. 
Of  these  his  parthenia  (q.v.)  were  espe- 
cially celebrated.  He  was  an  innovator  in 
metre,  generally  abandoning  the  hexa- 
meter for  various  systems  of  a  lighter, 
tripping  character.  Only  fragments  of 
his  work  survive,  one  of  them  part  of  a 

Alcme'na  (Alkmene),  see  Amphitryon. 
A'lcuin,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  6. 

Alcy'one  (Alkuone),  in  Greek  mythology, 
(1)  a  daughter  of  Aeolus  (q.v.  (2))  and  wife 
of  Ccyx  (Keux),  son  of  the  Morning  Star. 
They  were  changed  into  birds,  she  into  the 
halcyon  (kingfisher),  he  into  the  bird  of 
his  name  (perhaps  a  tern  or  gannet),  either 
because  he  was  drowned  at  sea  and  her 
despair  was  so  great  that  the  gods  re- 
united them,  or  because  of  their  impiety. 
Halcyon  days  were  fourteen  days  of  calm 
weather  supposed  by  the  ancients  to  occur 
about  the  winter  solstice  when  the  hal- 
cyon was  brooding. 

(2)  One  of  the  Pleiades  (q.v.). 
Aldine  Classics,  see  Editions. 
Ale'cto,  soeAllecto. 

Alexa'nder  of  Aphrodi'sias  (ft.  c.  A.D. 
200),  the  most  important  of  the  early 
commentators  on  Aristotle.  Of  his  com- 
mentaries (in  Greek)  a  few  survive,  and 
his  works  are  largely  quoted  by  later 

Alexander  of  Phe'rae,  nephew  of  Jason 
(q.v.)  of  Pherae  and  tyrant  of  Pherae  in 
Thessaly  from  369  B.C.  He  allied  himself 
with  Athens  to  oppose  Theban  expansion, 

Alexander  the  Great 


Alexander  the  Great 

and  when  Pelopldas  (q.v.)  visited  him  on 
one  of  his  expeditions,  detained  him  as  a 
hostage  until  ho  was  rescued  by  a  Theban 
expedition  in  368.  In  364  Pelopidas  march- 
ed against  him  and  defeated  him  at  Cynos- 
cephalae,  but  was  himself  killed.  Later, 
Alexander  became  the  ally  of  the  Thebans, 
defeated  the  Athenians  at  sea  and  raided 
the  Piraeus  (362).  It  was  this  humiliation 
that  caused  the  Athenians  to  sentence 
Callistratus  (q.v.)  to  death.  Alexander 
was  assassinated  in  358. 

Alexander  (Alexandras)  the  Great, 
Alexander  III  of  Macedon  (356-323  B.C.), 
son  of  Philip  II  and  Olympias. 

§  1.  Education,  accession,  and  campaigns 

in  Europe 

Alexander  had  Aristotle  for  instructor, 
and  learnt  military  science  in  his  father's 
school,  being  present  at  the  ago  of  eighteen 
at  the  battle  of  Chaeronea,  where  ho  com- 
manded the  cavalry.  He  was  an  enthusias- 
tic admirer  of  Homer's  *  Iliad',  of  which 
he  carried  a  copy  on  his  campaigns  in  a 
casket  taken  from  the  spoils  of  Darius. 
His  father's  marriage  with  Cleopatra  (see 
Philip,  §  3)  imperilled  his  own  succession, 
and  his  position  on  his  father's  death  (336) 
was  full  of  dangers.  But  Cleopatra,  her 
child,  and  her  father  were  before  long 
murdered,  the  first  two  by  Olympias,  the 
last  by  Alexander's  order.  The  numerous 
attempts  at  revolt  among  the  peoples 
whom  his  father  had  subjugated  were 
promptly  crushed.  Alexander  first  dealt 
with  Greece  and  rapidly  brought  it  to 
order.  The  Congress  at  Corinth  appointed 
him,  though  without  enthusiasm,  to  his 
father's  place  as  leader  of  the  Greek 
federation.  (It  was  while  ho  was  at  Corinth 
that  Alexander,  according  to  an  anecdote, 
saw  Diogenes  lying  in  the  sun.  Alexander 
asked  what  he  could  do  for  him.  *  Don't 
keep  the  sun  off  me',  was  the  reply.  'If 
I  were  not  Alexander,  I  should  wish  to 
be  Diogenes',  Alexander  remarked.)  Alex- 
ander next  turned  to  the  north  and  with 
amazing  speed  subdued  the  tribes  that 
were  threatening  his  N.  and  NW.  frontiers. 
On  a  report  that  Alexander  had  been 
killed  in  Thrace,  Thebes  revolted  and 
blockaded  the  Macedonian  garrison  in  its 
citadel.  With  the  same  astonishing  rapid- 
ity Alexander  was  upon  the  insurgents 
and  captured  their  city.  The  Congress  at 
Corinth  decided  that  Thebes  should  be 
razed  to  the  ground  (the  house  of  Pindar 
being  spared  by  Alexander's  order).  From 
Athens,  which  had  given  Thebes  some 
support,  Alexander  required  the  surrender 
of  Demosthenes  and  of  others  who  had 
been  obstinate  in  their  hostility  to  Mace- 
donia, but  did  not  persist  in  his  demand. 

The  whole  of  the  above  campaigns  had 
occupied  little  more  than  a  year  (336-5). 

§  2.  Invasion  of  Asia:  the  Granicus  (334) 
Alexander  now  devoted  himself  to  the 
conquest  of  Persia  (See  PI.  7),  ruled  at  that 
time  by  Darius  Codomanus,  a  mild,  ami- 
able prince,  unequal  to  the  struggle  before 
him.  Though  overwhelmingly  stronger 
than  Alexander  in  men,  ships,  and  wealth, 
his  forces  lacked  efficient  leadership  and 
military  science.  In  334  Alexander  crossed 
to  the  Troad,  where  the  Macedonian 
general,  Parmenio,  had  maintained  a 
footing.  By  his  victory  on  the  Granicus 
Alexander  first  showed  the  superiority  of 
the  Macedonian  over  the  Persian  army. 
He  next  subdued  Sardis  and  such  Greek 
cities  of  the  coast  as  did  not  open  their 
gates  to  him.  After  the  seige  and  destruc- 
tion of  Halicarnassus,  he  subdued  Lycia, 
and  marching  north  through  Pamphylia 
arid  Pisidia,  reached  Gordium,  the  capital 
of  Phrygia.  It  was  hero  that  ho  is  said  to 
have  cut  the  *Gordian  knot'  (q.v.)  and 
applied  the  legend  about  it  to  himself; 
but  the  story  is  poorly  attested. 

§  3.  Campaign  of  333 :  battle  of  Issue 
In  the  spring  of  333  Alexander  marched 
south  through  Cappadocia  to  the  Cilician 
Gates  and  reached  Tarsus.  The  King  of 
Persia  was  now  advancing  to  meet  him, 
but  Alexander,  before  facing  him,  subdued 
Western  Cilicia.  Darius  attributed  the 
delay  of  Alexander  to  fear,  and  instead  of 
awaiting  him  in  the  broad  expanses  of 
Syria,  which  would  have  favoured  his 
larger  army,  crossed  Mt.  Amanus  and 
was  brought  to  battle  (333)  in  the  narrow 
plain  of  Issus.  While  the  event  was  still 
undecided,  the  flight  of  Darius  himself 
started  a  panic  and  caused  the  rout  of 
the  Persian  host.  The  mother,  wife,  and 
children  of  Darius  were  captured  and 
humanely  treated. 

§  4.  Conquest  of  Syria  and  Egypt 


Before  undertaking  the  final  destruction 
of  the  Persian  king,  Alexander  proceeded 
to  the  conquest  of  Syria  and  Egypt,  so  as 
not  to  leave  these  Persian  territories,  and 
particularly  the  bases  of  the  Phoenician 
fleet,  unsubdued  in  his  rear.  Tyre,  an 
apparently  impregnable  fortress  on  an 
island  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  offered 
a  prolonged  resistance,  and  its  capture 
called  forall  theingenuityand  perseverance 
of  Alexander.  A  mole  was  constructed 
across  to  the  island  and  the  stronghold  fell, 
after  a  six  months'  siege,  in  the  summer  of 
332.  After  its  capture  and  that  of  Gaza, 
the  occupation  of  Egypt  was  an  easy 

Alexander  the  Great 


Alexander  the  Great 

matter.  Its  most  notable  incident  was  the 
foundation  (331)  of  the  city  of  Alexandria 
<q.v.).  The  new  city  was  designed  to  be 
a  Greek,  as  distinct  from  a  Phoenician, 
commercial  centre  in  the  eastern  Medi- 
terranean. While  in  Egypt,  Alexander 
visited  the  temple  of  Ammon  (q.v.).  There 
he  was  recognized  by  the  oracle  as  son 
of  Ammon.  (Among  Landor's  Imaginary 
Conversations*  is  one  between  Alexander 
and  the  priest  of  Ammon.)  It  may  have 
been  before  this  that  Darius  sent  an  em- 
bassy to  Alexander  offering  as  a  basis  of 
peace  to  surrender  all  his  territory  west 
of  the  Euphrates,  to  give  him  his  daughter 
for  wife,  and  to  pay  a  great  ransom  for 
the  members  of  his  family.  Parmenio,  the 
story  goes,  said  that  if  he  were  Alexander 
he  would  accept  the  terms.  'So  should  I, 
if  I  were  Parmenio',  Alexander  replied. 

§  5.  Victory  ofOaugamela  (331)  and 
death  of  Darius  (330) 

In  331  Alexander  started  for  the  heart 
of  the  Persian  empire.  He  crossed  the 
Euphrates  and  the  Tigris  high  up,  at 
Thapsacus  and  Bezabde,  and  turned 
south  towards  Babylon.  Darius,  with  an 
even  larger  host  than  at  Issus,  met  him 
at  Gaugamcla  (near  Arbela,  from  which 
the  battle  is  sometimes  named).  Once 
more  Darius  fled,  and  the  Persian  army 
was  routed.  Darius  escaped  N.  to 
Ecbatana  in  Media,  but  Alexander  pur- 
sued his  way  to  Babylon  and  Susa,  and 
in  the  palaces  of  the  Persian  kings  at 
Persepolis  found  an  immense  treasure. 
During  his  sojourn  there  it  is  said  that 
after  a  carouse,  at  the  suggestion  of  the 
Greek  courtesan  Thai's,  he  set  on  fire  and 
destroyed  the  palace  of  Xerxes.  In  the 
late  spring  of  330  he  resumed  his  pursuit 
of  Darius  to  Ecbatana  and  eastwards,  but 
when  Darius  wished  to  stand,  his  followers 
turned  against  him.  Bessus,  his  kinsman 
and  satrap  of  Bactria,  with  other  con- 
spirators seized  and  bound  him,  and  when 
Alexander  drew  near,  stabbed  the  king 
and  made  off.  Alexander  found  Darius 

§  6.  Campaigns  of  330-327.  Alexander's 

The  campaigns  of  tho  years  330-327 
resulted  in  the  submission  of  the  vast 
regions  of  Hyrcania,  Areia,  Drangiana, 
Bactria,  and  Sogdiana,  and  the  capture 
and  execution  of  Bessus.  Candahar  is 
perhaps  a  corruption  of  Alexandria,  the 
capital  that  Alexander  founded  in  Ara- 
chosia.  He  reached  Maracanda  (Samar- 
cand),  and  on  the  Jaxartos  founded 
Alexandria  Ultima  (Eschate"),  Khodjend. 
On  his  way  he  crossed  in  early  spring 
the  Hindu-Kush  mountains,  a  feat  com- 

parable to   Hannibal's  crossing    of  the 

Meanwhile  a  change  had  come  about 
in  tho  policy  and  position  of  Alexander 
himself.  He  had  set  out  to  subjugate  the 
barbarians  to  the  Greeks.  But  although 
ho  had  from  the  first  shown  tolerance  to 
the  religions  and  institutions  of  the  for- 
mer, he  had  before  long  gone  farther,  and 
begun  to  treat  his  European  and  Asiatic 
subjects  on  a  more  equal  footing,  had 
received  Persian  noblemen  into  his  con- 
fidence, and  had  adopted  the  dress  and 
customs  of  an  Oriental  court.  (Alexander 
recognized  the  importance  of  the  co- 
operation of  tho  Iranian  element  in  the 
organization  of  his  empire.  The  failure 
to  secure  this  later  on  contributed  to  the 
empire's  dissolution).  This  change  of 
attitude  had  caused  deep  dissatisfaction 
among  his  Macedonians,  and  tho  smoul- 
dering resentment  broke  out  in  327,  when 
at  a  banquet  Cleitus,  one  of  his  friends  and 
the  brother  of  his  foster-mother,  taunted 
Alexander,  and  the  latter  killed  him  with 
a  spear.  Deep  remorse  followed  the 
drunken  act.  Before  this,  Philotas,  son 
of  Parmenio,  had  been  executed  for  con- 
spiracy against  Alexander,  and  Parmenio 
himself,  by  a  questionable  act  of  author- 
ity, had  been  put  to  death.  In  327  there 
were  further  executions  of  noble  Mace- 
donians for  plotting  against  the  king's 
life;  and  also  of  Callisthenes  (nephew  of 
Aristotlo),  who  was  following  the  cam- 
paigns as  their  historian,  as  being  privy 
to  tho  plot.  In  the  same  year  also  Alex- 
ander married  Roxana,  daughter  of  Oxy- 
artes,  a  Sogdian  chief. 

§  7.  The  conquest  of  India  and  the 
return  (327-325) 

Alexander  now  undertook  the  invasion 
of  India,  a  country  of  whoso  configuration 
and  extent  little  was  known.  His  followers 
saw  in  the  adventure  a  repetition  of  the 
legendary  conquest  of  India  by  Dionysus 
(q.v.).  He  again  crossed  the  Hindu-Kush 
in  the  late  summer  of  327,  and  while 
Hephaestion  with  part  of  the  army  took 
the  Khyber  Pass,  ho  himself  entered  tho 
rugged  country  to  the  N.  and  engaged  the 
fierce  tribes  of  the  hills.  His  greatest 
achievement  in  this  advance  was  the 
capture  of  the  rock  of  Aornus  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Indus,  above  the  junction 
with  the  Cabul  river.  In  326  he  crossed 
the  Indus  and  reached  the  Hydaspes 
( Jhelum).  There  by  skilful  dispositions  he 
defeated  Porus,  king  of  the  land  between 
the  Hydaspes  and  the  Acesines  (Chenab), 
a  courageous  ruler  at  the  head  of  a  large 
army,  rendered  more  formidable  by  a 
contingent  of  elephants.  His  advance 

Alexander  the  Great 



through  the  remainder  of  the  Punjab 
was  a  comparatively  easy  matter;  but 
when  he  arrived  at  the  Hyphasis  (Beas) 
and  contemplated  proceeding  to  the 
Ganges  and  thus  reaching  what  he  con- 
ceived to  be  the  extremity  of  the  earth, 
his  weary  Macedonians  at  last  turned 
against  him  and  refused  to  go  farther. 
Alexander  was  forced  to  yield  and  aban- 
don his  hope  of  bringing  the  whole  earth 
from  the  western  to  the  eastern  ocean 
under  his  sway.  The  Macedonians,  sotting 
their  faces  westward,  descended  the 
Hydaspes  in  a  fleet  of  transports  com- 
manded by  Nearchus,  while  Onesicritus, 
who  wrote  an  account  of  the  expedition, 
had  charge  of  Alexander's  ship.  Having- 
reached  Patala  at  the  head  of  the  delta 
of  the  Indus  at  midsummer  325,  Alexan- 
der started  on  a  land-march  homewards, 
leaving  Nearcmis  to  explore  the  sea-route 
up  the  Persian  Gulf. 

§  8.  Alexander's  last  measures  and  his 
death  (325-323) 

At  Susa,  where  the  army  arrived  in  the 
winter  of  325-4  after  suffering  terrible 
hardships  in  the  deserts  of  Gedrosia, 
Alexander  set  about  punishing  the  many 
satraps  and  other  officers  who  had  failed 
in  their  duty.  Harpalus,  his  treasurer, 
had  appropriated  a  large  sum  and  with- 
drawn to  Tarsus.  He  now  fled  to  Greece, 
where  his  intrigues  involved  Demosthenes 
(q.v.)  in  a  discreditable  affair.  Alexander 
also  extended  his  policy  of  fusing  the 
European  and  Asiatic  portions  of  his 
empire,  by  colonization,  by  mixed  mar- 
riages (he  himself  married  Statira,  daugh- 
ter of  Darius,  and  his  friend  Hephaestion 
married  her  sister),  and  by  unification 
of  the  military  services.  (This  policy  of 
equalizing  the  Greek  and  Eastern  races, 
it  may  be  noted,  was  censured  by  Aris- 
totle). He  also  cherished  schemes  for  the 
development  of  a  commercial  sea-route 
between  the  Indus,  the  Euphrates  and 
Tigris,  and  the  Gulf  of  Suez.  As  Nearchus 
was  about  to  set  out  on  a  voyage  of  ex- 
ploration to  further  this  scheme,  Alexan- 
der, who  had  been  saddened  by  the  death 
of  his  intimate  comrade,  Hephaestion,  in 
324,  himself  died  of  fever  at  Babylon  in 
the  summer  of  323.  He  was  only  32  years 

§  9.  Alexander's  achievement 

We  owe  to  Alexander,  a  man  of  genius 
at  the  head  of  a  military  monarchy,  what 
no  Greek  city-state  would  have  been  able 
to  achieve,  the  extension  of  Greek  civi- 
lisation over  the  East.  As  a  result  of  his 
conquests  the  character  of  that  civiliza- 
tion itself  was  changed.  Greece  sank  into 
a  secondary  position;  her  city-states  lost 

their  independence,  and  with  it  the  special 
atmosphere  in  which  their  literary  master- 
pieces had  been  produced.  Hellenic  civi- 
lization, as  it  extended  to  new  regions, 
became  exposed  to  new  influences,  and 
the  Hellenistic  Age  (q.v.)  came  into  being. 
§  10.  The  literature  concerning  Alexander 
The  principal  authority  for  tho  history 
of  Alexander's  campaigns  is  Arrian  (q.v.), 
who  drew  on  the  narratives  of  Aristobulus 
and  Ptolemy,  companions  of  Alexander. 
Authentic  materials  were  also  available 
in  Alexander's  official  journals,  on  which 
Ptolemy  drew.  There  was  also  the  history 
of  Callisthenes  (see  above,  §  6).  A  fabulous 
element  was  introduced  by  another  writer, 
Cleitarchus  (probably  c.  300  B.C.),  and 
many  further  legends  grew  up  in  the  East 
round  the  name  of  the  conqueror.  These 
crystallized,  probably  in  the  3rd  c.  A.D., 
in  a  Greek  narrative  falsely  attributed  to 
Callisthenes.  There  were  also  later  Ar- 
menian, Syriac,  Ethiopia,  and  Arabic  ver- 
sions (the  Syrians  made  Alexander  a 
Christian).  Of  the  narrative  attributed 
to  Callisthenes  several  Latin  versions  were 
made,  and  the  legends  thence  passed  into 
tho  French  poetry  of  tho  llth  and  12th  cc. 
(see  Julius  Valerius).  One  of  these  French 
poems,  written  in  twelve-syllabled  lines, 
perhaps  gave  its  name  to  the  Alexandrine, 
the  French  heroic  verse  of  six  feet.  There 
are  also  two  Old  English  works  of  the 
llth  c.  based  on  tho  Latin  legend,  a  'Let- 
ter from  Alexander  to  Aristotle '  and  '  The 
Wonders  of  the  East'.  From  the  French 
poems  tho  Alexander-saga  passed  into  the 
English  metrical  romances  of  the  Middle 
English  period  (1200-1500),  notably  the 
alliterative  poem  'King  Alisaunder ',  and  to 
them  may  be  traced  tho  frequency  of  the 
Christian  name  *  Alexander'  ('Sandy')  in 
Scotland.  It  may  be  noted  that  Fluellen,the 
Welsh  officer  in  Shakespeare's  *  Henry  V/ 
is  represented  as  having  a  fairly  detailed 
knowledge  of  the  history  of  Alexander.  See 
also  Curtius  Rufus.  There  is  a  succinct 
and  striking  summary  of  the  reign  of 
Alexander  and  of  the  struggles  of  his 
successors  over  his  inheritance,  written 
from  the  Jewish  standpoint,  m  the  first 
nine  verses  of  the  First  Book  of  the 
Alexa'ndra,  see  Lycophron  (2). 

Alexa'ndria  (Alexandria,  L.  Alexandria 
or  Alexandria),  a  city  on  the  N.  coast  of 
Egypt,  near  the  Canopic  or  western  mouth 
of  the  Nile,  founded  by  Alexander  the 
Great  in  331  B.C.,  the  capital  of  the 
Ptolemies  and  famous  as  one  of  the  chief 
intellectual  centres  of  the  Hellenistic  world. 
It  was  laid  out  on  tho  sandy  neck  of  land 
that  runs  E.  and  W.,  separating  Lake 




Mareotis  from  the  sea.  A  broad  street  ran 
E.  and  W.  through  the  centre  of  it  and  was 
crossed  by  another  running  N.  and  S.  On 
the  island  of  Pharos,  which  Alexander 
connected  with  the  mainland  by  a  mole 
nearly  a  milo  long,  Ptolemy  II  erected  a 
lighthouse,  said  to  be  the  first  of  its  kind, 
to  guide  mariners  to  the  greater  of  the  two 
sea-harbours,  that  lying  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  mole.  Another  harbour  on 
Lake  Mareotis  received  the  traffic  from 
the  Nile.  Near  the  eastern  sea-harbour 
lay  the  quarter  known  as  Brucheion 
in  which  stood  tho  royal  palace,  the 
Museum  and  the  great  Library,  and  the 
spondid  tomb  to  which  Alexander's  body 
was  brought  from  Asia  by  Ptolemy  II. 
To  the  SW.  of  this,  in  the  quarter  called 
Rhakotis  and  near  what  is  to-day  known 
as  'Pompey's  Pillar',  stood  the  Serapeum 
(the  great  temple  of  Serapis).  Here, 
and  extending  beyond  tho  walls,  was  the 
native  quarter.  A  canal  brought  fresh 
water  from  tho  Nile.  By  200  B.C.  Alex- 
andria was  the  largest  city  in  the  world 
(later  it  was  surpassed  by  Rome).  The 
population,  apart  from  the  native  Egyp- 
tians, was  divided  into  politeumata  or 
corporations  based  on  nationality,  of 
which  the  Greek  was  the  most  important ; 
and  the  whole  city  was  under  Ptolemy's 
governor.  Intermarriage  between  Greeks 
and  Egyptians  began  in  tho  2nd  c.  B.C. 
and  the  mixed  population  (with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  Jews  and  some  of  tho  Greeks) 
gradually  blended  into  a  more  or  less  homo- 
geneous whole.  See  Alexandrian  Library, 
Museum,  Hellenistic  Age,  Ptolemies. 

Alexandrian  or  HELLENISTIC  AGE  of 
Greek  literature ;  see  Hellenistic  Age. 

Alexandrian  Library,  THE,  was  founded 
by  Ptolemy  I  (see  Ptolemies)  and  greatly  in- 
creased by  Ptolemy  II.  It  was  housed  in  a 
building  in  the  Brucheion  or  royal  quarter, 
supplemented  by  a  subsidiary  building 
near  the  Sorapeum  (see  Alexandria).  In 
the  time  of  Callimachus  (q.v.)  the  larger 
library  is  said  to  have  contained  400,000 
volumes,  and  in  the  1st  c.  700,000.  It  is 
said  that  Ptolemy  II  purchased  the  library 
that  Aristotle  had  formed;  and  (by 
Galen)  that  Ptolemy  III  (Euergetes)  ap- 
propriated the  official  copy  of  the  text  of 
Aeschylus,  Sophocles,  and  Euripides  (see 
Lycurgus),  forfeiting  the  large  deposit  he 
had  paid  when  borrowing  it  from  the 
Athenians.  Galen  also  states  that  vessels 
entering  the  harbour  of  Alexandria  were 
required  to  surrender  any  manuscripts 
that  they  had  on  board.  There  was  keen 
rivalry  between  the  kings  of  Alexandria 
and  Pergamum  in  the  enlargement  of  their 
respective  libraries  (see  Books,  §  5).  In 

47  B.C.  when  Caesar  was  in  Alexandria, 
some  40,000  volumes  which  were  stored 
near  the  Arsenal,  perhaps  with  a  view  to 
their  shipment  to  Rome,  were  accidentally 
burnt.  It  is  improbable  that  the  library 
itself  was  destroyed.  The  story  that  it 
was  finally  burnt  in  A.D.  642  by  Amrou, 
general  of  the  Caliph  Omar,  is  now  dis- 

The  first  great  librarians  of  Alexandria 
were  Zenodotus  (fl.  c.  285  B.C.),  Erato- 
sthenes (fl.  c.  234),  Aristophanes  of  By- 
zantium (fl.  c.  195),  and  Aristarchus  (fl.  q. 
180)  (qq.v.).  Callimachus  and  Apollonius 
Rhodius  (qq.v.)  are  sometimes  mention- 
ed as  among  the  librarians,  but  there  are 
chronological  difficulties  in  the  way  of 
admitting  them. 

Alcxandrianism  or  ALEXANDRINISM, 
a  term  used  of  tho  influence  of  the  Alex- 
andrian school  of  Greek  poets  (see  Hel- 
lenistic Age)  on  Roman  poetry.  Tho  chief 
features  of  the  school  were  artificiality,  an 
excessive  display  of  mythological  learning, 
and  beauty  and  elaboration  of  form.  The 
influence  is  seen,  for  instance,  in  some  of 
the  poems  of  Catullus  (e.g. '  Attis  %  *  Pelcus 
and  Thetis*,  'Coma  Berenices'),  in  Pro- 
port  ius,  and,  in  a  less  degree,  in  Virgil  and 

Alexipha'rmaca,  see  Nicander, 
Ale'xis,  see  Comedy,  §  4. 
Al(l)e'cto  (Gk.Allektd),  see  Furies. 

Allegory,  the  presentation  of  a  subject 
(in  narrative  or  other  form)  under  the 
guise  of  another  suggestively  similar ;  e.g. 
Horace's  Ode  I.  xiv  (O  navis,  referent  in 
mare  te  novi  fluctus),  where  the  Roman 
State  is  presented  under  the  guise  of  a 
storm-tossed  ship. 

A'llia,  a  small  tributary  of  the  Tiber, 
near  which  the  Romans  suffered  a  memor- 
able defeat  by  the  Gauls  in  390  B.C. 

Alliteration,  tho  beginning  with  the 
same  letter  of  two  or  more  words  in  close 
connexion.  It  was  a  constant  device  in 
Saturnian  (q.v.)  verse,  and  was  adopted 
thence  by  later  Roman  poets  including 
Ennius  and  Virgil ;  as  where  Ennius  writes : 
Fraxinu*  frangitur  atque  abies  conster- 

nitur  alta. 

Pinus  proceras  pervortunt. 
It  is  carried  to  grotesque  excess  by  Ennius 
in  the  lino, 
O  Tito  tute  Tati  tibi  tanta  tiranne  tulieti. 

A'lmarje&t,  see  Ptolemy. 
Aldi'dae  (Aloeidai),  see  Otus. 
Alphabet,  (I)  GREEK.  The  Greek  alpha- 
bet was  probably  derived  from  some  form 
of  the  Phoenician  alphabet,  with  additions 

Alpheus  2 

such  as  distinctive  symbols  for  the  vowel 
sounds,  and  certain  letters  such  as  </>,  \t  tfi 
from  other  sources  (perhaps  the  Cretan 
script).  (Alpha  is  the  equivalent  of  the 
Phoenician  aleph,  meaning  *ox%  the  name 
of  one  of  the  Phoenician  *  breaths'.)  At 
first  there  was  no  single  alphabet  common 
to  all  the  Greek  States ;  the  local  varities 
had  elements  in  common  but  differed  in 
certain  respects.  Finally,  about  the  end  of 
the  5th  c.  B.C.  the  Ionic  type  prevailed  and 
was  generally  adopted.  See  also  Digamma. 
•  (2)  LATIN.  The  Italian  alphabet  was 
probably  derived  from  that  of  the  Greek 
inhabitants  of  Italy  and  Sicily,  with  cer- 
tain modifications,  such  as  the  rejection 
of  the  symbols  for  </>,  %,  i/i,  and  the  early 
abandonment  of  the  symbol  for  £.  C,  ono 
of  the  forms  of  the  Greek  gamma,  was 
employed  for  the  sounds  of  both  G  and  K, 
and  when  intended  to  represent  the  sound 
of  gamma  was  modified  into  G.  The  old 
spelling  of  the  abbreviations  C.  and  On. 
for  Gaius  and  Gnaeus  was  retained  when 
this  new  form  G  was  introduced.  The 
letters  Y  and  Z  were  not  adopted  until 
the  last  century  of  the  Roman  republic, 
when  they  were  required  for  the  transcrip- 
tion of  Greek  words  such  as  'Zephyrus*. 

As  to  the  direction  in  which  letters  were 
written,  from  right  to  left  or  left  to  right, 
etc.,  see  Epigraphy,  §  2. 
Alghe'us  (Alpheios),  ono  of  the  largest 
riverierin"  Greece,  rising  in  Arcadia,  and 
after  receiving  many  tributaries  (including 
the  Erymanthus  and  the  Ladon),  flowing 
through  Blis.  The  plain  of  Olympia  (q.v.) 
is  situated  by  the  side  of  it.  See  also 
Arethusa.  It  is  referred  to  by  Milton  in 
'Lycidas':  *  Return,  Alpheus;  the  dread 
voice  is  past  That  shrunk  thy  streams.' 
Althae'a  (Althaitf),  in  Greek  mythology, 
mother  of  Meleager  (q.v.). 

Amalthe'a  (AmaUheia),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, the  goat  that  suckled  the  infant 
Zeus  (q.v.)  in  Crete;  or  a  nymph  (accord- 
ing to  one  version  the  daughter  of  Melis- 
sus,  king  of  Crete)  who  fed  Zeus  with  the 
milk  of  a  goat.  Zeus  gave  her  the  horn  of 
the  goat ;  it  had  the  power  of  producing 
whatever  its  possessor  wished,  and  was 
known  (hi  Latin)  as  the  cornucopias  (horn 
of  plenty). 

Ama'ta,  in  the  'Aeneid',  the  wife  of 
Latinus  and  mother  of  Lavinia  (qq.v.). 

A'mazons  (Amdzones),  a  legendary  nation 
of  women-warriors,  supposed  to  have  lived 
In  heroic  times  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Euxine.  The  name  means '  breastlcss ', 
and  it  was  said  that  they  removed  their 
right  breasts  in  order  the  better  to  handle 
the  bow.  They  were  allies  of  the  Trojans 

I  Ambrose 

in  the  Trojan  War,  and  their  queen, 
Ponthesilea,  was  killed  by  Achilles.  One 
of  the  Labours  of  Heracles  (q.v.)  was  to 
secure  the  girdle  of  Hippolyte,  queen  of 
the  Amazons.  According  to  Athenian 
legend,  Attica  once  suffered  an  invasion 
of  Amazons,  which  Theseus  (q.v.)  repelled, 
capturing  the  Amazon  queen,  Hippolyte 
(or  AntiopS). 

Ambarva'lia,  at  Rome,  a  solemn  annual 
purification  of  the  fields  by  the  several 
farmers,  while  a  purification  of  the  boun- 
daries of  the  State  was  performed  by 
special  priests,  the  Arval  (q.v.)  Brethren. 
The  ceremony  included  the  leading  of 
victims  round  the  boundaries  of  the  fields 
that  were  to  be  purified ;  hence  the  name. 
The  victims  sacrificed  were  the  principal 
agricultural  animals,  pig,  sheep,  and  ox 
(suovctauriiia).  In  the  ancient  hymn  of  the 
Arval  priests,  Mars  is  invoked  as  an  agri- 
cultural deity.  In  later  republican  days 
the  deity  concerned  is  Ceres,  and  hi  im- 
perial times  the  earth  deity,  Dea  Dia. 
The  celebration  of  the  Ambarvalia  is 
depicted  hi  the  first  chapter  of  Pater's 
'Marius  the  Epicurean'. 
A'mbiorix,  leader  of  the  Gaulish  tribe  of 
the  Eburones  in  their  revolt  against  the 
Romans  in  54-53  B.C.  See  Commentaries 
('Gallic  War',  Bks.  V  and  VI). 

Ambrose,  ST.,  (Aurttius  Ambrosius) 
(c.  A.D.  340-397)  was  born  of  a  Christian 
Roman  family ;  his  father  was  Prefect  of 
Gallia  Narbonensis.  He  was  educated  at 
Rome  and  entered  on  an  official  career, 
and  at  an  early  age  was  made  governor  of 
Milan  with  the  title  of  consul.  On  the 
death  of  Auxentms,  the  Anaii  bishop  of 
Milan,  Ambrose  was  chosen  to  replace 
him  by  popular  acclamation,  and  actually 
received  baptism  and  the  priesthood  after 
his  appointment.  Ho  had  a  high  concep- 
tion of  the  importance  of  his  now  func- 
tions, and  showed  himself  not  only  a 
patriotic  Roman,  but  a  wise  and  resolute, 
if  kindly,  ccelesiastic.  His  greatest 
achievements  were  in  the  practical  field, 
notably  in  the  affair  of  the  Altar  of  Victory 
(see  Symmachus)  in  which  his  advocacy 
of  the  Christian  cause  (Ep.  xvii  and  xviii) 
was  ono  of  the  final  blows  to  the  pagan 
religion.  Ambrose  did  not  shrink  from 
reproving  the  emperor  TheodOeius  in 
church,  and  even  from  imposing  penance 
on  him  (after  a  punitive  massacre  ordered 
by  Theodosius  at  Thessalonica).  Among 
his  important  writings  is  a  treatise  on  the 
duties  of  priests  ('  De  Officiis  Ministrorum') 
modelled  on  the  'De  Offlciis'  of  Cicero. 
He  also  published  explanatory  commen- 
taries on  many  parts  of  the  scriptures, 
dogmatic  treatises  ('  Do  Fide', '  De  Spirltu 

Ammianus  Marcellinus 



Sancto '),  and  minor  treatises  on  the  ascetic 
life.  Many  of  his  works  had  first  taken  the 
form  of  sermons  and  show  an  oratorical 
style.  We  also  have  a  large  number  of  his 
letters,  mostly  on  church  matters.  The 
influence  of  his  Roman  education  is 
evident  in  many  quotations  from,  and 
reminiscences  of,  the  great  Roman  and 
Greek  authors.  Of  the  hymns  attributed 
to  him,  a  few  are  certainly  authentic, 
but  he  was  not  the  author  of  the  Te 
Deum,  as  tradition  relates.  The  Ambrosian 
Library  at  Milan  (founded  in  1609)  is 
named  after  him. 

Ammia'nus  Marcelli'nus,  born  at 
Antloch  about  A.D.  330,  wrote  in  Latin  at 
Rome  about  A.D.  390  a  continuation  of  the 
history  of  Tacitus,  in  31  books,  of  which 
we  possess  Bks.  xiv-xxxi.  These  cover 
the  period  A.D.  353-378,  from  Constantius 
to  the  death  of  Valcns.  Ainmianus  was 
a  patriotic  Roman  and  a  philosophic  his- 
torian, with  a  high  conception  of  the  role 
of  history,  and  ho  aimed  at  truthfulness 
and  accuracy.  He  himself  served  under 
Julian  against  the  Persians  and  his  ex- 
perience lends  vividness  to  some  of  the 
campaigns  he  describes.  There  are  inter- 
esting digressions  on  a  variety  of  subjects, 
such  as  the  Egyptian  obelisks  and  their 
hieroglyphics,  earthquakes,  lions  in  Meso- 
potamia, the  artillery  of  his  time;  and 
impartial  judgements  on  the  various 
nations  dealt  with,  on  the  Christians  (he 
was  a  pagan  but  opposed  to  the  persecu- 
tion of  Christians),  and  on  the  emperors 
themselves.  Latin  was  not  his  native 
tongue,  and  his  stylo  is  marred  by  clumsi- 
ness, Graecisins,  and  bombast. 

A'mrnon  (Ammdn  or  Hammon),  an  Egyp- 
tian god,  represented  sometimes  as  a  ram, 
sometimes  as  a  man  with  ram's  head  and 
curved  horns.  He  had  a  famous  oracle  in 
an  oasis  (Siwah)  in  the  Libyan  desert, 
which  was  visited  by  Alexander  the  Great 
(q.v.,  §  4).  The  Greeks  identified  Ammon 
with  Zeus. 

Amoebe'an  verses  (amoibaia  melc,  from 
Gk.  amoibe,  'change'),  verses  sung  alter- 
nately by  two  persons  hi  competition,  a 
form  of  contest  in  use  among  Sicilian 
shepherds  hi  antiquity.  It  was  developed 
by  Theocritus  (q.v.)  in  some  of  his  Idylls, 
and  by  Virgil  in  some  of  his  Eclogues. 

Am&'res,  love  poems  by  Ovid  in  elegiacs, 
some  of  them  being  among  his  earliest 
works.  There  were  two  editions  of  the 
'Amores',  the  first  in  five  books,  the 
second  in  three ;  it  is  the  second  that  has 

The   poems,   for   the   most   part,   are 
studies  or  sketches  of  love  in  different 

moods,  from  that  of  the  simple,  constant 
lover  to  that  of  Don  Juan.  They  are  arti- 
ficial, literary,  the  product  of  fancy  rather 
than  of  passion.  'Corinna*  is  a  prominent 
figure  in  them,  but  if  she  had  real  exis- 
tence, she  was  probably  one  of  many  loves. 
Some  of  the  poems  throw  an  interesting 
light  on  contemporary  life — a  scene  at  the 
Circus,  or  a  festival  of  Juno ;  one  of  them 
(in.  ix)  is  a  beautiful  lament  for  the  death 
of  Tibullus. 

A'mphiara'us  (Amphiaraos),  in  Greek 
mythology,  an  Argive  hero  and  seer,  who 
took  part  in  the  Calydonian  boar-hunt 
(see  Meleager)  and  the  expedition  of  the 
Argonauts  (q.v.).  Ho  married  Eriphyle, 
whom  Polynices  bribed,  by  the  gift  of 
the  fatal  necklace  of  his  ancestress  Har- 
monia  (see  Cadmus  (1)),  to  persuade  Am- 
phiaraus  to  take  part  in  the  expedition 
of  the  Seven  against  Thebes  (see  Oedipus), 
though  the  scor  knew  that  none  of  the  Seven 
except  Adrastus  would  return  from  it  alivo. 
He  set  out  reluctantly,  but  before  starting 
laid  on  his  children  the  charge  that  they 
should  avenge  his  death  by  killing  their 
mother,  and  by  making  a  second  expedi- 
tion against  Thebes.  Amphiaraus  perished, 
as  he  foresaw,  at  Thebes  (he  was  swallowed 
up  in  the  earth  as  he  retreated),  and  was  in 
due  course  avenged  by  his  son  Alcmaeon 
(q.v.).  A  shrine  was  erected  to  him  near 
Oropus,  where  oracles  were  given  by 
means  of  dreams.  The  fee  for  consulting 
the  oncle  was  nine  obols  (say,  one  shil- 
ling). Sulla,  in  fulfilment  of  a  vow  made 
during  his  campaign  in  Greece,  conse- 
crated to  the  god  Amphiaraus  the  reven- 
ues derived  from  Oropus  by  the  Romans. 
But  later  the  Roman  tax-gatherers  con- 
tested this  diversion  of  the  revenue,  on 
the  ground  that  Amphiaraus  was  no  god. 
The  question  was  tried  before  the  consuls 
in  73  B.C.  (Cicero  was  one  of  their  asses- 
sors) and  the  ordinance  of  Sulla  was 

Amphi'ctyon  (Amphiktuon),  see  Amphic* 

Amphi'ctyony  (Amphiktuoneia),  a  reli- 
gious association  of  Greeks  worshipping  at 
the  shrine  of  the  same  god  (from  amphi- 
ctiones,  'dwellers  around').  The  most  im- 
portant Amphictyony  was  that  of  Delphi, 
whose  sanctuaries  were  the  temples  of 
Apollo  at  Delphi  and  of  Demeter  at  Ther- 
mopylae. Many  of  the  principal  peoples 
of  Greece,  including  Thessalians,  Dorians, 
and  lonians,  belonged  to  it.  The  assem- 
blies of  this  Amphictyonic  League  met 
twice  a  year,  alternately  at  Delphi  and 
Thermopylae.  Though  it  might  have  been 
a  source  of  union  among  Greek  States,  it 
exercised  little  Influence  in  this  direction; 

Amphion  25 

but  see  Sacred  Wars.  Both  Jason  of 
Pherae  and  Philip  of  Macedon  (qq.v.) 
attached  importance  to  it  as  a  means  of 
advancing  their  schemes  of  Greek  hege- 
mony. The  foundation  of  the  Amphic- 
tyony  was  attributed  to  one  Amphictyon, 
a  legendary  person,  son  of  Deucalion 
(q.v.)  and  brother  of  Hellen  (the  ancestor 
of  the  Greeks). 

Amphi'on  (Amphlon),  see  Antiope. 

Amphitheatre,  a  circular  or  elliptical 
theatre,  in  which  the  seats  of  the  spec- 
tators completely  surrounded  the  arena. 
The  earliest  built  at  Rome  were  wooden 
structures;  a  stone  amphitheatre  was 
erected  in  29  B.C.  but  was  destroyed  in 
the  flre  of  Rome  during  Nero 's  reign.  The 
great  Flavian  Amphitheatre,  known  as 
the  Colosseum,  whose  enormous  ruins 
survive,  was  built  by  Vespasian  and  his 
successors  to  take  its  place.  It  stood  at 
the  foot  of  the  Esquiline  Hill,  oast  of  the 
Forum  (see  PI.  14).  Displays  of  wild  beasts 
and  gladiatorial  shows  wore  held  there; 
and  the  arena  could  be  flooded  for  mimic 
sea-fights  (naumachiae,  q.v.). 

Amphitri'te,  a  Nereid  (see  Nereus),  wife 
of  Poseidon  (q.v.). 

Amphi'truo,  a  comedy  by  Plautus,  per- 
haps an  adaptation  of  a  play  by  Philemon 
(see  Comedy,  §  4),  on  the  legend  of  Zeus 
taking  the  appearance  of  Amphitryon  to 
visit  the  latter 's  wife,  Alcmena  (see  Am- 
phitryon). Plautus  designates  the  play  a 
tragico-comoedia  because  of  the  unusual 
blend  of  contrasting  elements,  the  charac- 
ter of  the  chaste  and  dignified  Alcmena 
on  the  one  hand,  and  the  burlesque  situa- 
tion on  the  other.  The  gross  and  irrever- 
ent presentation  of  Jupiter  and  Mercury  ia 
noteworthy.  Moliero  and  Dryden  followed 
Plautus's  play  in  their  comedies  on  the 
same  subject. 

Amphi'tryon  (Amphitruon),  in  Greek 
mythology,  son  of  Alcaeus  and  grandson 
of  Perseus  (q.v.),  and  nephew  of  Eloctryon, 
king  of  Mycenae,  to  whose  daughter,  Alc- 
mene,  he  was  betrothed.  Having  had  the 
misfortune  to  kill  Electryon  by  accident, 
Amphitryon  took  refuge  at  Thebes, 
whore  he  was  followed  by  Alcmene.  By 
her  wish  he  set  out  to  war  with  the 
Teleboans,  in  order  to  avenge  her  brothers, 
who  had  been  killed  in  a  quarrel  with 
them.  On  the  night  of  his  return,  Zeus, 
who  had  been  captivated  by  the  charms 
of  Alcmene,  introduced  himself  to  her 
disguised  as  the  victorious  Amphitryon, 
and  was  shortly  followed  by  Amphitryon 
himself.  Alcmene  gave  birth  to  twin  chil- 
dren, Iphicles  who  was  regarded  as 
Amphitryon's  son,  and  Heracles  (q.v.) 


who  was  held  to  be  the  son  of  Zeus.  The 
legend  has  been  made  the  subject  of 
amusing  plays  by  Plautus,  Moliere,  and 
Dryden.  Amphitryon's  association  with 
gastronomy  is  purely  modern  and  arises 
from  a  line  in  Moliere's  play.  The  servant 
of  Amphitryon,  perplexed  by  the  resem- 
blance of  the  two  who  both  claim  to  bo 
his  master,  hears  Zeuo  invite  some  friends 
to  dinner,  and  is  thereby  convinced  he  is 
the  genuine  Amphitryon — 'Le  v6ritable 
Amphitryon  est  1'Amphitryon  oft  Ton 

Amu'lius,  see  Rome,  §  2. 

A'mycus  (Amukos),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  son  of  Poseidon  and  king  of  the  Beb- 
ryces  (a  people  of  BIthynia),  a  mighty 
boxer.  When  the  Argonauts  came  to  his 
country,  Pollux  accepted  his  challenge 
and  knocked  him  out.  The  Bebryces 
broke  into  the  ring  to  avenge  their  king, 
but  were  routed  by  the  Argonauts.  The 
episode  is  treated  by  Apollonius  Rhodius 
and  by  Theocritus  (xxiii). 

Amymo'ne  (Amttmone),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy* one  of  the  fifty  daughters  of  Danaus 
(q.v.),  rescued  from  a  satyr  by  Poseidon 
and  loved  by  him.  Milton  (P.R.  ii.  185 
ct  seq.)  includes  her  among  the  heroines 
of  legend  thus  loved  by  the  gods : 
to  waylay 

Some  beauty  rare,  Calisto,  Clymene, 
Daphne  or  Semelo,  Antiopa, 
Or  Amymone,  Syrinx,  many  more  .  .  . 

Ana'basis  (Kurou  Anabasis),  a  prose 
narrative  in  seven  books,  by  Xenophon, 
of  the  expedition  (lit. '  going  up '  from  the 
sea-coast  to  the  interior)  of  the  younger 
Cyrus,  son  of  Darius  II,  against  his  brother, 
Artaxerxes  II,  king  of  Persia.  The  work 
was  published  as  by  Themistogenes  of 
Syracuse,  for  motives  which  can  only  be 

Cyrus,  who  was  satrap  of  Lydia,  was 
disappointed  that  ho  was  not  chosen  to 
succeed  his  father,  partly  as  the  favourite 
son,  partly  as  having  been  born  after 
his  father's  accession  to  the  throne.  His 
resentment  against  his  brother  was  in- 
creased, according  to  Xenophon,  by  the 
fact  that  shortly  after  his  accession 
Artaxcrxes  arrested  him  on  a  false  accusa- 
tion of  conspiracy.  Cyrus  thereafter  made 
careful  preparations  to  attack  Artaxerxes, 
recruiting  an  auxiliary  force  of  ten  thou- 
sand Greeks  for  the  purpose.  Xenophon 
describes  the  long  march  of  the  expedi- 
tionary force  in  401  B.C.  from  Sardis  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  Babylon;  he  accom- 
panied it  in  a  private  capacity  at  the  in- 
vitation of  his  friend  Proxenus,  one  of  the 
Greek  generals.  The  march  was  interrupted 




by  the  reluctance  of  some  of  the  troops 
to  proceed  when  the  true  object  of  the 
expedition,  which  had  been  concealed 
from  them,  became  known.  However,  the 
great  bulk  of  the  force  was  induced  to  go 
on,  and  was  present  at  the  battle  of 
Cunaxa  near  Babylon,  where  Cyrus  him- 
self was  killed,  and  his  Asiatic  troops 
took  flight. 

This  disaster  reduced  the  Greeks  to 
great  perplexity  and  distress,  but  there 
was  no  yielding  to  the  attempts  of 
Artaxerxes  to  induce  them  to  surrender. 
The  perplexity  increased  when  Tissa- 
phernes,  who  had  been  conducting  the 
negotiations  on  the  Persian  side,  lured 
the  Greek  generals  into  his  quarters, 
where  they  were  seized  and  beheaded. 
At  this  point  Xenophon  came  forward, 
induced  the  remaining  officers  to  reor- 
ganize the  force  and  take  the  measures 
necessary  for  its  safo  retreat.  Thereafter 
Cheirisophus  commanded  the  van  and 
Xenophon  the  rear,  the  most  dangerous 
post.  By  his  advice  on  the  choice  of  route, 
by  his  resourcefulness,  and  by  the  example 
of  his  courage,  he  enabled  the  Greek 
army,  after  great  hardships  and  severe 
fighting  in  the  mountains  of  Armenia,  to 
reach  the  Euxine.  His  description  of  the 
scene  when  the  Greeks,  climbing  Mt. 
Theches,  at  last  beheld  the  sea  and  cried 
*Thalassa,  tnalassa!'  is  famous  (iv.  7. 
20-6).  They  now  reached  Trapezus 
(Trebizond),  a  Greek  colony  on  the  coast, 
and  were  comparatively  safe;  but  diffi- 
culties had  still  to  be  surmounted,  and 
grave  dissensions  arose  among  the  troops 
before  they  reached  Byzantium.  After  a 
winter  spent  hi  the  service  of  the  treach- 
erous Seuthes,  a  Thracian,  Xenophon 
handed  over  the  remnant  of  the  Ten 
Thousand  to  the  Spartan  Thimbron,  for 
the  war  against  Persia.  Xenophon 's  piety 
is  a  noticeable  feature  in  the  narrative; 
ho  takes  no  important  decision  without 
sacrificing  to  the  gods  and  being  guided 
by  the  omens. 

Anacha'rsis,  a  Scythian  sage,  who, 
according  to  Herodotus,  visited  many 
countries  in  the  6th  c.  B.C.  to  study  their 
customs,  and  endeavoured  to  introduce 
these  into  Scythia,  but  was  put  to  death 
by  the  Scythian  king.  According  to 
Plutarch,  he  made  at  Athens  the  acquain- 
tance of  Solon,  and  Lucian  has  a  dialogue 
(*  Anacharsis')  between  the  two.  He  is 
said  to  have  invented,  among  other  things, 
the  potter's  wheel  and  the  true  anchor 
with  arms. 

Anacolu'thon  (Gk.  'not  following'),  a 
change  of  construction  in  the  course  of  a 
sentence,  e.g.  'Utile  videbatur  Ulixi,  ut 

quidem  poetae  prodidenmt  (nam  apud 
Homerum  . . .  talis  de  Ulixe  nulla  suspicio 
est),  sed  insimulant  cum  tragoediae  simu- 
latione  insaniae  militiam  subterfugere 
voluisse'  (Cicero,  De  Off.  in.  26.  97). 
Ana'creon  (Anakredn)  (6th  c.  B.C.),  a 
lyric  poet  born  at  Teoa  in  Ionia,  whence 
ho  migrated  to  the  Tcian  colony  of  Abdera  ; 
but  he  spent  most  of  his  life  elsewhere,  first 
at  the  court  of  Polycrates  (q.v.)  of  Samos, 
and  later  at  Athens  under  Hipparchus. 
There  are  grounds  for  thinking  he  ended 
his  days  in  Thessaly,  but  the  date  and 
place  of  his  death  are  unknown.  His 
poems,  of  which  wo  have  only  short 
fragments,  were  chiefly  light  and  playful 
songs  of  love  and  wine,  without  depth  of 
passion ;  some  of  them  were  mocking  and 
satirical.  They  are  written  with  perfect 
clearness  of  expression  and  rhythm,  in 
various  metres,  but  he  avoids  the  alcaic 
and  the  sapphic.  Anacrcon  also  wrote 
iambics,  elegies,  and  epigrams.  He  was 
much  imitated  in  all  periods,  and  we 
possess  a  collection  of  some  sixty  of  these 
imitations,  known  as  'Anacroontea*. 

Among  Lander's  '  Imaginary  Conversa- 
tions* is  one  between  Anacreon  and  Poly- 

Anacru'sis,  see  Metre,  §§  2  and  3. 
Anagnd'risis,  see  Tragedy,  §  3. 

Analy'tica     Priora    and     Posteriora, 

treatises  on  logic  by  Aristotle  (q.v.,  §  3). 

A'napaest,  see  Metre,  §  1. 

Ana'phora,  the  repetition  of  a  word  or 
phrase  in  several  successive  clauses;  a 
rhetorical  device  frequent  in  oratory,  e.g. 
'Verres  calumniatores  apponebat,  Verres 
adcsso  jubcbat,  Verres  cognoscobat  .  .  .' 
(Cicero,  Verr.  n.  2,  10.)  The  rhetorician 
Demetrius  quotes  as  an  example  of  ana- 
phora the  beautiful  lines  of  Sappho : 

"EaTT€p€  irdvra  <f>€pajv  oaa  (frau'oXis  eWe- 
Sacr*  AVOJS, 

<t>€p€is  oiv,  (f)€p€is  afya,  <f>ep€is  O.TTV  pdrepi, 

Anaxa'goras  (Anaxagords)  of  Clazomenae 
in  Ionia,  a  Greek  philosopher  born  about 
500  B.C.  Ho  went  to  Athens  about  the 
year  460,  spent  some  thirty  years  there, 
and  became  the  friend  of  Pericles  (q.v.). 
Fragments  survive  of  his  book  'On 
Nature1,  written  in  the  Ionian  dialect, 
and  in  a  simple,  sober  style.  According 
to  his  explanation  of  the  universe,  the 
permanent  elements  of  which  it  is  con- 
stituted are  unlimited  in  number,  and  are 
combined  In  bodies  in  changing  propor- 
tions, as  the  result  of  a  system  of  circula- 
tion (Trepixwpyais)  directed  by  Spirit  or 
Intelligence  (Novs),  a  supreme  independent 




force.  This  last  was  a  conception  destined 
to  revolutionize  Greek  philosophy.  It  is 
the  ultimate  origin  of  what  is  now  known 
as  dualism,  the  doctrine  that  mind  and 
matter  exist  as  two  distinct  entities. 
Anaxagoras  was  also  a  scientist;  he  was 
the  first  to  explain  solar  eclipses. 

Anaximan'der  (Anaximandros)  of  Mile- 
tus, a  practical  scientist  and  philosopher 
of  the  early  part  of  the  6th  c.  B.C.,  con- 
temporary of  Thales  (q.v.).  He  is  said 
to  have  constructed  a  sun-dial  and  a 
map  of  the  world.  He  sought  the  basis  of 
the  universe  in  an  indefinite,  unlimited 
substance  other  than  the  forms  of  matter 
usually  recognized,  but  capable  of  being 
transformed  into  them.  Ho  left  a  written 
account  of  his  philosophical  opinions, 
which  has  perished.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  the  first  Greek  author  to  write  in 

Anaxi'menes  of  Miletus,  a  philosopher  of 
the  6th  c.  B.C.,  later  than  Anaximander 
(q.v.).  He  found  iu  air  the  primary  basis 
of  the  universe ;  and  thought  that  this,  by 
condensation  and  rarefaction,  gave  rise  to 
other  forms  of  matter. 

Anchl'ses,  a  member  of  the  royal  house 
of  Troy  (see  genealogy  under  Troy),  with 
whom  Aphrodite  fell  in  love.  The  child 
of  their  union  was  Aeneas  (q.v.).  Anchises 
boasted  of  the  goddess's  favour  and  was 
Btruck  blind  or  paralysed  by  the  thunder- 
bolt of  Zeus.  We  are  told  in  the  Aencid 
that  he  was  carried  out  of  burning  Troy 
on  his  son's  shoulders,  and  accompanied 
him  in  his  wanderings,  dying  hi  Sicily, 
where  he  was  buried  on  Mt.  Eryx. 

Anci'lia.  A  shield  (anclle)  was  said  to 
have  fallen  from  heaven  at  Rome  in  the 
reign  of  Numa,  and  an  oracle  declared 
that  the  seat  of  empire  would  lie  wherever 
that  shield  should  be.  Thereupon  Numa 
caused  eleven  other  shields  to  be  made 
like  it,  so  that,  if  a  traitor  should  wish  to 
remove  it,  the  genuine  shield  could  not  be 
distinguished.  These  shields  were  pro- 
served  in  the  Temple  of  Mars  in  the  cus- 
tody of  the  Salii  (q.v.),  and  were  carried 
round  the  city  yearly  in  solemn  procession 
in  the  month  of  March.  On  a  declaration 
of  war,  the  Roman  general  moved  the 
shields,  with  the  words,  *  Awake,  Mars ! ' 

Ancus  Ma'rcius,  one  of  the  legendary 
kings  of  Rome  (see  JRome,  §  2). 

Ancyra'num  Monumentum,  see  Monu- 
mentum  Ancyranum. 

Ando'cides  (Andokidls)  (b.  c.  440  B.C.), 
a  member  of  a  distinguished  Athenian 
family,  and  one  of  the  earlier  Attic  orators. 
He  was  implicated  in  the  affair  of  the 

mutilation  of  the  Hermae  (see 
nesian  War),  and  having  with  his  father 
and  several  of  his  relatives  been  denounced 
and  imprisoned,  he  was  persuaded  to  tell 
all  he  knew  in  order  to  save  these  and 
other  innocent  victims.  He  acknowledged 
his  own  guilt  (but  subsequently  repudiated 
the  confession)  and  named  certain  other 
participants  in  the  outrage.  A  decree  of 
tifimia  (disgrace),  virtually  equivalent  to 
banishment,  was  passed  on  him.  We 
possess  three  of  his  speeches,  the  first, 
*  On  his  Return',  delivered  in  the  Ecclesia, 
probably  in  410,  when  ho  unsuccessfully 
sought  permission  to  return  to  Athens; 
the  second,  'On  the  Mysteries*,  made  in 
399  when,  having  been  readmitted  in  403 
to  his  city,  he  was  accused  of  impiety  (for 
having  contrary  to  the  decree  of  atimia 
attended  the  Mysteries);  the  third,  a 
political  discourse  urging  peace  with 
Sparta  in  390,  the  fourth  year  of  the 
Corinthian  War.  The  date  of  his  death  is 
unknown.  Andocides  was  not,  like  the 
other  orators,  a  trained  or  professional 
rhetorician,  but  a  man  of  ability  and 
shrewdness,  who  excelled  rather  in  a 
natural  and  persuasive  eloquence  than  in 
style,  clearness,  or  fire. 

A'ndria  ('The  Woman  of  Andros'),  a 
comedy  by  Terence,  the  earliest  of  his 
plays,  produced  in  166  B.C.,  adapted  from 
two  plays  by  Menander. 

Pamphilus,  a  young  gentleman  of 
Athens,  has  seduced  Glycerium,  supposed 
to  be  the  sister  of  a  courtesan  from 
Andros,  and  is  devoted  to  her.  His  father, 
Simo,  has  arranged  a  match  for  him  with 
the  daughter  of  his  friend  Chromes.  But 
Chremes  has  heard  of  the  relations  of  Pam- 
philus and  Glycerium  and  withdraws  his 
consent  to  the  match.  Simo  conceals  this, 
pretends  to  go  on  with  the  preparations 
for  an  immediate  marriage,  and  hopes  by 
this  means  to  put  an  end  to  the  amour. 
Pamphilus,  learning  from  his  cunning 
slave,  Davus,  that  the  intended  marriage 
is  a  pretence,  temporizes  and  offers  no 
objection.  Simo  now  persuades  Chremcs 
to  withdraw  his  objection;  and  Pam- 
philus is  reduced  to  despair.  At  this  stage 
Glycoriurn  bears  a  son  to  Pamphilus, 
and  Davus  arranges  that  the  fact  shall 
become  known  to  Chromes,  who  now 
finally  breaks  off  the  match.  An  acquain- 
tance just  arrived  from  Andros  reveals  to 
Chremes  that  Glycerium  as  a  child  was 
shipwrecked  at  Andros  in  circumstances 
which  show  that  she  is  a  daughter  of 
Chremes.  Chremes  and  Simo  consent  to 
the  marriage  of  Pamphilus  and  Glycerium, 
and  all  ends  happily. 

The  play  contains    the    often-quoted 



phrases,  'nine  illae  lacrlmae*  and  'aman- 
tium  irae  amoris  integratiost*.  It  was 
translated  into  English  and  printed  early 
In  the  16th  o.  Steele's  'The  Conscious 
Lovers'  is  largely  based  on  it. 

Andro'mache,  in  Greek  mythology, 
daughter  of  Eetldn  (king  of  Thebe  in 
Cilicia),  wife  of  Hector  (q.v.),  and  mother 
of  Aetyanax.  In  the  'Iliad'  she  is  the 
type  of  the  true  wife  and  mother,  noble 
in  misfortune,  smiling  in  her  tears.  After 
the  capture  of  Troy  she  fell  to  the  lot  of 
Neoptolemus  (q.v.).  Her  separation  from 
her  child,  whom  the  Greeks  ordered  to  be 
killed,  forms  the  most  tragic  incident  in 
the  'Trojan  Women*  (q.v.)  of  Euripides, 
Later  she  married  the  Trojan  seer  Hclenus, 
a  son  of  Priam. 

Andromache,  a  tragedy  by  Euripides, 
probably  produced  about  the  beginning 
of  the  Peloponnesian  War  (431  B.C.). 

The  play  deals  with  that  period  in  the 
life  of  Andromache  (see  previous  article) 
when  she  was  living  as  the  thrall  of 
Neoptolemus  in  Thcssaly.  She  had  borne 
him  a  son,  Molossus,  and  after  ten  years 
Neoptolemus  had  married  Hermione, 
daughter  of  Monelaus.  Hermione  re- 
mained childless,  and  suspected  as  the 
cause  of  this  the  arts  of  her  hated  rival, 
Andromache.  Aided  by  the  contemptible 
Menelaus,  Hcrmione  takes  advantage  of 
the  absence  of  Neoptolemus  on  a  journey  to 
Delphi  to  draw  Andromache,  by  the  threat 
of  the  murder  of  Molossus,  from  the  shrine 
of  Thetis  where  she  has  taken  refuge,  in 
order  to  kill  both  mother  and  child.  They 
are  saved  by  the  intervention  of  the  agod 
Peleus,  the  grandfather  of  NeoptolcumH. 
Orestes  (q.v.),  who  has  contrived  the 
murder  of  Neoptolemus  at  Delphi  and  who 
arrives  unexpectedly,  carries  off  Hermione, 
to  whom,  before  her  marriage  to  Neopto- 
lemus, he  was  betrothed.  The  death  of 
Neoptolemus  is  announced.  Thetis  appears 
and  arranges  matters.  The  odious  charac- 
ter which  the  poet  attributes  to  Monelaus 
is  in  accord  with  the  feeling  against  Sparta 
that  prevailed  at  this  time  at  Athens. 

Andro'meda  (Andromedt),  see  Perseus. 

Androni'cus,  Ltrcius  LIvius,  see  Livius 

Andro'tion      (Androtion),     Against,     a 
speech  in  a  public  prosecution  by  Demos- 
thenes.  See  Demosthenes  (2),  §  3  (a). 
Ane'cddta  see  Procopius. 
Animd'lium,    Historia,    a    treatise    by 
Aristotle  (q.v.,  §  3). 

A'nna,  sister  of  Dido  (q.v.).  According 
to  Ovid,  Anna,  after  Aeneas  had  estab- 
lished himself  in  Italy,  came  there,  and 

was  entrusted  by  him  to  Lavinia.  But 
Lavinia  was  jealous  of  her,  and  Anna  fled 
to  the  river  Numicius  and  was  taken  by  the 
river-god  into  his  care. 

Anna  Comne'na  (b.  1083),  daughter  of  the 
Byzantine  emperor  Alexius  I  Comnenus,  a 
learned  and  ambitious  woman.  She  mar- 
ried Nicephorus  Bryennius,  and  after  her 
father's  death  conspired  to  place  him  on 
the  throne  hi  place  of  her  brother.  The 
conspiracy  was  defeated  and  she  was 
banished.  In  her  exile  she  wrote  a  life  of 
her  father,  the  'Alexiad',  in  fifteen  books, 
the  first  Greek  historical  work  written  by 
a  woman.  It  includes  an  account  of  tho 
First  Crusade  (1095-9). 

Anna  Pere'nna,  an  ancient  Roman  deity 
of  the  year,  whoso  festival  was  celebrated 
on  the  Ides  of  March.  This  was  a  feast  at 
the  full  moon  in  what  was  then  the  first 
month  of  the  year.  She  was  probably  a 
moon-goddess,  but  her  attributes  are  not 
clear.  Of  the  six  explanations  of  her  given 
by  Ovid,  'quia  mensibus  impleat  annum* 
(Fast.  iii.  657)  is  regarded  as  the  most 
probable,  and  it  is  thought  likely  that  she 
was  'Anna  ac  Pcrenna',  she  who  begins 
and  ends  tho  year. 

Anna'les.  The  Annales  Ponlificum  OP 
Annalcs  Maximi  were  records  of  impor- 
tant events  kept  by  the  Pontifcx  Maximus, 
who  displayed  annually  a  white  table  on 
which  these  and  the  names  of  the  magi- 
strates for  the  year  were  set  out.  The 
early  records  are  said  to  have  been 
destroyed  in  tho  fire  of  390  B.C.  Mucius 
Scaevola  (consul  in  133  and  Pontifex 
Maximus  in  130)  collected  such  of  the 
Annales  Pontiflcum  as  were  available  and 
published  them  hi  130  B.C.,  according 
to  Servius  in  eighty  books. 

Early  Roman  historians,  sometimes 
spoken  of  as  annalists,  includo  Fabius 
Pictor  (q.v.)  who  wrote  in  Greek,  M. 
Porcius  Cato  (q.v.),  L.  Calpurnius  Piso 
Frugl  (consul  133  B.C.),  L.  Caelius  Anti- 
pater  (late  2nd  c.  B.C.),  Q.  Claudius 
Quadrigarius  (1st  c.  B.C.),  and  C.  Licinius 
Macer  (q.v.). 

Annales,  (1)  of  Ennms,  see  Ennius;  (2)  of 
Tacitus,  see  Annals;  (3)  of  Fencstella,  see 

Annals  (Annales  or  Ab  Excessu  Divi 
Augusti),  a  history  of  the  reigns  of 
Tiberius,  Caligula,  Claudius,  and  Nero,  by 
Tacitus,  written  after  the  *  Histories' 
(q.v.).  There  is  evidence  that  Tacitus 
was  writing  the  work  c.  A.D.  115-17.  The 
surviving  portions  are  Books  I-IV,  parts 
of  V  and  VI,  and  XI-XVI  (incomplete 
at  the  beginning  and  end).  The  work  is 
notable  for  its  style,  concise  to  the  point 




of  obscurity  (in  strong  contrast  to  the 
Ciceronian  amplitude),  its  sustained 
dignity  and  vividness,  its  epigrammatic 
sayings  memorable  for  their  irony  or 
melancholy.  The  record  of  these  reigns 
is  in  the  main  a  gloomy  and  depressing 
one,  and  although  Tacitus  bears  witness 
here  and  there  to  the  efficient  civil  admini- 
stration of  the  empire,  the  emphasis  seems 
to  bo  rather  on  the  crimes,  tho  syco- 
phancy, the  delations,  and  the  oppression, 
that  marked  this  period  at  Rome.  Though 
Tacitus  claims  to  write  without  partiality 
and  prejudice,  to  aim  at  saving  worthy 
actions  from  oblivion  while  holding  up 
evil  deeds  to  the  reprobation  of  posterity 
(iii.  65),  he  is  in  fact  influenced  by  a  re- 
publican bias.  It  is  generally  recognized 
that  the  impression  he  gives  of  Tiberius  is 
unduly  dark,  and  that  in  particular  the 
life  of  debauchery  imputed  to  him  in  his 
last  years  at  Capri  is  inherently  improbable. 
The  matters  of  most  interest  or  impor- 
tance hi  the  several  books  are  as  follows : 

Bk.  I  (A.D.  14-15),  after  a  rapid  review 
of  the  reign  of  Augustus,  passes  to  the 
reign  of  Tiberius,  relating  the  suppression 
by  Germanicus  of  the  mutiny  of  the 
legions  in  Pannonia  and  Germany  (A.D. 
14),  and  his  first  two  campaigns  (14-15) 
against  the  Germans.  There  is  a  notable 
description  of  the  visit  of  tho  Roman 
army  to  the  scene  of  the  disaster  of  Varus. 

Bk.  II  (A.D.  16-19).  The  third  cam- 
paign of  Germanicus  (16),  in  which  he 
defeats  Arminius.  His  expedition  to  the 
East  with  Cn.  Piso  (17),  and  his  death  (19), 
suspected  to  have  been  duo  to  Piso. 

Bk.  Ill  (A.D.  20-22).  The  return  of 
Agrippina,  the  widow  of  Germanicus,  to 
Italy,  and  tho  trial  (20)  and  suicide  of 
Piso.  The  growth  of  luxury  and  syco- 
phancy at  Rome. 

Bk.  IV  (A.D.  23-28).  Sejanus,  his  charac- 
ter and  career.  In  league  with  Livia,  the 
wife  of  Drusus  (son  of  Tiberius),  he  causes 
Drusus  to  be  poisoned  (23),  and  plots 
against  the  children  of  Germanicus.  Tho 
proposal  of  his  marriage  with  Livia  is  put 
aside  by  Tiberius.  Tiberius  withdraws  to 
Capri  (26).  The  increase  in  tho  activity 
of  informers  and  in  judicial  murders:  the 
case,  for  instance,  of  Cremutius  Cordus, 
accused  of  having  in  a  history  praised 
Brutus  and  Cassius. 

Bk.  V  (A.D.  29).  The  death  of  Julia 
Augusta  or  Livia  (29),  mother  of  Tiberius. 
The  story  of  the  conspiracy  and  fall  of 
Se janus  (31),  which  formed  part  of  this 
book,  is  lost. 

Bk.  VI  (A.D.  31-37).  Tiberius  at  Capri, 
his  vicious  life,  anguish  of  soul,  and 
ferocity.  The  death  of  Drusus  (son  of 
Germanicus)  by  starvation  in  prison,  and 

of  Agrippina  his  mother  (33).  The  < 
less  bloodshed  at  Rome,  by  executions  and 
suicides.  The  death  of  Tiberius  (37),  and 
a  summary  of  his  life. 

Bk.  XI  (A.D.  47-49),  resumes  the  narra- 
tive after  the  hiatus,  in  the  seventh  year 
of  Claudius  (A.D.  47).  The  principal  sub- 
jects of  tho  book  are  tho  excesses  of 
Messallna,  her  marriage  with  Silius,  tho 
perturbation  of  tho  emperor,  and  the 
execution  (48)  of  Silius  and  Messalina  at 
the  instance  of  the  frccdman  Narcissus. 

Bk.  XII  (A.D.  49-54).  Claudius  marries 
(49)  his  niece,  Agrippina  (daughter  of 
Germanicus).  Through  her  influence  her 
son  (the  future  emperor  Nero)  is  adopted 
by  Claudius,  preferred  to  his  own  son, 
Britannicus,  and  married  to  Octavia 
(daughter  of  Claudius).  Silanus,  to  whom 
Octavia  had  been  betrothed,  is  brought 
to  ruin  and  death  (49)  by  Agrippina. 
Seneca  is  recalled  from  exile  to  be  Nero's 
tutor.  The  insurrection  in  Britain  and  the 
defeat  (50)  of  Caratacus,  king  of  tho 
Silures,  who  is  brought  to  Rome  and 
pardoned.  Claudius  is  poisoned  by  Agrip- 
pina. Accession  of  Nero  (54). 

Bk.  XIII  (A.D.  55-58).  The  promising 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  Nero,  who  is 
restrained  by  Seneca  and  Burrus  (prefect 
of  the  praetorians).  Cn.  Domitius  CorbulO 
is  sent  to  the  East  to  resist  Parthian  ag- 
gression (54).  Agrippina,  whoso  influence 
is  weakened,  takes  up  the  cause  of  Bri- 
tannicus. Nero  has  Britannicus  poisoned 
55)  and  Agrippina  removed  from  the 
palace.  Nero  in  love  with  Poppaea  Sabina. 

Bk.  XIV  (A.D.  59-62).  Tho  attempted 
destruction  of  Agrippina  by  scuttling  her 
ship,  followed  by  her  brutal  murder  (61). 
The  great  rising  (61)  in  Britain  under 
Boudicca  (Boadicea),  and  its  suppression. 
London  is  mentioned  as  much  frequented 
by  merchants  and  trading  vessels.  Armenia 
is  recovered  from  tho  Parthians  by  the 
Romans  under  Corbulo.  The  death  of  Bur- 
rus (62)  and  retirement  of  Seneca.  Nero 
marries  Poppaea ;  his  former  wife,  the  vir- 
tuous Octavia,  is  banished  to  Pandataria 
and  there  murdered. 

Bk.  XV  (A.D.  62-65).  Ignominious  de- 
feat of  Caesennius  Paetus  in  Armenia, 
followed  by  tho  reduction  of  the  country 
by  a  Roman  army  under  Corbulo  to  a 
dependency  of  the  empire  (63).  Tho  great 
flre  of  Rome  (64)  which  devastated  ten 
out  of  its  fourteen  districts;  the  rebuild- 
ing of  tho  city  on  an  improved  plan.  The 
persecution  of  the  Christians,  to  whom 
Nero  attributes  the  flre.  The  conspiracy 
of  C.  Calpurnius  PIsS  and  putting  to  death 
of  Seneca  and  Lucan  (65). 

Bk.  XVI  (A.D.  65-66).  The  extrava- 
gances of  Nero,  who  appears  in  public  as 




a  singer.  The  death  of  Poppaea  (65). 
The  suicide  of  the  Stoic  Thrasca  and  the 
banishment  of  his  son-in-law,  Helvidius 
(66).  In  one  of  tho  last  surviving  chapters 
of  the  book  (10)  Tacitus  laments  the 
melancholy  and  monotony  of  the  record 
of  bloodshed.  The  portion  of  tho  'Annals' 
relating  to  tho  last  two  years  of  Nero's 
reign  is  lost. 

Anno'na,  at  Homo,  tho  corn  supply, 
always  a  source  of  solicitude  to  the 
authorities  owing  to  tho  fluctuation  of 
prices  and  the  danger  of  famine  from  the 
failure  of  crops  and  the  uncertainty  of 
communications.  From  the  5th  o.  B.C.  the 
government  appears  to  have  occupied  it- 
self with  procuring  supplies  of  wheat  from 
overseas  and  selling  it  to  tho  people,  the 
aediles  of  tho  plebs  being  charged  with 
this  duty.  Tho  details  of  tho  legislation 
on  the  subject  at  various  later  dates  are 
still  a  vexed  question,  and  tho  following 
statements  only  indicate  the  more  recent 
views  on  the  subject.  O.  Gracchus  caused 
a  certain  quantity  of  corn  to  be  sold  at  a 
moderate  price,  probably  to  each  adult 
citizen  who  applied  for  it;  the  price 
appears  to  have  been  6J  asses  per  modius 
(nearly  two  gallons),  but  what  relation 
this  bore  to  the  open-market  price  we  do 
not  know.  This  special  price  may  have 
been  reduced  by  the  law  of  Saturninus 
(q.v.)  of  100  B.C.  Sulla  seems  to  have 
abolished  corn  distributions,  but  immedi- 
ately after  his  death  Lepidus  reintroduced 
them,  at  tho  rate  of  five  modii  a  month 
gratis.  By  the  lex  Terentia  Cassia  of  73  B.C. 
corn  was  supplied  to  a  restricted  number — 
40,000 — gratis.  In  63  B.C.  the  Gracchan 
law  was  revised  and  some  charge  was 
again  made.  Clodius  (q.v.)  in  58  B.C.  gave 
corn  free  of  charge  to  the  proletariat. 
Julius  Caesar  appointed  two  Aedilcs 
Cerialcs  specially  to  look  after  the  dis- 
tribution; tho  recipients,  greatly  reduced 
in  number,  were  entered  on  a  register. 
Between  A.D.  (>  and  14  Augustus  ap- 
pointed a  ipracfectus  annonae  who  regula- 
ted the  price  and  distribution.  He  had 
In  22  B.C.  taken  over  tho  cilra  annonae, 
and  from  that  date  it  was  under  imperial 
control.  The  expense,  which  was  con- 
siderable, had  hitherto  been  met  by  the 
aerarium  or  State  treasury.  It  was  now 
met  by  tho  imperial  revenues,  but  the 
aerarium  may  also  have  contributed.  The 
harbour  built  at  Ostia  by  Claudius  was  to 
enable  tho  corn  ships  to  have  direct  com- 
munication with  Rome  instead  of  unload- 
ing at  Puteoli,  whence  tho  corn  had  to  be 
conveyed  overland  a  distance  of  138  miles. 
Further  harbour  improvements  were  car- 
ried out  by  Trajan. 

Antae'us  (Antaios),  son  of  Poseidon  and 
Ge  (qq.v.),  a  giant  with  whom  Heracles 
(q.v.)  wrestled.  Whenever  ho  was  thrown, 
he  arose  stronger  than  before  from  contact 
with  his  mother  Earth.  Heracles,  per- 
ceiving this,  lifted  him  in  tho  air  and 
crushed  him  to  death. 
Antei'a,  see  Betterophon. 

Ante'nor,  one  of  the  elders  of  Troy  during 
tho  siege.  He  was  in  favour  of  restoring 
Helen  to  tho  Greeks,  since  sho  had  been 
taken  by  treachery.  It  was  said  that  tho 
Greeks,  recognizing  his  fairness,  spared 
him  and  his  family  when  the  city  was 
captured.  Later  legend  made  him  out  a 
traitor  to  the  Trojans. 

Antheste'ria,  see  Festivals,  §  4. 

§  1,  Greek  Anthologies 

The  ancient  Greek  anthologies  were  col- 
lections of  Greek  *  Epigrams  *,  i.e.  short  ele- 
giac poems,  of  from  one  to  four  distichs 
on  various  subjects  and  by  various  au- 
thors. Mcleager  of  Gadara  (1st  c,  B.C.) com- 
piled such  an  anthology  from  tho  works 
of  forty-six  poets.  It  is  now  lost,  but 
served,  with  other  similar  compilations, 
as  the  basis  of  tho  famous  collection 
of  Coiistantinus  Cephalas  (c.  A.D.  917). 
This  is  known  as  the  Palatine  Anthology, 
because  it  was  discovered  (by  the  great 
French  scholar  Salmasius  at  the  age  of  19) 
in  the  Palatine  Library  of  Heidelberg 
in  the  17th  c.  It  includes  poems  by  320 
authors.  Tho  Antholorjia  Planudea  was 
made  by  the  monk  Maximus  Planudcs 
in  the  14th  c. ;  it  was  an  abridgement  (with 
a  few  additions)  of  the  anthology  of 
Cephalas.  The  modern '  Greek  Anthology ' 
is  composed  of  tho  '  Palatine  Anthology', 
with  the  additional  poems  supplied  by 
that  of  Planudes,  and  further  epigrams 
found  in  other  Greek  authors  or  in  in- 
scriptions. It  contains  over  six  thousand 
epigrams,  many  of  them  poems  of  great 
charm,  ranging  in  time  over  seventeen 
centuries,  from  the  7th  c.  B.C.  to  the  10th 
c.  A.D.,  and  over  a  great  variety  of  sub- 
jects. There  are  epitaphs  (including  the 
famous  epitaphs  attributed  to  Simonides), 
dedications,  reflections  on  life  and  death 
and  fate,  poems  on  love,  on  family  life, 
on  great  poets  and  artists  and  their  works, 
and  on  the  beauties  of  nature.  A  certain 
proportion  are  humorous  or  satirical, 
making  fun  of  doctors,  rhetoricians,  ath- 
letes, &c.,  or  of  personal  peculiarities,  such 
as  Nicon's  long  nose. 

The  dedicatory  poems  form  perhaps  the 
group  that  throws  most  light  on  ancient 
Greek  life :  there  are  dedications  not  only 
of  arms,  but  of  many  kinds  of  implements 




of  daily  use.  A  maiden  about  to  wed 
offers  up  her  dolls  and  toys,  a  traveller 
his  old  hat,  'a  small  gift,  but  given  in 

§  2.  The  Anthologia  Latina 

The  Anthologia  Latina  is  a  collection 
of  some  380  short  Latin  poems,  most  of 
them  of  very  late  date,  compiled  in  the 
Vandal  kingdom  of  Africa  in  the  first  half 
of  the  6th  c.  A.D.   It  includes  the  'Pervi- 
gilium  Veneris*  (q.v.)  and  some  poems  by 
Seneca  the  Philosopher. 
Anticle'a  (Antikleia),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, the  wife  of  Laertes  and  mother  of 
Odysseus  (q.v.). 
Anticlimax,  see  Climax. 
Anti'dosis.    A   wealthy    Athenian   was 
required  to  undertake  certain  public  ser- 
vices (see  Liturgy).  To  avoid  one  of  these, 
he  might   challenge  some  other  citizen, 
whose  means  he  thought  greater  than  his 
own,  either  to  undertake  the  service  or 
to  make  an  exchange  (antidosis)  of  pro- 
perties. This  might  lead  to  a  lawsuit,  if 
the  other  citizen  refused. 
Antidosis,  On  the,  see  Isocrates. 
Anti'gone  (Antigone),  see  Oedipus. 
Antigone,  a  tragedy  by   Sophocles,   of 
unknown  date,  probably  an  early  work. 

Creon,  ruler  of  Thebes,  has  forbidden  on 
pain  of  death  the  burial  of  the  body  of 
Polynices  (see  Oedipus).  Antigone  resolves 
to  defy  the  outrageous  edict  and  perform 
the  funeral  rites  for  her  brother.  She  is 
caught  doing  this  and  brought  before  the 
infuriated  king.  She  justifies  her  act  as 
In  accordance  with  the  overriding  laws 
of  the  gods.  Creon,  unrelenting,  condemns 
her  to  be  immured  alive  in  a  cave.  Her 
sister,  Ismene,  who  has  refused  to  share  in 
her  defiant  act,  now  claims  a  share  hi  her 
guilt  and  in  her  penalty,  but  is  treated  by 
Creon  as  demented.  Haemon,  Creon 's  son, 
betrothed  to  Antigone,  pleads  in  vain  with 
Creon.  He  goes  out,  warning  his  father 
that  he  will  die  with  her.  The  seer  Tiresias 
threatens  Creon  with  the  fearful  conse- 
quences of  his  defiance  of  the  divine  laws. 
Creon,  at  last  moved,  sets  out  hurriedly 
for  the  cave  where  Antigone  has  been 
immured.  He  finds  Haemon  clasping  her 
dead  body,  for  Antigone  has  hanged  her- 
self. Haemon  thrusts  at  Creon  with  his 
sword,  but  misses  him,  and  then  kills 
himself.  Creon  returns  to  the  palace,  to 
find  that  Eurydice,  his  wife,  in  despair  has 
taken  her  own  life. 

Anti'gonus  and  Anti'gonids,  see  Ma- 
cedonia, §§  2  and  3. 

Anti'machus  (Antimachos)  of  Colophon, 
see  Epic,  §  1.  He  also  wrote  short  love 

poems  in  elegiacs,  collected  under  the  title 
Lyde,  which  were  to  some  extent  the 
forerunners  of  poems  of  the  Alexandrian 

Anti'nous  (Gk.  Antinoos),  (1)  in  the 
'Odyssey'  (q.v.),  the  most  arrogant  of 
the  wooers  of  Penelope.  He  is  the  first  of 
these  that  Odysseus  kills.  (2)  A  Bithynian 
youth  of  great  beauty  and  a  favourite 
of  the  emperor  Hadrian.  He  drowned 
himself  in  the  Nile  in  A.D.  130.  Hadrian 
founded  the  city  of  Antinoopolis  on  the 
Nile  and  erected  temples  in  his  memory. 
Antinous  was  frequently  represented  in 
sculpture,  and  some  of  these  representa- 
tions survive. 

A'ntioch  (Antiocheia),  on  the  Orontes, 
the  capital  of  Syria,  founded  by  Seleucus  I 
(see  Seleucids)  about  300  B.C.,  and  named 
after  his  father.  Antiochus  the  Great 
(223-187  B.C.)  adorned  it  with  works  of 
art,  a  theatre,  and  a  library.  It  was  a 
trade  centre  and  a  pleasure  city,  never  a 
centre  of  learning,  though  Aratus  of  Soli 
lived  for  a  time  at  the  court  of  Antiochus  I, 
and  Euphorion  was  appointed  librarian 
of  the  public  library.  Antiochus  IV  Epi- 
phanes,  an  ardent  Hellenist,  made  Antioch 
for  a  time  a  centre  of  Greek  art.  Many 
other  cities,  besides  the  capital,  founded 
by  the  Seleucids  bore  the  name  Antioch. 

Anti'ochus  (Anttochos),  (1)  the  name  of 
several  of  the  Scleucid  kings  of  Asia;  see 
Scleucids.  (2)  of  Ascalon,  see  Academy, 
ad  fin. 

Anti'ope  (Antiope)  (1)  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, daughter  of  Nycteus,  son  of 
Chthonios,  one  of  the  Spartoi  (see  Cad- 
mus) of  Thebes.  Antiope  was  loved  by 
Zeus  and  became  the  mother  of  the  twin 
brothers,  Amphion  and  Zethus.  To  avoid 
her  father's  anger  she  fled  to  Sicyon. 
Nycteus  in  despair  killed  himself,  but 
first  charged  his  brother,  Lycus,  who  was 
king  of  Thebes  during  the  minority  of 
Lai'us  (q.v.),  to  punish  Antiope.  Lycus 
captured  Sicyon  and  imprisoned  Antiope ; 
her  treatment  was  made  more  cruel  by 
the  jealousy  of  Dirce,  the  wife  of  Lycus. 
At  last  Antiopo  escaped  and  joined  her 
sons,  now  grown  to  maturity.  These 
revenged  her  by  tying  Dirce  to  the  horns 
of  a  bull,  so  that  she  was  dragged  to 
death ;  and  they  killed  or  deposed  Lycus. 
Amphion  and  Zethus  now  became  rulers 
of  Thebes  and  built  its  walls.  Amphion 
was  a  harper  of  such  skill  that  the  stones 
were  drawn  into  their  places  by  his  music. 
He  married  Niobe  (q.v.).  Zethus  married 
the  nymph  Thebe,  whence  was  derived 
the  name  of  Thebes. 
(2)  See  Hippolyte. 




Anti'pater  (Antipatros),  a  Macedonian 
general,  left  by  Alexander  the  Great 
(q.v.)  as  regent  of  Macedonia  during  his 
eastern  campaigns.  See  under  Macedonia, 
§  2,  and  also  Athens,  §  7. 

Anti'pater  (Antipatros)  of  Sidon  (fl.  c. 
100  B.C.),  a  Greek  writer  of  elegiac  poetry, 
some  of  which  is  preserved  in  the  Palatine 
Anthology  (q.v.). 

Anti'phanes,  see  Comedy,  §  4. 

A'ntiphon  (c.  480-411),  the  first  of  the 
Attic  orators  whoso  speeches  in  part  sur- 
vive, a  representative  of  the  older  and 
more  austere  form  of  pleading.  He  was 
the  first  professional  writer  of  speeches  to 
be  spoken  by  the  actual  litigants  (logo- 
graphos,  in  the  second  sense  of  the  word, 
q.v.).  Ho  was  also  a  teacher  of  rhetoric, 
and  Thucydides  is  said  to  have  been  his 
pupil.  Though  living  in  obscurity,  he  was 
the  soul  of  the  oligarchic  conspiracy  which 
in  411  established  the  rule  of  the  Four 
Hundred  (see  Athens,  §5).  When  these 
were  overthrown,  Antiphon  was  tried, 
found  guilty  of  treason,  and  put  to  death, 
in  spite  of  a  plea  for  his  life  which  Thucy- 
dides declares  unequalled  down  to  his 
time.  Antiphon  is  said  to  have  been  un- 
popular owing  to  '  a  repute  for  cleverness'. 
He  excelled  as  a  pleader  in  cases  of 
homicide,  and  his  dignified  style  was 
better  suited  to  the  Areopagus  than  to 
the  Ecclesia.  Wo  have  three  of  his 
speeches  for  murder  trials,  and  also  throe 
Tetralogies,  exercises  in  which  the  author 
gives  two  speeches  for  the  accuser  and 
two  for  tho  defendant  in  imaginary  cases 
of  homicide ;  one,  for  instance,  where  a  boy 
practising  with  the  javelin  kills  another 
boy  who  runs  between  htm  and  the  target. 

Antiquitd'tZs  RSrum  Humtfna'rum  ct 
Dfvfwa'rum,  see  Varro  (M.  T.). 
Anti'sthenes,  see  Cynic. 
Anti'stius  La'beo,  MARCUS,  see  Labco. 
Antithesis    ('placing    opposite*),    such 
choice  or  arrangement  of  words  as  em- 
phasizes a  contrast;  e.g.    'Dominetur  in 
contionibus,  jaccat  in  judiciis*  (Cic.,  Pro 
Cluent.   2,  5). 

Antdni'nus  Pius  (Titus  Aurclius  Fulvus 
Boionius  Arrius  Antoninus,  after  adop- 
tion Titus  Aelius  Hadrianus  Antoninus) 
(A.D.  86-161),  Roman  emperor  A.D.  138- 
161  in  succession  to  Hadrian,  by  whom  he 
had  been  adopted  as  heir.  Ho  belonged 
to  a  Roman  family  which  had  settled  in 
Gaul ;  his  father  had  been  consul  suffectus. 
Antoninus  maintained  good  relations  with 
the  Senate  and  his  reign  was  peaceful  and 
orderly,  without  striking  incident.  He 
was  diligent,  tolerant,  frugal,  'a  good 

Italian  bourgeois  of  the  senatorial  class, 
who  had  no  intellectual  tendencies,  but 
a  sound  common  sense,  and  a  gift  of 
humour*  (Rostovtzeff).  Ho  was  father  of 
Faustina  (q.v.).  It  was  in  his  reign  (in 
142)  that  the  wall  of  turf  known  as  the 
Wall  of  Antoninus  was  built  by  his  lieuten- 
ant Lollius  Urbicus  between  the  Forth  and 
tho  Clyde  (see  Britain,  §  2). 
AntS'nius,  MARCUS,  (1)  (143-87  B.C.),  one 
of  tho  greatest  orators  of  his  day,  consul 
in  99,  a  member  of  the  party  of  Sulla,  and 
put  to  death  by  the  Marians.  Ho  was 
grandfather  of  Antony  the  triumvir.  He 
is  one  of  the  chief  interlocutors  in  Cicero's 
'De  Oratore*  (q.v.).  (2)  See  Antony. 

Antonoma'sia,  a  rhetorical  figure,  in 
which  a  descriptive  term  or  phrase  is  sub- 
stituted for  a  proper  name,  e.g.  'Tydidcs' 
for  Diomcdes,  or  'Divum  pater'  for 
Jupiter.  Cf.  Metonymy. 
Antony,  MARK  (Marcus  Antdnius)  (c.  82- 
30  B.C.),  grandson  of  M.  Antonius  (q.v.) 
the  orator.  After  serving  under  Gabinius 
in  the  East  and  under  Caesar  in  Gaul,  ho 
was  one  of  tho  tribunes  in  49,  when  ho 
supported  Caesar's  cause,  joined  him 
before  tho  crossing  of  the  Rubicon,  and 
held  a  command  in  the  ensuing  campaigns 
in  Italy  and  Epirus.  After  Pharsalus  (48) 
he  remained  in  Italy  as  Caesar's  Master  of 
tho  Horse  and  held  tho  chief  power  there 
during  tho  lawless  period  of  Caesar's 
absence.  He  was  consul  at  tho  time  of 
Caesar's  Assassination  and  his  eloquence 
won  over  the  populace  to  his  side  and 
made  him  ruler  of  Rome.  Civil  war  broke 
out.  It  was  at  this  time  that  Cicero  de- 
livered his  'Philippics'  against  Antony, 
and  powerfully  contributed  to  raise  the 
republican  opposition  to  him.  Antony 
was  defeated  at  the  battle  of  Mutina  (43). 
Octavian  had  attached  himself  to  the 
republican  party,  but  after  Mutina  the 
differences  between  him  and  Antony  were 
composed,  and  Octavian,  Antony,  and 
Lcpidus  formed  the  Triumvirate.  Pro- 
scriptions followed,  in  which  Cicero  and 
his  brother  were  sacrificed  to  Antony's 
desire  for  vengeance.  After  Philippi  (42), 
where  Antony  shared  the  command  with 
Octavian,  a  division  of  tho  Roman  world 
was  made,  hi  which  tho  East  was  assigned 
to  Antony.  But  hostilities  soon  broke  out 
between  him  and  Octavian,  temporarily 
composed  by  the  treaty  of  Brundisium  in 
40,  and  tho  marriage  of  Antony  with 
Octavian's  sister  Octavia  (Antony's  first 
wife  Fulvia,  q.v.,  had  died  in  40).  Antony 
now  fell  under  the  influence  of  Cleopatra 
(q.v.),  queen  of  Egypt,  whom  he  had  met 
when  he  visited  Cilicia  in  41.  Both  stood 
to  profit  by  close  alliance ;  Antony  would 


have  at  his  disposal  the  resources  of  Egypt 
to  further  his  scheme  of  obtaining  com- 
plete power  over  the  East;  Cleopatra 
would  be  confirmed  in  her  rule  over 
Egypt,  which  was  none  too  secure.  But 
the  campaign  which  Antony  undertook 
against  the  Parthians  hi  36  was  unsuccess- 
ful. After  subduing  Armenia  in  34  he 
returned  to  Alexandria,  where  he  lived 
like  an  oriental  ruler.  He  made  donations 
of  large  parts  of  the  Eastern  provinces  to 
form  kingdoms  for  Cleopatra,  Caesarion 
(q.v.),  and  his  three  children  by  Cleopatra. 
In  32  he  divorced  Octavia,  and  war  broke 
out  once  more  between  Octavian  on  the 
one  side  and  Antony  and  Cleopatra  on  the 
other,  and  was  decided  by  Octavian's 
victory  at  Actium  (31),  when  Cleopatra's 
sixty  ships  sailed  away,  followed  by 
Antony  himself.  In  30  Octavian  invaded 
Egypt,  and  Antony,  after  defeat,  took 
his  own  life.  Antony's  fatal  entangle- 
ment with  Cleopatra  is  the  subject  of 
Shakespeare's  historical  play  'Antony 
and  Cleopatra*.  (This  play  is  based  on 
Plutarch's  life  of  Antony,  which  may 
give  a  romantic  and  distorted  view  of  the 

Anu'bis,  in  Egyptian  religion,  the  dog- 
headed  god  who  conducted  the  souls  of 
the  dead  to  the  region  of  immortal  life; 
identified  by  the  Greeks  with  Hermes. 

Ao'nia.  The  Aonians  were,  according  to 
legend,  ancient  inhabitants  of  Boeotia, 
whom  Cadmus  (q.v.)  allowed  to  remain 
in  the  country  along  with  the  immigrant 
Phoenicians.  Aonia  is  sometimes  used  by 
learned  poets  for  Boeotia,  and  Aonian 
for  Boeotian  (a  name  which  carried  with 
it  a  shade  of  contempt). 

Apatu'ria  (Apatouria),  see  Phratriai. 

Ape'lla  (Apelld),  the  assembly  of  the 
people  at  Sparta  (q.v.,  §  2). 

Ape'lles,  the  greatest  painter  of  anti- 
quity, born  at  Colophon  in  Ionia  in  the 
first  half  of  the  4th  c.  B.C.  He  studied 
under  the  Ephesian  painter  Ephorus 
and  the  Sicyonian  Pamphilus,  and  later 
worked  at  Corinth,  Athens,  and  at  the 
Macedonian  court.  The  distinctive  quality 
of  his  work  was  grace  and  charm,  coupled 
with  ease  of  execution.  He  painted  mainly 
portraits,  but  his  most  famous  picture  was 
that  of  Aphrodite  Anadyomene,  wringing 
from  her  hair  the  water  of  the  sea  from 
which  she  has  just  risen.  This  picture 
Augustus  acquired  for  100  talents.  Apelles 
was  the  favourite  painter  of  Alexander  the 
Great,  of  whom  he  painted  several  por- 
traits, generally  in  some  allegorical  situa- 
tion, e.g.  wielding  a  thunderbolt,  or  riding 
in  triumph,  with  War  a  captive  behind 

33  Apicius 

him.  See  Painting.  To  Apelles  is  attri- 
buted by  Pliny  a  saying  which  has  become 
proverbial.  A  cobbler  had  criticized  the 
drawing  of  a  sandal  in  a  picture  by 
Apelles;  Apelles  altered  the  sandal  as 
desired.  Next  day  the  cobbler  went 
further  and  criticized  the  drawing  of  the 
leg.  To  this  Apelles  replied,  'no  sutor 
supra  crepidam*,  the  origin  of  our  'a 
cobbler  should  stick  to  his  last*. 

Apellcs  figures  in  Lyly's  '  Alexander  and 
Campaspe'  (1584). 

Aphai'a,  see  Britomartis. 

A'phobus  (Aphobos),  Against,  speeches 
by  Demosthenes  against  his  fraudulent 
guardian.  See*  Demosthenes  (2),  §  2. 

Aphrodi'te,  the  Greek  goddess  of  love, 
identified  by  the  Romans  with  Venus 
(q.v.).  Homer  makes  her  the  daughter  of 
Zeus  and  Diono  (q.v.).  According  to 
Hesiod  she  sprang  from  the  foam  (aphros) 
of  the  sea  that  gathered  about  the  severed 
member  of  Uranus  when  Cronos  (q.v.) 
mutilated  him.  Her  name  Cypris  (the 
Cyprian,  see  Cyprus)  and  many  of  her 
attributes  indicate  her  partially  oriental 
origin  and  her  kinship  to  the  Asian  god- 
dess Astarto.  This  is  borne  out  by  the 
legend  that  she  first  landed  either  at 
Paphos  in  Cyprus  or  at  Cythera  (an  island 
off  the  Laconian  coast),  whence  her 
title  'Cytherean*.  She  was  the  wife 
of  Hephaestus  (q.v.),  but  was  unfaithful 
to  him;  her  amorous  intrigue  with  Ares 
(q.v.)  was  discovered,  and  the  pair  were 
caught  in  a  net  by  Hephaestus  and  ex- 
posed to  the  ridicule  of  the  assembled 
gods.  In  later  literature  she  is  the  mother 
of  Eros  (q.v.).  For  other  legends  about 
her  see  Adonis,  Anchises,  Paris  (Judgement 
of).  She  was  worshipped  in  Greece  both 
as  Aphrodite  Crania,  'goddess  of  the 
sky',  and  as  Aphrodite  Pandemos,  'god- 
dess of  all  the  people*  (a  goddess  of 
marriage  and  family  life).  Later  the  dis- 
tinction acquired  a  new  meaning:  Aph- 
rodite Urania  became  the  goddess  of 
higher,  purer  love ;  Aphrodite  Pandemos 
the  goddess  of  sensual  lust.  Aphrodite  had 
a  famous  sanctuary  on  Mt.  Eryx  on  the 
NW.  coast  of  Sicily.  This  the  Romans  espe- 
cially honoured,  because  Aphrodite,  as  the 
mother  of  Aeneas  (see  Anchises),  passed 
for  their  ancestress.  The  title  of  Venus 
Erycma,  who  had  a  temple  at  Rome  out- 
side the  Colline  Gate,  was  derived  from  the 
sanctuary  on  Mt.  Eryx. 

Api'cius,  QUINTUS  (?)  GJLvius,  a  gourmet 
of  the  reign  of  Tiberius.  His  culinary 
receipts  were  written  down;  but  the 
work  on  cookery  which  bears  the  name 
of  Caelius  Apicius  is  thought  to  be  a 



Apollonius  Dyscolus 

compilation  of  a  much  later  date.  It  is 
sometimes  entitled  *  Do  opsSniis  et  condl- 
mentis  sive  de  re  culmaria  libri  decom'. 
Perhaps  the  name  Apicius  was  added  to 
ensure  a  ready  sale. 

Apocolocynto'sis,  a  work  bearing  in  the 
MSS.  the  title  Ludus  de  Morte  Claudii, 
ascribed  traditionally  to  Seneca  the  Philo- 
sopher, who  according  to  Dio  Cassius 
wroto  an  apocolocyntosis  or  'pumpkini- 
fication*  (a  parody  of  'Apotheosis')  of 
Claudius  after  his  death.  It  is  a  tasteless 
if  amusing  lampoon,  in  the  form  of  a 
Menippean  satire  (a  medley  of  verso  and 
prose),  on  the  recently  deceased  emperor 
Claudius,  describing  the  proceedings  in 
heaven  on  his  death;  his  arrival  there, 
the  difficulty  of  ascertaining  who  ho  is 
owing  to  his  inarticulate  speech,  the 
debate  whether  he  shall  be  made  a  god, 
and  Augustus's  motion  that  ho  shall 
bo  deported  from  heaven  for  the  murders 
he  has  committed.  Claudius  is  haled  off 
to  the  lower  regions,  where  ho  meets  his 
victims,  and  is  brought  before  Aeacus  for 
trial.  Aeacus  (following  Claudius's  own 
system)  hears  the  case  against  him,  but 
refuses  to  hear  the  other  side,  and  sen- 
tences him.  Claudius  is  finally  made  law- 
clerk  to  one  of  his  own  freodmen. 

Apollina'ris  Sido'nius,  see  Sidonius. 
Apo'115  (Gk.  Apollon). 

%  I.  In  Greek  Mythology 

Apollo  was  the  son  of  Zeus  and  Loto 
(q.v.),  and  brother  of  Artemis;  the  god 
of  medicine,  music  (especially  the  lyre), 
archery*  and  prophecy;  the  god  also  of 
light  (whence  his  epithet  Phoebus,  'the 
bright')  and  youth;  sometimes  identified 
with  the  sun.  He  was  also  associated  with 
the  care  of  flocks  and  herds,  whence  the 
epithet  nomios  ('of  the  pastures').  The 
sense  of  the  frequent  title  Lyceius  (lukeios) 
is  disputed ;  it  may  mean  Lycian,  or  have 
some  reference  to  wolves.  Apollo  Smiri' 
theus,  referred  to  in  Horn.  II.  i.  39,  was 
so  called  either  from  the  name  of  a  place 
in  the  Troad  whore  he  was  worshipped, 
or  from  sminihos,  a  mouse,  as  the  '  Mouse- 
killer',  the  god  who  protected  farmers 
against  mice. 

Apollo's  first  feat  was  the  seizure  of 
Delphi  (q.v.)  for  his  abode,  and  the  de- 
struction of  its  guardian,  the  dragon 
Python,  personifying  the  dark  forces  of 
the  underworld;  an  act  which  Apollo 
had  to  expiate  by  exile  and  purification. 
This  myth  was  celebrated  in  pantomime 
at  the  Delphic  festival  of  the  Stcpteria, 
and  explains  his  title '  Pythian '.  For  other 
legends  of  Apollo  see  Admetus,  Aristaeus, 
Aactepius,  Cassandra,  Daphne,  Hyacinthus, 

Marpessa,  Marsyas,  Niobe,  Pan,  Sibyl, 

Apollo,  though  a  younger  Immigrant 
among  the  Greek  gods,  held  a  prominent 
place  among  thorn  and  was  widely  wor- 
shipped. The  chief  centres  of  his  cult  were 
Delphi,  the  island  of  Delos,  and,  for  the 
Greeks  of  Asia,  Didyma  near  Miletus.  Ho 
was  regarded  as  a  type  of  moral  excellence, 
and  his  influence,  as  propagated  from 
Delphi  (see  Delphic  Oracle),  was  a  benefi- 
cent and  elevating  one;  for  it  prescribed 
purification  and  penance  for  the  expiation 
of  crime,  and  discouraged  vengeance  (it 
is,  e.g.,  Apollo  who  defends  Orestes  against 
the  Furies).  The  Homeric  Hymns  to  the 
Delian  and  the  Pythian  Apollo  relate  the 
story  of  his  birth  and  of  the  founding  of  hia 
Pythian  temple.  In  modern  literature  see 
Shelley's  Hymn  of  Apollo.  See  also  Paean. 

§  2.  In  Roman  religion 
Apollo,  or  Phoebus  Apollo,  was  adopted 
among  the  Roman  gods  from  Greek 
sources,  according  to  tradition  by  Servius 
Tullius,  or  at  any  rate  at  a  very  early 
date.  He  was  known  to  the  Etrurians, 
and  the  Romans  had  early  dealings  with 
Delphi.  He  was  first  introduced  as  a  god 
of  healing,  but  soon  became  prominent 
as  a  god  of  oracles  and  prophecy.  In 
Virgil  ho  figures  in  both  these  characters, 
but  especially  as  the  giver  of  oracles ;  the 
Cumaean  Sibyl  was  his  priestess.  In  the 
'Eclogues'  Apollo  appears  also  as  the  patron 
of  poetry  and  music.  The  oldest  temple 
to  him  in  Rome  was  erected  in  432  B.C. 
Games  (Ludi  Apollinares)  were  instituted 
in  his  honour  in  212  B.C.  after  Hannibal's 
capture  of  Tarentum,  and  later  were  made 
annual  on  13  July  in  consequence  of  a 
pestilence.  His  cult  was  further  developed 
by  Augustus,  who  took  him  as  his  special 
patron  and  erected  to  him  a  great  temple 
on  the  Palatine. 

Apollodo'rus  (Apolloddros)  of  Athens  (c. 
140  B.C.)  was  author  of  a  long  treatise  in 
Greek  prose  'On  the  Gods',  and  of  a 
'Chronicle'  (Chronike  Suntaxis),  a  chrono- 
logical work  of  some  importance,  written 
in  iambic  trimeters,  covering  the  period 
from  the  fall  of  Troy.  Only  fragments 
of  these  survive.  The  '  BibliothekS ',  a 
valuable  extant  compilation  of  myths, 
wrongly  attributed  to  him,  dates  prob- 
ably from  the  time  of  the  Roman  Empire. 

ApollS'nius  (Apollonios)  Dy'scolus  (Dus- 
kolos,  'crabbed')  (2nd  c.  A.D.)  was  the 
author  of  Greek  treatises  which  first  placed 
Greek  grammar  on  a  scientific  basis.  He 
lived  in  poverty  at  Alexandria  and  wrote 
numerous  works,  most  of  which  are  lost, 
on  the  parts  of  speech  and  on  syntax.  His 

Apollonlus  of  Tyana 



writings  were  much  used  by  Prlscian 
(q.v.).  He  was  father  of  Aelius  llerodianus 
(q.v.),  who  wrote  on  Greek  accents. 

Apolld'nius  of  Tya'na  in  Cappadocia  (b. 
c.  4  B.C.),  a  wandering  Pythagorean  philo- 
sopher and  mystic  who  attained  so  great 
a  fame  by  his  protended  wonder-working 
powers  that  divine  honours  were  paid  to 
him.  Ho  wrote  a  life  of  Pythagoras  and 
other  works,  of  which  hardly  anything  has 
survived.  His  own  life  waa  written  by 
Philostratus  (q.v.). 

Apollo'nius  of  Tyre,  see  Novel. 

Apoll5'nius  RhS'dius  (Rhddius)  (c.  295- 
215  B.C.),  a  native  of  Alexandria  who  spent 
part  of  his  life  at  Khodcs,  is  said  by  Suidas 
to  havo  succeeded  Eratosthenes  as  head 
of  the  Alexandrian  Library ;  but  this  pre- 
sents chronological  difficulties.  Ho  wrote 
'  Argonautica*  in  four  books,  a  Greek  epio 
on  tho  story  of  Jason  and  tho  Argo- 
nauts, which  survives.  It  lacks  the  epio 
fire,  but  contains  a  beautiful  descrip- 
tion of  the  love  oi'  Jason  and  Medea 
(imitated  by  Virgil  in  tho  story  of  Dido 
in  tho  4th  Aeneid)  and  some  other  good 
episodes.  Thoso  of  the  loss  of  Hylae  and 
the  fight  of  Pollux  with  Amycus  (q.v.)  were 
rehandled  by  Theocritus  as  short,  separate 
poems.  For  tho  quarrel  between  Apollonius 
and  Callimachus,  see  under  Callimachus. 

Apology  (Apologia)  of  Socrates,  the 
speech  made  by  Socrates,  as  related  by 
Plato,  in  answer  to  the  charge  of  impiety 
that  was  brought  against  him.  How  far 
it  represents  the  words  actually  used  by 
Socrates  is  unknown.  (Plato,  it  appears, 
was  present  at  the  trial.) 

Socrates  distinguishes  between  the  old, 
vague  accusations  (that  he  speculated 
about  physical  questions  and  made  the 
worse  cause  appear  tho  better)  and  the 
specific  charge  of  impiety  now  brought  by 
Meletus,  and,  answering  the  former  first, 
explains  that  he  is  neither  a  sophist  nor  a 
natural  philosopher;  his  only  wisdom  con- 
sists in  knowing  that  he  knows  nothing. 
Instigated  by  an  oracle,  ho  has  sought 
constantly  to  find  a  wiser  man  than  him- 
self, but  has  found  none.  He  has  gone 
to  those  who  had  a  reputation  for  wis- 
dom, and  finding  they  had  none,  he  has 
tried  to  convince  them  of  this,  thereby 
provoking  their  enmity  and  giving  rise 
to  these  vague  charges.  He  next  turns 
to  Meletus  and  cross-examines  him  on  his 
accusations,  using  a  sophistical  form  of 
argument  which  seems  to  us  unsatisfac- 
tory. He  then  addresses  the  judges  and 
declares  himself  unrepentant.  Ho  will 
persist  in  the  practices  complained  of,  for 
he  must  remain  at  his  post  and  continue, 

in  obedience  to  the  divine  voice,  to  preach 
the  necessity  of  virtue.  If  they  kill  him, 
they  will  be  injuring  themselves,  for  he 
is  the  gadfly  sent  by  the  god  to  stir 
Athens  to  life. 

Socrates  is  convicted  and  the  death 
penalty  is  proposed.  His  speech  assumes 
a  more  lofty  tone.  Why  should  ho  propose 
an  alternative  penalty  ?  As  a  benefactor 
of  Athens  ho  ought  to  bo  rewarded.  Im- 
prisonment, exile,  a  fine,  would  bo  certain 
evils,  whereas  of  death  ho  docs  not  know 
whether  it  is  an  evil  or  a  good.  However, 
he  suggests  a  fine  of  thirty  minae,  for 
which  his  friends  will  offer  s'urety,  for  he 
himself  has  no  money.  He  is  sentenced 
to  death.  In  his  final  words  he  prophesies 
that  many  will  arise  after  his  death  to 
condemn  his  judges.  Ho  comforts  his 
friends  with  regard  to  his  own  fate,  for 
death  is  either  a  dreamless  sleep  or  a 
journey  to  a  place  of  true  justice,  where, 
moreover,  ho  will  be  able  to  converse  with 
Hesiod  and  Homer  and  tho  heroes  of  old. 
Nothing  evil  can  happen  to  a  good  man ; 
if  he  is  to  die,  it  is  because  it  is  better  for 
him.  He  forgives  his  accusers  and  judges. 

Apology  (Apologia  Sokratous),  an  account 
by  Xcnophon  of  Socrates'  defence  hi  his 
trial  on  the  charge  of  impiety.  Xcnophon 
at  tho  time  was  taking  part  in  tho  expedi- 
tion of  Cyrus  (see  Anabasis)  and  he  relies 
on  the  authority  of  Hermogencs,  a  friend 
of  Socrates,  mentioned  hi  Plato's '  Phaedo* 
as  present  at  the  execution.  It  is  designed 
to  bring  out  especially  that  Socrates  was 
willing  to  die,  not  for  tho  spiritual  reasons 
given  hi  Plato's  *  Apology',  but  in  order 
to  escape  tho  disabilities  of  old  age.  His 
pleas  are  stated  with  lees  elaboration  than 
by  Plato. 

Aposiope'sis,  a  rhetorical  artifice,  in 
which  tho  speaker  comes  to  a  sudden  halt 
in  the  middle  of  a  sentence,  as  if  unable 
or  unwilling  to  proceed.  The  best-known 
instance  is  Virgil,  Aen.  i.  133-5: 
lam  caelum  torramque  meo  sine  numine, 


Miscere  et  tantas  audctis  tollere  moles  ? 
Quos  ego  — !  Scd  motos  pracstat  compo- 

nere  fluctus. 

Apo'strophS  (Gk.  apostrophS,  'turning- 
away'),  a  rhetorical  figure  by  which  the 
speaker  interrupts  the  thread  of  his  dis- 
coUrse  to  address  pointedly  some  person 
present,  or  supposed  to  be  present ;  e.g. 
[Extulit]  haeo  Decios,  Marios,  magnosque 

Scipiadas    duros    bello,    et    te,   maxime 

Caesar.          (Virg.  Georg.  ii.  169-70) 

A'ppian  (Appidnos)  of  Alexandria  (fl. 
c.  A.D.  160),  who  practised  as  a  lawyer  ha 

Appius  Claudius 



Home,  was  a  compiler  of  narratives  in 
Greek  of  the  various  Roman  wars  from 
the  earliest  times  to  the  accession  of  Ves- 
pasian, in  24  books.  Of  these,  10  books 
and  portions  of  others  survive,  including 
those  dealing  with  the  Punic  Wars  and 
the  Civil  Wars  (from  Marius  and  Sulla  to 
34  B.C.). 

A'ppius  Clau'dius,  consul  in  451  B.C. 
and  one  of  the  decemvirs  appointed  at 
Rome  in  that  year  to  draw  up  a  code  of 
laws.  The  decemvirs,  led  by  Appius 
Claudius,  appear,  when  reappointod  for 
a  second  year,  to  have  become  oppressive. 
The  attempted  outrage  by  Appius  on 
Virginia  (q.v.)  is  said  to  have  led  to  their 
overthrow  (Livy  iii.  c.  33). 

A'ppius  Clau'dius  Cae'cus,  a  famous 
Roman  censor  (312-308  B.C.),  a  man  of 
original  and  broad  views,  proud  and 
obstinate,  who  endeavoured  to  renovate 
the  governing  class  by  admitting  rich 
plebeians  and  oven  freodmen  to  the 
Senate.  As  censor,  while  war  with  the 
Samnites  was  in  progress,  he  built  the  first 
of  the  great  Roman  roads,  the  Via  Appia ; 
also  the  first  of  the  aqueducts  bringing 
water  to  Rome.  In  his  old  age,  when 
blind,  he  resolutely  opposed  the  proposals 
of  Pyrrhus  (q.v.)  for  peace  (280  B.C.). 
He  composed  aphorisms  in  Saturnian 
{q.v.)  verno,  of  which  a  few  have  been 
preserved.  Cicero  says  that  he  was  a 
notable  orator,  and  that  even  in  his  day 
some  of  Appius's  funeral  orations  were 

Apule'ius  (J[puleius ;  the  quantity  of  the 
second  syllable  appears  to  bo  doubtful), 
LOCTU8  (fl.  c.  A.D.  155),  was  born  at 
Madaura,  on  the  borders  of  Nuinidia 
and  Gaetulia.  On  a  journey  to  Alexan- 
dria, when  a  young  man,  he  fell  ill,  was 
nursed  by  a  rich  widow  named  Aemilia 
Pudentilla,  and  married  her.  Iler  rela- 
tives brought  an  action  against  him  on 
the  charge  of  having  won  her  by  the 
use  of  magic.  His  'Apologia'  or  speech 
for  the  defence  survives.  From  this  wo 
learn  that  he  had  inherited  a  considerable 
fortune  but  had  wasted  it,  that  ho  was 
deeply  interested  in  natural  science,  and 
that  the  accusation  of  magic  was  founded 
on  trivial  grounds.  That  Apuleius  was  in 
fact  much  interested  in  magic  appears 
from  many  passages  of  his  'Metamor- 
phoses' (see  below).  He  subsequently 
settled  at  Carthago  and  travelled  among 
the  African  towns,  lecturing  in  Latin  on 
philosophy.  We  possess  a  collection  made 
by  himself  of  purple  passages  from  these 
lectures,  under  the  name  'Florida';  also 
a  treatise  on  the  philosophy  of  Plato  ('  Do 
Platone  et  ejus  dogmate')  and  one  on  the 

Platonic  doctrine  of  God  and  the  daemons 
('De  Deo  Socratis');  a  free  translation 
('De  Mundo')  of  the  Uepl  Koopov  at- 
tributed falsely  to  Aristotle ;  and  a  certain 
number  of  verses.  His  philosophical  writ- 
ings show  a  bent  to  religious  mysticism. 

But  the  work  for  which  lie  is  famous  is 
his  'Metamorphoses'  or  'Golden  Ass',  a 
Latin  romance  in  eleven  books.  The  plot 
was  based  on  an  extant  Greek  work, 
AOVKIOS  TI  ovos  doubtfully  attributed  to 
Lucian,  or  an  earlier  lost  work  which  was 
the  common  basis  of  both.  This  original 
was  remodelled  by  Apuleius  and  enlarged 
by  many  incidental  talcs. 

The  romance  takes  the  form  of  a  narra- 
tive by  one  Lucius,  a  Greek,  of  his  adven- 
tures, beginning  with  a  visit  to  Thessaly, 
the  reputed  home  of  sorceries  and  enchant- 
ments. There,  while  staying  at  the  house 
of  one  Milo,  ho  sees  the  wife  of  his  host, 
a  sorceress,  turn  herself  by  means  of  an 
ointment  into  an  owl,  and,  desirous  of 
imitating  her,  induces  the  maid  to  procure 
him  the  ointment.  But  the  maid  gives 
him  the  wrong  ointment,  a,nd  Lucius  is 
turned  by  it  into  an  ass,  falls  into  the 
hands  of  robbers,  and  becomes  an  un- 
willing and  much  beaten  partaker  in  their 
exploits.  Some  of  the  robber  stories  are 
excellent,  as  that  of  the  robber  chief 
Lamachus,  who,  thrusting  his  hand 
through  a  hole  in  the  door  of  a  house 
ho  is  going  to  rob,  has  it  seized  and  nailed 
to  the  doorpost  by  the  house -owner,  so 
that  his  companions  have  to  cut  off  his 
arm  to  secure  hie  escape ;  and  the  romantic 
tale  of  the  young  man  Tlcpolcmus,  who, 
pretending  to  be  the  renowned  thief 
Haemus  the  Thracian,  gets  himself  made 
captain  of  the  robber  band  in  order  to 
rescue  his  betrothed,  whom  the  bandits 
have  carried  off.  But  the  most  beautiful 
and  famous  of  the  talcs  recounted  is  the 
fairy  etory  of  Cupid  and  Psycho  (see 
Psyche).  After  many  vicissitudes,  in  the 
course  of  which  ho  serves  one  of  the 
strange  bands  of  wandering  priests  of 
Cybelo,  and  becomes  a  famous  performing 
ass,  Lucius  is  transformed  back  into 
human  shape  by  the  favour  of  the  goddess 
Isis,  and  appears  to  become  Apuleius 
the  author  himself.  The  last  portion  of 
the  work  refers  to  his  initiation  into  the 
mysteries  of  Isis  and  Osiris  and  bears 
witness  to  his  interest  in  oriental  religions, 
at  this  time  the  object  of  popular  favour. 
In  the  whole  story  some  see  an  allegory 
of  human  life  (the  sensual  abasement  of 
the  soul  and  its  recovery),  and  in  the 
fable  of  Cupid  and  Psyche  an  allegory  of 
the  soul  in  relation  to  love.  The  style  of 
Apuleius  is  lively,  picturesque,  and  highly 
polished.  The  many  realistic  details  that 




he  gives  vividly  illuminate  the  popular 
life  of  his  time. 

The  'Golden  Ass*  was  translated  into 
English  m  the  16th  c.  by  W.  Adlington. 
For  translations  of  the  fable  of  Cupid  and 
Psyche,  see  Psyche. 

Aqua'rius,  'the  Water-bearer*,  in  Greek 
Hydrochoos,  one  of  the  sigros  of  the  zodiac, 
variously  thought  by  the  ancients  to  have 
been  Ganymede  transported  to  the  sky, 
or  Deucalion.  The  sun  entered  Aquarius 
in  January  ('Simul  inversum  contristat 
Aquarius  annum',  Hor.  Sat.  I.  i.  36). 

Aqueducts  (Aquae).  The  aqueducts  of 
Rome  were  among  the  most  important  of 
the  State's  public  works.  For  our  know- 
ledge of  their  history  we  are  chiefly  in- 
debted to  Frontinus  (q.v.);  in  a  less  degree 
to  notices  in  other  authors,  to  inscriptions, 
and  to  modern  archaeological  research. 
They  supplied  Rome  with  water,  whoso 
purity  was  praised  by  Galen  (q.v.),  by 
means  of  conduits  in  some  cases  as  much 
as  60  miles  in  length,  hewn  in  the  rock  or 
carried  over  arches.  The  total  supply 
provided  by  the  aqueducts  under  the  early 
empire  cannot  be  stated  with  any  cer- 
tainty, but  it  has  been  deduced  from  the 
figures  of  Frontinus  that  the  system  was 
capable  of  delivering  no  less  than  222  mil- 
lion gallons  in  24  hours  (Ashby,  'The 
Aqueducts  of  Ancient  Rome',  Clarendon 
Press,  1935).  At  the  present  time  a  supply 
of  40  million  gallons  a  day  would  be  con- 
sidered sufficient  for  a  city  of  a  million 

The  first  of  the  aqueducts  was  the 
APPIA,  built  in  312  B.C.,  during  the  Sam- 
nite  Wars,  by  the  censor  Appius  Claudius 
Caecus  (q.v.).  Its  source  is  stated  by 
Frontinus  to  have  been  near  the  Via 
Praenestlna  between  the  seventh  and 
eighth  milestones,  but  it  has  not  been 
identified.  The  conduit  was  almost  en- 
tirely underground,  was  eleven  miles  long, 
and  terminated  near  the  Porta  Trigemina 
(between  the  Aventine  and  the  Tiber). 

Forty  years  later,  in  272-269  B.C.,  the 
ANIO  (or  as  it  was  later  known,  the  ANIO 
VETUS)  was  constructed  by  the  censors 
out  of  the  booty  captured  from  Pyrrhus. 
The  source  was  the  river  Anio  above  Tibur 
(Tivoli),  and  its  conduit  was  43  miles  long, 
almost  entirely  underground.  This  and 
the  Appia  were  low-level  aqueducts. 

A  larger  water-supply  having  become 
necessary,  a  now  aqueduct,  the  MARCIA, 
was  built  in  144-143  B.C.  by  the  praetor, 
Q.  Marcius  Rex.  This  was  a  high-level 
aqueduct.  It  had  its  source  in  springs  in 
the  Anio  valley  and  a  length  of  over 
60  miles,  of  which  some  7  miles  were 
above  ground.  It  crossed  a  valley  by  the 

fine  bridge  of  Ponte  Lupo,  and  for  the 
last  61  miles  of  its  course  to  the  city  was 
carried  on  arches,  the  ruins  of  which  are 
still  visible.  It  entered  the  city  at  the 
Porta  Praenestma  (now  the  Porta  Mag- 
giore)  and  terminated  near  the  Viminal, 
with  branches  thence  in  various  direc- 
tions. In  spite  of  a  warning  in  the 
Sibylline  Books,  Marcius  carried  a  branch 
to  the  Capitol,  probably  by  means  of  a 
siphon.  The  water  of  the  Marcia  was 
exceptionally  cold  and  sparkling.  This 
aqueduct  and  the  Anio  Vetus  each  had 
the  large  capacity,  as  calculated  from  the 
figures  of  Frontinus,  of  some  40  million 
gallons  hi  24  hours. 

Agrippa  (q.v.),  probably  in  40  B.C., 
constructed  the  aqueduct  called  JULIA, 
having  its  source  hi  the  Alban  Hills  near 
the  Via  Latina,  and  a  length  of  15  i  miles, 
6^  of  which  were  on  the  same  arches  as 
the  Marcia.  Agrippa  also,  in  19  B.C.,  built 
the  AQUA  VIRGO,  drawing  on  springs  at  the 
eighth  milestone  of  the  Via  Collatina. 
It  had  a  length  of  12  miles,  mostly  under- 
ground. It  was  called  Virgo,  Frontinus 
states,  because  a  little  girl  pointed  out  the 
springs  to  soldiers  seeking  water.  The 
aqueduct  supplied  the  baths  of  Agrippa 
in  the  Campus  Martius.  Ovid  in  his  exile 
recalls  with  regret  the  view  of  the  green 
Campus  with  the  Aqua  Virgo  (Ex  Pont, 
I.  viii.  33-8). 

Augustus  built  the  ALSIETINA  (also 
called  AUGUSTA)  to  supply  his  Naumachia 
(q.v.)  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Tiber.  Its 
water,  drawn  from  the  Lacus  Alsietinus 
(Lake  Martignano),  20  miles  from  Rome, 
was  unwholesome  and  not  intended  for 
private  consumers.  This  was  the  lowest 
of  the  aqueducts  and  its  course  has  never 
been  determined. 

Gaius  (Caligula)  began  two  further  aque- 
ducts, which  were  completed  by  Claudius, 
the  CLAUDIA  and  the  ANIO  Novus.  The 
former  drew  its  supply  from  springs  near 
the  source  of  the  Marcia,  and  had  a  course 
of  46  miles.  For  a  distance  of  9  miles  it 
was  carried  on  fine  arches,  great  stretches 
of  which  survive.  It  entered  the  city  near 
the  modern  Porta  Ma#giore  (where  there 
is  an  inscription  of  Claudius  recording  its 
construction  and  that  of  the  Anio  Novus) 
and  had  its  distributing  station  close  by. 

The  Anio  Novus  had  its  source  origi- 
nally in  the  Anio  at  Sublaco ;  later,  as  the 
result  of  an  improvement  carried  out  by 
Trajan,  its  water  was  drawn  from  a  lake 
above  Subiaco  formed  by  a  dam  across 
the  Anio  built  by  Nero  near  his  villa.  It 
was  59  miles  long,  being  carried  in  the 
latter  part  of  its  course  on  the  same  arches 
as  the  Claudia,  but  above  it.  These  two 
had  the  highest  level  of  all  the  aqueducts, 




and  their  capacity,  on  the  basis  of  the 
figures  of  Frontinus,  has  been  calculated 
at  over  40  million  gallons  a  day  each. 

Further  aqueducts  were  built  at  Rome 
by  Trajan,  Caracalla,  and  Alexander  Se- 
Yerus.  There  were  also  important  aque- 
ducts in  the  provinces.  The  most  striking 
survival  of  these  is  that  known  as  the 
Pont  du  Gard,  near  Nlmes  in  southern 

The  channel  (specus)  of  a  Roman  aque- 
duct, where  it  ran  underground,  was  tun- 
nelled by  means  of  shafts  (putei)  sunk  at 
short  intervals.  Above  ground  it  was 
built  of  stone  slabs  keyed  together, 
or  of  concrete  faced  in  brick  or  stone, 
and  was  lined  with  fine  cement;  it 
was  roofed  against  rain  and  sun.  The 
normal  arrangement  was  that  the  channels 
terminated  in  main  reservoirs  (castdld), 
whence  the  suppiy  was  carried  in  part 
to  public  fountains  and  public  baths,  in 
part  to  secondary  reservoirs.  From  these 
secondary  reservoirs  water  was  distributed 
in  pipes  to  private  consumers,  who  paid 
a  water  rental. 

Under  the  republic  the  maintenance  of 
the  aqueducts  was  let  out  by  the  censors 
to  contractors  and  supervised  by  the 
censors,  and  when  there  were  no  cen- 
sors, by  the  aediles.  These  magistrates 
also  had  control  of  the  distribution  of 
the  water.  After  the  death  of  Agrippa, 
who  had  personally  looked  after  the 
public  works,  a  new  organization  was 
adopted  (11  B.C.).  A  board  was  appointed 
consisting  of  a  curator  of  consular  rank 
and  two  assistants  of  senatorial  rank, 
to  have  charge  of  the  water  supply. 
These  were  unlikely  to  have  technical 
knowledge.  Under  Claudius  a  procurator 
aquarum  of  equestrian  rank  was  estab- 
lished, who  probably  did  most  of  the  real 
work.  The  post  of  curator  was  one  of 
great  importance  and  authority.  The 
board  had  under  them  a  permanent  staff, 
composed  at  first  of  240  skilled  slaves 
bequeathed  to  Augustus  by  Agrippa,  and 
maintained  by  the  aerarium  or  State 
treasury.  To  these  Claudius  added  a 
further  460  slaves,  at  the  charge  of  the 
flscus  (q.v.).  This  permanent  staff  carried 
out  the  minor  jobs,  important  work  being 
lot  out  to  contractors.  The  aqueducts 
were  in  constant  need  of  repair,  for  leaks, 
especially  in  the  stone-built  channels, 
wore  caused  by  excessive  heat  or  frost. 
The  arches  near  the  city  also  gave  a  great 
deal  of  trouble.  Frontinus,  who  was 
appointed  curator  aquarum  in  A.D.  97, 
brought  to  light  many  abuses  in  con- 
nexion with  the  system,  notably  the 
tapping  of  the  channels  by  unauthorized 
persons  to  secure  a  supply  of  water  for 

their  land.  Pliny  the  Elder  (N.H.  31.  42) 
also  tells  of  the  Roman  aqueducts,  giving 
much  praise  to  the  Marcia  water,  and 
deploring  the  loss  of  the  Marcia  and  Virgo 
to  the  city,  because  private  persons  had 
diverted  the  supplies  to  their  villas  and 
suburban  residences. 
A'quilo,  the  north  wind  (Gk.  Boreas). 

Aqui'nas,  THOMAS,  see  Texts  and  Studies, 


Ara  Ma'xima,  the  altar  of  Hercules  (q.v.) 
at  Rome,  stood  in  the  Forum  Boarium 
(q.v.).  It  was  here  that,  as  related  by 
Virgil  (Aen.  viii.  102  et  seq.),  Aeneas 
found  Evander  sacrificing.  The  spot  was 
connected  with  the  legend  of  Hercules 
and  Cacus  (q.v.).  Tithes  of  booty,  of 
commercial  profits,  &c.,  were  offered  at 
this  altar. 

Ara  Pads,  'Altar  of  Peace',  in  Rome, 
was  dedicated  by  order  of  the  Senate  in 
9  B.C.  in  honour  of  the  peace  restored  by 
Augustus.  It  was  erected  in  the  Campus 
Martius.  The  walls  of  the  small  cpurt 
surrounding  the  altar  were  covered  with 
beautiful  sculptures  in  relief,  of  which 
fragments  survive  in  the  museums  of 
Rome,  Florence,  and  Paris. 

Ara'chne,  in  Greek  mythology,  a  woman 
of  Lydia,  who  challenged  Athene  (q.v.) 
to  a  contest  in  weaving.  She  depicted  in 
her  web  the  amours  of  the  gods,  and 
Athene,  angered  at  her  presumption  and 
choice  of  subject,  tore  the  web  to  pieces 
and  beat  the  weaver.  Arachne  in  despair 
hanged  herself,  but  Athene  turned  her  into 
a  spider. 

Ara'tus  (Ardtos),  (1)  a  Greek  of  Soli  in 
Cilicia  (b.  c.  315  B.C.),  who  came  to 
Athens  and  became  acquainted  with  Cal- 
limachus,  and  subsequently  spent  part  of 
his  life  at  the  court  of  Antigonus  Gonatas, 
king  of  Macedonia,  where  he  wrote  hymns 
for  the  marriage  of  the  king.  Ho  was  the 
author  of  an  extant  poem  entitled '  Phaino- 
mena'  (in  1154  hexameters)  describing 
the  stellar  regions  (the  relative  positions, 
that  Is,  of  the  chief  stars  and  constella- 
tions, their  risings  and  settings,  with 
little  mythological  allusion),  based  on  an 
earlier  astronomical  work  by  Eudoxus. 
The  last  400  lines  of  the  poem,  dealing 
with  signs  of  the  weather,  were  sometimes 
given  the  separate  title  of  'Diosomlai* 
The  poem  was  translated  into  Latin  by 
Cicero  in  his  youth,  and  the  latter  part  of 
it  also  by  Germanicus  and  Avienus  (qq.v.) 
(see  also  Hipparchus  (2)).  Cicero's  trans- 
lation is  thought  to  have  had  consider- 
able influence  on  the  style  of  Lucretius. 
Other  poems,  which  have  not  survived, 
were  ascribed  to  him.  He  has  sometimes 




been  thought  identical  with  the  'Aratus'  ! 
of  Idyll  vii  of  Theocritus ;  but  this  has 
now  been  disproved  by  inscriptions.  (2)  Of 
SIcydn,  see  Achaean  League. 

Arbe'la,  'a  town  in  Assyria ;  near  it  was 
fought  in  331  B.C.  tho  battle  of  Gaugamela 
(sometimes  called  battle  of  Arbela)  in 
which  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.,  §  5) 
finally  overthrew  Darius. 

Arca'dia  (Arkddid),  a  region  in  the  centre 
of  the  Peloponnese,  very  mountainous, 
especially  in  the  north,  where  Cyllene, 
Erimanthus,  and  Aroanius  towered  to 
nearly  8,000  feet.  The  largest  plains  were 
in  the  southern  part,  about  Mantinca  and 
Megalopolis.  Its  inhabitants  claimed  to 
bo  tho  oldest  people  in  Greece  and  resisted 
the  Dorian  invasion  (see  Migrations)  and 
later  Spartan  aggressions;  they  retained 
a  dialect  which  may  have  represented  tho 
original  Achaean  language.  Arcadia  has 
many  associations  with  Greek  mytho- 
logy. According  to  one  account  Zeus  was 
born  there,  on  Mt.  Lycaeus.  Hermes  and 
Pan  were  originally  Arcadian  deities. 
Through  Evander  (q.v.),  said  to  have 
been  an  Arcadian,  Arcadia  is  connected 
with  the  origins  of  Rome.  Lake  Stym- 
phalus  lay  among  the  lofty  mountains 
of  northern  Arcadia,  and  Styx  was  the 
name  of  a  little  river  falling  down  a 
tremendous  cliff  on  Mt.  Aroanius  (tho 
modern  Mt.  Chelmos).  Arcadia  also  con- 
tains the  famous  temple  to  Apollo  at 
Bassae  near  Phigalia,  m  a  lonely  and 
impressive  situation  which  heightens  tho 
effect  of  the  beautiful  ruins.  The  frieze 
of  the  cclla,  representing  the  battle  of  the 
Centaurs  and  the  Lapithae  and  tho  battle 
of  the  Greeks  and  the  Amazons,  dis- 
covered in  1812,  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  Arcadians  derived  their 
name  from  a.  legendary  Areas,  Bon  of 
Zeus  and  Callisto  (q.v.). 

Arce'silas  (Arkesilds)  or  ARCESILA'US 
(Arkesildos),  of  Pitane  in  Asia  Minor,  sec 

Arcesila'us  (Arkesildos),  tho  name  of  four 
of  the  kings  of  Gyrene  (q.v.)  between  the 
end  of  the  7th  c.  and  the  middle  of  tho 
5th  c.  B.C. 

Archela'us  (Archddos),  see  Macedonia, 
§  1. 

Archetype,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §11. 
Archidd'mus,  see  Isocratcs. 

Archi'lochus  (Archilochos),  a  celebrated 
Greek  poet,  probably  of  tho  7th  c.  B.C., 
member  of  a  distinguished  family  of 
Paros,  but  himself  the  son,  it  is  said,  of  a 
slave  woman.  Poverty  drove  him  to 

migrate  to  Thasos,  and  he  was  at  ono 
time  a  mercenary  soldier.  He  fell  hi  love 
with  Neobule,  daughter  of  Lycambes,  but 
her  father  forbade  the  marriage,  and 
Archilochus  avenged  himself  with  such 
biting  satires  that  father  and  daughter, 
according  to  tradition,  hanged  themselves. 
He  is  said  to  have  perished  in  a  battle 
between  Parians  and  Naxians. 

Ho  is  chiefly  famous  for  his  iambic 
poetry  (q.v.),  but  ho  also  wrote  elegies 
and  hymns  and  is  said  to  bo  the  author  of 
various  metrical  inventions.  His  iambic 
poems  show  a  great  variety  of  talent, 
mockery,  enthusiasm,  melancholy,  and  a 
mordant  wit.  Some  of  them  celebrate 
Neobule.  Eustathius  spoke  of  him  as 
'scorpion-tongued*.  Only  fragments  of 
his  work  survive.  See  also  Epode. 

Archime'des  (c.  287-212  B.C.),  born  at 
Syracuse,  one  of  the  greatest  mathema- 
ticians of  antiquity,  an  astronomer,  and  an 
inventor  hi  physics  and  mechanics.  Ho 
probably  studied  at  Alexandria  and  subse- 
quently lived  at  the  court  of  Hicron  II  of 
Syracuse,  where  he  was  killed  at  the  cap- 
ture of  the  city  by  Marcellus,  a  capture 
which  his  devices  had  helped  to  postpone 
for  two  years.  He  left  a  number  of 
treatises  on  statics  and  hydrostatics,  on  the 
circle,  and  on  the  *  Sphere  and  Cylinder*, 
which  are  still  extant.  He  invented  the 
compound  pulley  and  tho  'Screw  of 
Archimedes*,  a  contrivance  for  raising 
irrigation  water  which  may  still  be  seen 
in  use  on  the  canals  of  Egypt.  *Givo  me 
a  place  to  stand,  and  I  will  move  tho  earth ', 
is  a  saying  attributed  to  him.  *  Eureka* 
('I  have  found  it')  is  said  to  have  been 
his  exclamation  when  ho  discovered,  by 
observing  in  his  bath  the  water  displaced 
by  his  body,  the  means  of  testing  (by 
specific  gravity)  whether  base  metal  had 
been  introduced  into  Hicron 's  crown. 
There  is  a  good  deal  about  Archimedes  in 
Plutarch's  life  of  Marcellus. 

Cicero,  who  was  quaestor  in  Sicily  in 
75  B.C.,  discovered  the  tomb  of  Archi- 
medes near  one  of  the  gates  of  Syracuse, 
overgrown  with  brambles  and  forgotten. 
It  had  on  it  a  column  on  which  was  repre- 
sented a  sphere  inscribed  in  a  cylinder, 
recalling  his  discovery  of  the  relation 
between  their  volumes  (Tusc.  Disp.  v. 
23.  04-6). 


§  1.  Greek  architecture 
Tho  earliest  remains  of  Greek  architec- 
ture known  to  us  are  the  so-called  Cyclo- 
pean walls  of  Tiryns  and  Mycenae,  built 
of  huge  polygonal  blocks  fitted  together. 
This  form  of  building  gradually  gave  place 
to  squared  blocks,  of  which  primitive 




specimens  are  also  seen  at  Mycenae.  In 
the  same  ancient  town  may  still  be  seen 
the  wonderful  'beehive*  tombs  of  the 
early  princes,  circular  chambers  built  of 
horizontal  courses  of  stone  which  gradu- 
ally approach  till  they  form  a  vault.  The 
later  development  of  Greek  architecture 
is  best  studied  in  the  Greek  temples  (see 
Temples).  See  also  Houses.  Among  famous 
Greek  architects  wore  Mnesicles,  architect 
of  the  Propylaea,  and  Ictmus  and  Calli- 
cratSs,  architects  of  the  Parthenon. 

§  2.  Orders  of  Architecture 
There  were  three  orders  of  Greek  archi- 
tecture, based  on  the  form  of  the  column. 
(1)  In  the  Doric  order,  the  most  ancient, 
the  column,  starting  without  base  direct 
from  the  floor,  rose  to  a  height  about 
5J  times  its  diameter  at  the  foot,  tapering 
slightly  from  about  a  quarter  of  the  way 
up.  It  had  wide,  shallow  flutings,  and  was 
surmounted  by  a  capital  consisting  of  a 
basin-shaped  circular  moulding  and  plain, 
square  slab.  On  this  rested  the  architrave, 
a  quadrangular  beam  of  stone  stretching 
from  pillar  to  pillar.  Above  the  architrave 
was  the  frieze,  divided  into  metopes 
(square  spaces  adorned  with  sculpture) 
by  the  triglyphs,  surfaces  cut  in  vertical 
grooves  (see  Temples,  §  1).  Above  this 
again  was  a  projecting  cornice.  (2)  In  the 
Ionic  order  the  column  was  taller,  being 
in  height  about  nine  times  its  diameter  at 
the  foot,  and  the  fluting  was  narrower  and 
deeper.  The  column  stood  on  a  base  and 
was  surmounted  by  a  capital  charac- 
terized by  lateral  volutes  (like  ram's 
horns).  The  frieze  was  continuous,  not 
interrupted  by  triglyphs.  (3)  In  the 
Corinthian  order  the  column  was  similar 
to  that  of  the  Ionic  order,  but  the  capital 
was  of  an  inverted  bell  shape,  adorned 
with  rows  of  acanthus  leaves,  giving  rise 
to  graceful  volutes. 

Architheo'ria,  see  Liturgy. 
A'rchon  (ArcJion),  see  Athens,  §  2. 

Archy'tas  (Archiltds)  of  Tarentum,  a 
Pythagorean  philosopher  and  geometri- 
cian who  flourished  about  400  B.C.  (and 
thus  a  contemporary  of  Plato).  He  was 
also  a  military  commander  and  repeatedly 
led  the  forces  of  his  city  hi  successful  cam- 
paigns. He  is  said  to  have  invented  the 
screw  and  the  pulley,  and  to  have  solved 
(by  geometry)  the  problem  of  the  propor- 
tion between  the  sides  of  two  cubes,  one 
of  which  has  double  the  content  of  the 
other.  He  was  also  said  to  have  been 
drowned  at  sea,  a  tradition  perhaps 
founded  on  Horace,  Od.  I.  xxviii. 
Arcti'nus  (Arktinos),  see  Epic  Cycle). 

Arctu'rus  (Arktouros,  'guardian  of  Ark- 
tos',  the  Bear),  a  bright  star  in  the  con- 
stellation Arotophylax  (which  likewise 
means  'guardian  of  the  Bear'),  situated 
in  the  heavens  near  the  Great  Bear.  The 
name  Arcturus  is  sometimes  wrongly 
applied  to  the  whole  constellation,  of 
which  it  is  one  star.  The  Great  Bear  is 
also  known  as  the  Wain,  in  which  case 
Arctophylax  becomes  Bootes,  'the  Wag- 
goner*. The  morning  rising  of  Arcturus, 
in  September,  was  regarded  as  the  time 
of  the  vintage  and  as  the  time  when  the 
cattle  left  the  upland  pastures.  See  the 
prologue  to  the  'Rudens*  of  Plautus, 
which  is  spoken  by  the  star  Arcturus. 
For  the  myth  of  the  origin  of  Arcturus, 
see  Callisto. 
Areopagi'ticus,  see  Isocrates. 

Areo'pagus  (Areios  Pagos),  the  Hill  of 
Ares  at  Athens,  to  the  W.  of  the  Acropolis 
and  separated  from  it  by  a  depression  (See 
PL  13a).  According  to  legend,  it  was  so 
called  because  it  was  there  that  Ares  was 
tried  for  the  murder  of  Halirrhothios  son 
of  Poseidon,  the  lover  of  Ares'  daughter. 
According  to  legend  again,  as  set  forth 
in  the  'iCuniemdes'  of  Aeschylus  (see 
Orcsteia),  it  was  there  that  Orestes  was 
tried  for  the  murder  of  Clytemnestra, 
Athena  referring  the  case  to  a  tribunal 
of  Athenian  citizens.  After  the  synoecism 
(see  Athens,  §  2),  it  was  on  the  Areopagus 
that  the  Boule  or  Council  of  State  hold  its 
sittings.  Later,  under  the  constitutions 
of  Draco  and  Solon  (qq.v.),  the  name  was 
applied  to  the  body  which,  sitting  on  this 
hill,  judged  cases  of  murder,  malicious 
wounding,  arson,  and  poisoning.  These 
definite  powers  were  never  withdrawn 
from  the  Court  of  Areopagus,  but  it  had 
also  certain  indefinite  powers,  which  were 
abolished  by  Ephialtes  (q.v.),  viz.  a 
general  supervision  of  the  magistrates, 
guardianship  of  the  laws,  control  of  educa- 
tion, and  censorship  of  morals;  and  the 
competence  to  assume,  in  great  emergen- 
cies, a  dictatorial  authority.  It  was  com- 
posed of  the  men  who  had  discharged 
without  reproach  one  of  the  archonships, 
and  these  remained  members  of  the 
Areopagus  for  life. 

A'res  (JWs),  in  Greek  mythology,  the  son 
of  Zeus  and  Hera  (qq.v.),  the  god  of  war, 
or  rather  of  warlike  frenzy.  He  is  not  a 
personage  of  great  importance  in  mytho- 
logy, and  plays  no  very  glorious  part  in 
the  stories  in  which  he  appears.  He  is  a 
stirrer  of  strife,  unchivalrous,  and  does  not 
always  have  the  advantage  in  encounters 
with  mortals  (see,  e.g.,  under  Otus  and 
Ephialtes).  For  his  intrigue  with  Aphro- 
dite, see  under  her  name.  The  Romans 

Arete  41 

identified  him  with  Mars  (q.v.),  a  god  of 
greater  dignity. 

Are'te  (Arete),  in  the  'Odyssey',  the  wife 
of  Alcinous,  king  of  the  Phaeacians. 

A'rethas,  see  Byzantine  Age  and  Texts 
and  Studies,  §  4. 

Arethu'sa  (Arethousa),  (1)  one  of  the 
Hetfperiaes  (q.v.).  (2)  A  fountain  in 
Ortygia  (the  "island  in  the  harbour  of 
Syracuse).  Legend  relates  that  the  river- 
god  Alphcus  (q.v.)  fell  in  love  with  the 
nymph  Arethusa  when  she  bathed  in  his 
stream.  *Hhe  Sed  from  him  to  Ortygia 
where  Artemis  transformed  her  into  a 
fountain.  But  Alpheus,  flowing  under  the 
sea,  was  united  with  the  fountain.  It  was 
believed  in  antiquity  that  there  was  a 
real  connexion  between  the  river  and  the 
spring.  The  myth  is  the  subject  of 
Shelley's  poem  *Arjothujaa%  and  Milton 
refers  to  it  in  'Arcades"'", 
Divine  AlphetfS,  \vtT6,  by  secret  sluice, 
Stole  under  seas  to  meet  his  Arethuse. 

Arge'i,  bundles  of  rushes,  resembling  men 
bound  hand  and  foot,  which  on  the  14th 
May  (according  to  Ovid)  of  each  year  were 
carried  to  the  Tiber  by  pontifices  (q.v.) 
and  thrown  into  the  river  from  the  Pons 
Sublicius  by  the  Vestal  Virgins.  The 
meaniDg  of  the  rite  is  disputed.  The 
Argei  may  have  been  scapegoats  in  a  rite 
of  purification,  or  offerings  to  the  river- 
god  to  pacify  him  and  induce  him  to 
tolerate  the  bridge  across  his  stream  (the 
pontiflces  were  said  to  have  built  the  Pons 
Sublicius,  the  oldest  in  Rome).  The  rite, 
again,  is  thought  by  some  to  have  been 
a  rain-spell.  There  were  twenty-seven 
shrines  of  these  argei  throughout  the  city, 
and  probably  twenty-seven  argei  con- 
nected with  the  shrines  (the  lucky  number 
twenty -seven,  thrice  nine,  is  frequently 
met  with  both  in  Greek  and  Roman 

A'rges,  see  Cyclopes. 

Argile'tum,  at  Rome,  a  district  NE.  of 
the  Forum,  between  the  Esquiline  and 
the  Quirinal  (see  PI.  14).  It  was  occupied 
by  artisans  and  shopkeepers,  notably 
booksellers  and  shoemakers. 

Arginu'sae  (Arginousai),  islets  S.  of 
Lesbos,  off  which  in  406  B.C.  the  Athenian 
fleet  heavily  defeated  that  of  Sparta, 
capturing  or  destroying  seventy  Spartan 
ships.  The  Athenians  lost  twenty-five 
ships,  and,  owing  to  bad  weather,  their 
crews  were  not  rescued.  It  was  thought 
at  Athens  that  insufficient  efforts  had 
been  made  to  save  them,  and  the  blame 
was  laid  on  the  eight  generals  who  had 
been  present.  These  were  condemned  to 


death  by  the  Assembly,  and  six  were 
executed,  including  Pericles,  son  of  the 
great  statesman,  and  Thrasyllua  (see 
Thrasybulus).  See  also  Socrates. 

Argonau'tica,  see  Apollonius  Rhodius, 
Valerius  Flaccus,  and  Varro  Atacinus. 

A/rgonauts  (Argonautai),  in  Greek 
mythology,  the  men  who  sailed  in  the 
ship  Argo  with  Jason,  son  of  Aeson,  to 
Colchis  (q.v.)  to  recover  the  golden  fleece 
of  the  ram  that  had  carried  away  Phrixus 
and  Helle  (see  Athamas).  The  story  was 
probably  built  up  from  various  sources, 
owing  to  the  desire  of  many  families  to 
claim  an  Argonautic  ancestor,  and  in 
different  lands,  for  its  geography  centres 
both  in  Thessaly  and  about  the  Black 
Sea,  where  Miletus  had  settlements  at  an 
early  date.  Pelias  (see  Tyro)  had  usurped 
the  throne  of  lolcos  in  Thessaly,  which 
properly  belonged  to  his  half-brother 
Aeson,  and  after  the  latter's  death  to 
Jason.  Jason  had  been  sent  for  safety  and 
education  to  the  Centaur  Chiron  (q.v.). 
When  Jason  reached  maturity  he  returned 
to  lolcos.  Pelias,  warned  by  an  oracle 
to  beware  of  a  one-sandalled  lad  (and 
Jason  had  arrived  with  only  one  sandal), 
promised,  in  order  to  get  rid  of  him,  to 
restore  the  throne  if  he  would  first  recover 
the  golden  fleece.  Jason  undertook  the 
adventure  and  embarked  in  the  Argo  at 
Pagasae  with  some  fifty  of  the  chief 
heroes  of  Greece  (among  them  the  Dio- 
scuri, Orpheus,  and,  for  part  of  the  way, 
Heracles,  qq.v.),  and  after  many  adven- 
tures (see  Hylas,  Hypsipyle,  Phineus, 
Symplegades)  reached  Colchis.  AeetSs, 
king  of  Colchis,  consented  to  surrender 
the  fleece  (probably  regarded  as  possessing 
valuable  magic  properties)  if  Jason  would 
perform  certain  apparently  impossible 
tasks.  These  included  the  sowing  of  a 
dragon's  teeth,  from  which  armed  men 
would  arise,  whoso  fury  would  be  turned 
against  Jason.  With  the  help  of  the  magic 
arts  of  Medea  (q.v.),  the  king's  daughter, 
who  fell  in  love  with  Jason,  the  tasks  were 
successfully  accomplished,  and  Jason  and 
Medea  and  the  other  Argonauts  returned 
to  lolcos  with  the  golden  fleece.  Medea, 
in  their  flight  from  Colchis,  according  to 
one  version  of  the  story,  murdered  and 
cut  in  pieces  her  young  brother  Absyrtus 
and  scattered  the  fragments,  that  her 
father,  seeking  for  them,  might  be  delayed 
in  his  pursuit.  At  lolcos  Medea  took 
vengeance  on  Pelias  for  the  wrong  done 
by  him  to  Jason's  family.  First  she 
restored  Aeson  to  youth  by  boiling  him 
in  a  cauldron  with  magic  herbs,  and  then 
persuaded  the  daughters  of  Pclias  to 
submit  their  father  to  the  same  process. 




But  on  this  occasion  the  right  herbs  were 
omitted,  and  the  experiment  resulted  in 
Pelias's  death.  Acastus,  his  son,  there- 
upon drove  Jason  and  Medea  from  lolcos, 
and  they  took  refuge  at  Corinth.  For  Ja- 
son's abandonment  of  Medea  in  favour 
of  Glance,  daughter  of  Creon,  king  of 
Corinth,  and  its  tragic  consequences,  see 
Medea  (Euripides'  tragedy).  Jason  him- 
self died  at  Corinth,  killed,  according  to 
one  story,  as  ho  sat  under  the  old  Argo,  by 
the  falling  of  a  piece  of  her  woodwork. 
For  the  subsequent  adventures  of  Medea 
see  Theseus. 

The  story  of  tho  Argonauts  is  the  sub- 
ject of  Pindar's  Fourth  Pythian  Ode,  of 
the  'Argonautica*  of  Apollonius  Rhodius, 
Valerius  Flaccus,  and  Varro  Atacinus 
(qq.v.),  and  hi  modern  English  literature 
of  W.  Morris's  *  Life  and  Death  of  Jason '. 
The  'Golden  Fleece*  was  tho  name  of  a 
famous  order  of  chivalry  instituted  by 
Philip  the  Good,  duko  of  Burgundy,  in 

A'rgos,  a  word  meaning  'the  plain',  hi 
the  Homeric  poems  designated  the  whole 
of  the  plain  of  Argolis,  roughly  a  triangle 
flanked  on  the  NE.  and  NW.  by  mountains 
ana  on  the  S.  by  the  sea,  with  Mycenae 
near  the  apex  and  nine  miles  from  the  sea, 
and  Tiryns  nearer  the  sea  on  the  east  (see 
PI.  8).  This  was  tho  country  of  Agamem- 
non, which  had  Mycenae  (q.v.)  for  its 
capital;  and  tho  word  Argives  was  also 
extended  to  include  all  tho  Achaeans  who 
recognized  him  as  their  leader.  After 
the  Dorian  invasion  (see  Migrations  and 
Dialects),  Argos  was  the  name  of  the 
new  capital  of  tho  conquerors  of  the 
region.  They  subdued  Mycenae,  Tiryns, 
and  Nauplia,  and  the  name  Argos  covered 
the  whole  of  their  territory.  The  city  of 
Argos  itself  stood  on  the  western  side 
of  the  plain,  four  miles  from  the  sea,  at 
tho  foot  of  a  steep  mountain  which  formed 
its  acropolis.  In  the  first  half  of  the  7th  c. 
B.C.,  under  king  Pheidon,  Argos  was  tho 
most  important  State  in  tho  Peloponnese, 
and  the  system  of  weights  and  measures 
that  he  introduced  was  adopted  by  tho 
Peloponncsians.  But  the  power  of  Argos 
sank  as  that  of  Sparta  (q.v.)  rose,  and 
thereafter,  largely  under  tho  influence  of 
jealousy  of  Sparta,  sho  played  a  secondary 
and  not  very  glorious  role  in  tho  history 
of  Greece.  At  the  time  of  tho  Persian  Wars 
(q.v.)  she  concealed  her  unfaithfulness  to 
the  Greek  cause  under  a  mask  of  neutrality. 
A  democratic  government  was  introduced 
and  Argos  allied  herself  with  Athens 
against  Sparta  in  461.  In  the  first  part 
of  the  Peloponnesian  War  (q.v.)  she  re- 
mained neutral.  After  the  Peace  of 

Nlcias,  as  a  result  of  the  efforts  of  Alol- 
biades,  she  in  420  joined  Athens  and 
shared  her  defeat  at  Mantinea  hi  418. 
This  led  to  a  fierce  conflict  between  her 
aristocratic  and  democratic  parties,  which 
sided  respectively  with  Sparta  and  Athens, 
and  the  decadence  of  the  State  increased 
in  tho  course  of  this  struggle;  thereafter 
Argos  exerted  no  considerable  influence 
on  tho  course  of  events. 

A'rgus  (Argos),  (I)  the  herdsman  that 
Hera  set  to  watch  lo  (q.v.);  he  was 
called  Argos  Panoptes,  having  eyes  all 
over  his  body.  When  Hermes  killed  him, 
Hera  placed  his  eyes  in  the  peacock's  tail ; 
(2)  tho  craftsman  who  built  the  ship  Argo 
(see  Argonauts);  (3),  in  tho  'Odyssey' 
(xvii.  292),  the  dog  of  Odysseus,  which 
recognizes  him  on  his  return  and  then 
Aria'dne  (Ariadn$),  see  Theseus. 

Ari'cia,  a  town  hi  a  hollow  of  the  Alban 
Hills.  In  a  grove  near  it  was  tho  famous 
seat  of  the  worship  of  Diana  Nemorensis 
(see  Diana). 

Ari'on  (Ar(e)ion),  (1)  a  semi-mythical  poet 
of  uncertain  date,  born  according  to  legend 
at  Methyrnna  in  Lesbos.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  a  pupil  of  Alcrnan  (q.v.),  to  have 
spent  tho  greater  part  of  his  life  at  tho  court 
of  Periander,  tyrant  of  Corinth,  and  also  to 
have  visited  Italy,  where  ho  amassed  much 
wealth.  On  his  return  ho  was  thrown  over- 
board b}  the  sailors,  who  desired  to  acquire 
his  treasure.  Hut  a  dolphin,  charmed  by 
the  song  he  had  been  allowed  to  sing  before 
his  death,  carried  him  to  land.  To  Arion 
was  attributed  the  creation  of  the  dithy- 
ramb (q.v.)  as  a  literary  composition.  He 
is  also  said  to  have  been  the  inventor  of 
the  rpayiKos  T/JOTTO?,  probably  meaning 
the  tragic  mode  in  music,  the  musical 
mode  afterwards  adopted  in  tragedy. 

(2)  Tho  name  of  a  legendary  horse,  the 
offspring  of  Poseidon  (q.v.)  and  Demeter. 
It  belonged  to  Adrastus  (q.v.)  and  its 
swiftness  enabled  him  to  escape  after  the 
failure  of  his  expedition  against  Thebes. 

Aristae'us  (Aristaios),  in  Greek  my- 
thology, son  of  the  nymph  Gyrene,  whom 
Apollo  loved  and  carried  off  to  the  region 
in  Africa  that  bears  her  name.  Aristaeus 
was  a  god  of  various  kinds  of  husbandry, 
including  bee-keeping,  and  of  hunting. 
He  fell  in  love  with  Eurydico  (q.v.)  and 
she,  in  trying  to  escape  from  him,  trod 
on  a  serpent,  from  whose  bite  she  died. 
The  Dryads  avenged  her  by  killing  ail 
the  bees  of  Aristaeus.  In  this  calamity, 
according  to  Virgil  (Georg.  iv.  315  et  seq.) 
Aristaeus  on  the  advice  of  his  mother  con- 
sulted Proteus,  appeased  the  nymphs,  and 



obtained  new  swarms  from  the  carcases 
of  bulls.  Aristaous  married  Autonod" 
daughter  of  Cadmus,  and  became  father 
Of  Actaeon  (q.v.).  See  olao  Etesian  Winds. 

Arista'goras,  tyrant  of  Miletus,  the 
instigator  of  the  Ionian  revolt  against 
Persia  of  499  B.C.  Sec  Persian  Wars. 

Arista'rchus  (Aristarchos)  of  Samos  (b. 
c.  320  B.C.),  an  astronomer  (not  to  bo  con- 
fused with  Aristarchus  of  Samothrace,  seo 
below),  who  first  put  forward  the  view 
that  the  sun  was  the  centre  of  the  plan- 
etary system.  It  was  on  this  hypothesis 
that  Copernicus  founded  his  researches. 
As,  however,  Aristarchus  supposed  that 
the  planets  revolved  hi  circles  (instead  of 
ellipses),  this  theory  could  not  be  recon- 
ciled with  the  observations,  and  was  aban- 
doned by  his  immediate  successors,  such 
as  Hipparchus. 

Aristarchus  of  Samothrace,  head  of  the 
Alexandrian  Library  (q.v.)  from  c.  180  to 
c.  145  B.C.  and  'the  founder  of  scientific 
scholarship*  (Sandys).  Ho  produced  edi- 
tions of  Homer,  Ilesiod,  Alcaous,  Ana- 
croon,  and  Pindar,  and  a  great  number  of 
volumes  of  commentaries  and  treatises  on 
literary  and  grammatical  subjects.  His 
critical  notes  on  Homer  are  in  part 
preserved  in  the  scholia  of  one  of  the 
Venetian  MSS.  See  Texts  and  Studies,  §  2. 

Aristi'des  (Arisfcides)  (d.  c.  468  B.C.), 
known  as  'The  Just',  son  of  Lysimachus, 
and  one  of  the  democratic  leaders  at 
Athens,  famous  for  his  rectitude,  patriot- 
ism, and  moderation.  He  was  one  of  the 
strategi  at  Marathon,  and  subsequently 
archon.  He  came  into  conflict  with 
Themistoclcs  (q.v.)  when  the  latter  rose 
to  power,  and  as  a  consequence  he  was 
ostracized  in  482.  According  to  Plutarch, 
who  has  a  life  of  Aristides,  an  illiterate 
citizen  requested  Aristidcs  to  record  his 
vote  in  favour  of  the  ostracism.  Being 
asked  whether  Aristides  had  ever  injured 
him,  he  replied  'No,  but  it  vexes  mo  to 
hear  him  everywhere  called  the  Just'. 
Aristidcs  returned  from  exile  when  the 
expedition  of  Xerxes  was  threatening, 
held  a  command  at  Salamis,  and  led 
the  Athenian  contingent  at  Plataea.  His 
greatest  achievement  was  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  Delian  confederacy  (see  Delos), 
when  he  apportioned  the  tribute  to  the 
various  confederate  States,  a  task  en- 
trusted to  him  on  account  of  his  rectitude 
and  discretion.  He  served  Athens  faith- 
fully to  the  end  and  died  about  468.  We 
have  a  lifo  of  him  also  by  Nepos. 
Aristi'des  (Aristeides),  AELIUS  (d.  A.D. 
189),  a  Greek  rhetorician  who  wrote 
speeches,  letters,  and  a  kind  of  prose 

hymns,  in  a  good  imitation  of  the  Attic 
style.  Fifty-five  of  his  compositions  are 

Aristi'des    of    Miletus,    see    Milesian 


Aristi'ppus  (Aristippos),  of  Cyrene,  a 
pupil  of  Socrates  (q.v.)  and  founder  of  the 
Cyrenaic  school  of  philosophy.  He  re- 
garded pleasure  as  the  only  absolute  good 
hi  lifo,  but  he  distinguished  between 
pleasures,  for  some  are  a  source  of  pain. 
Man  must  therefore  select  his  pleasures, 
and  this  implies  both  intelligence  and  self- 
control.  Aristippus  was  thus  a  predecessor 
of  Epicurus  (q.v.).  His  works  arc  entirely 

Aristo'cratEft,  Against,  a  speech  in  a 
public  prosecution  by  Demosthenes.  Seo 
Demosthenes  (2),  §  3  (c). 

Aristogi'ton  (Aristogcitori),  see  liar- 

Aristo'phanes  (c.  448-e.-  380  B.C.),  the 

great  Athenian  comic  poet.  His  family 
belonged  to  the  demo  Kudathenaion  in 
the  city  of  Athens,  but  his  father  Philippos 
had  a  small  property  hi  the  island  of 
Acgina,  to  which  the  family  moved  when 
Aristophanes  was  still  a  boy.  The  purity 
of  his  Athenian  descent  appears  to  have 
been  questioned.  His  first  comedy,  now 
lost,  'Daitaleis'  (people  of  the  imaginary 
deme  of  'the  Banqueters'),  a  satire  on  tho 
product  of  a  city  education  as  compared 
with  the  old-fashioned  country  training, 
won  the  second  prize  in  427.  The  'Baby- 
lonians' (also  lost)  appeared  in  426,  soon 
after  the  reduction  of  the  rebellious 
Mytileno  and  its  bare  escape  from  tho 
massacre  of  its  male  inhabitants  desired 
by  Cleon  (seo  Lesbos).  Tho  play,  which  in- 
cluded a  chorus  of  Babylonian  slaves  work- 
ing in  a  mill,  representing  the  Athenian 
allies,  was  a  vigorous  attack  on  the  policy 
of  Cleon.  Aristophanes  was  in  consequence 
prosecuted  by  Cleon,  on  a  charge,  it 
appears,  of  alien  birth  and  high  treason. 
None  the  less,  at  the  Lcnaea  of  tho  follow- 
ing year,  425,  appeared  tho  'Aoharnians* 
(q.v.),  the  first  of  his  surviving  comedies, 
a  pica  for  tho  termination  of  the  war,  with 
indications  of  continued  hostility  to  Cleon. 
This  won  tho  first  prize.  Tho  above  plays 
had  not  been  produced  in  Aristophanes' 
own  name,  why  is  not  known;  but  in  his 
next  play,  the  'Knights'  (q.v.),  424,  the 
author  comes  forward  undisguised.  With 
astonishing  courage  ho  heaps  invective 
and  ridicule  on  Cleon  (then  at  tho  height 
of  his  power)  and  satirizes  the  defects  of 
democracy.  This  play  again  won  the  first 
prize.  The  'Clouds'  (q.v.)  followed  in  423, 
the  'Wasps'  (q.v.)  In  422,  the  'Peace* 

Aristophanes  of  Byzantium 


(q.v.)  in  421.  The  plays  that  he  produced 
during  the  next  six  years  are  lost.  In  414 
appeared  the  'Birds'  (q.v.),  in  411 
'Lysitrata'  (q.v.),  in  411  or  410  the 
'Thesmophoriazusae'  (q.v.),  about  392 
the  *  Ecclesiazusae*  (q.v.),  and  in  388  '  Plu- 
tus*  (q.v.).  Ho  wrote  two  comedies  after 
this,  which  he  gave  to  his  son  Araros  to 
produce,  but  which  are  now  lost.  One  of 
these,  the  '  Kokalus ',  we  are  told,  started 
the  typo  of  the  New  Comedy,  introducing 
romantic  features  which  are  character- 
istic of  the  plays  of  Menander.  The  life- 
work  of  Aristophanes,  therefore,  shows 
him  as  the  chief  representative  of  the 
Old  Comedy  (see  Comedy),  developing 
and  intellectualizing  it,  then  gradually 
transforming  it  in  the  direction  of  a  new 
form  of  art.  His  dialogue  is  vivid  and 
natural;  his  lyrics  contain  passages  of 
much  beauty ;  his  indecency  is  coarse  and 
outspoken  but  not  prurient  or  morbid. 

The  political  plays  of  Aristophanes 
show  him  a  supporter  of  the  country 
party,  the  farmers  and  landowners,  and 
a  vigorous  opponent  of  the  war  policy 
from  which  these  were  the  chief  sufferers. 
But  he  jibes  at  all  the  leaders  in  turn,  from 
Pericles  to  Cleophon.  He  brings  out,  by 
caricaturing  them,  the  ridiculous  or  evil 
sides  of  the  opinions  or  customs  of  the 
moment,  and  no  doubt  the  jokes  and 
sarcasms  that  he  levels  at  individuals  and 
at  institutions  human  and  divine  were 
taken  good-humouredly  and  not  too  liter- 
ally by  his  audience.  Plato  in  his  'Sym- 
posium* (q.v.)  represents  Aristophanes  as 
an  agreeable  and  convivial  companion 
who  gives  an  amusing  turn  to  a  serious 
discussion,  and  this  is  perhaps  the  light 
in  which  to  regard  much  of  his  work.  It 
does  not  appear  in  fact  to  have  affected 
the  course  of  events. 

Aristophanes  had  a  direct  influence  on 
English  literature,  notably  on  Ben  Jonson, 
Middleton,  and  Fielding.  John  Hookham 
Frere,  one  of  the  contributors  to  the 
'Anti- Jacobin',  translated  several  of  his 
plays.  R.  Browning,  in  his  *  Aristophanes' 
Apology*  (1875),  presents  Aristophanes 
discussing  with  Balaustion,  the  former 
defending  comedy  as  the  representation  of 
real  life,  and  attacking  the  unnatural  and 
ascetic  Euripides,  while  Balaustion  main- 
tains the  superiority  of  the  tragic  poet. 
The  'Plutus*  and  the  'Peace*  were  acted 
at  Cambridge  in  1 536  and  1546  respectively. 
For  an  appreciation  of  Aristophanes'  char- 
acter and  work,  see  Gilbert  Murray, 
'Aristophanes'  (Oxford,  1933). 

Aristo'phanes  of  Byzantium,  head  of 
the  Alexandrian  Library  (q.v.)  c.  195 
B.C.  For  his  critical  work  in  this  capac  ity 

see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  2.  He  is  said  to 
have  invented  or  regularized  Greek  ac- 
cents; and  he  devised  a  set  of  critical 
signs  indicating  passages  in  manuscripts 
suspected  of  being  interpolations  or  other- 
wise noteworthy. 

A'ristotle  (Aristoteles)  (384-322  B.C.),  a 
great  Greek  philosopher. 

§  1.  Biography 

Aristotle  was  born  at  Stageira  hi 
Chalcidice,  the  son  of  NIcomachus,  physi- 
cian to  Amyntas  II,  king  of  Macedonia. 
In  367  he  came  to  Athens,  and  was  a 
pupil  of  Plato  until  the  lattor's  death  in 
347,  that  is  to  say  for  twenty  years.  He 
then  left  Athens.  Stageira  was  destroyed 
in  the  same  year  by  Philip  of  Macedon, 
and  Aristotle  settled  at  Assos  in  the  Troad, 
where  there  was  a  sort  of  small  colony  of 
philosophers  of  the  Athenian  Academy, 
favoured  by  Hermeias,  the  enlightened 
princo  of  the  neighbouring  city  of  Atar- 
neus.  There  Aristotle  remained  for  three 
years,  probably  lecturing  and  writing. 
He  then  went  to  Mytilene  and  taught 
there  till  344.  In  that  year  ho  was  invited 
by  Philip  of  Macedon  (q.v.)  to  be  tutor 
to  his  son  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.).  To 
explain  Aristotle's  acceptance  of  this  post 
it  has  been  suggested  that  the  appoint- 
ment was  perhaps  made  in  connexion 
with  some  kind  of  diplomatic  mission 
from  Hermeias,  who  was  negotiating  with 
Philip  against  his  Persian  overlord.  Her- 
meias, whose  niece  Aristotle  married, 
presently  camo  under  Persian  suspicion, 
was  carried  off  to  Susa,  and  there  cruci- 
fied. Aristotle  wrote  an  epigram  for  his 
cenotaph  at  Delphi  and  a  beautiful  com- 
memorative hymn.  In  335,  when  Alex- 
ander started  on  his  expedition  to  Asia, 
Aristotle  returned  to  Athens,  and  opened 
there  a  school  of  philosophy  which  came 
to  be  known  as  the  Peripatetic  school  from 
his  habit  of  walking  up  and  down  (TreptTra- 
T€LV),  while  conversing  with  his  pupils,  in 
the  paths  of  the  Lyceum  (a  grove  sacred 
to  Apollo  Lyceius,  where  there  was  a 
gymnasium).  He  collected  manuscripts 
and  formed  the  first  considerable  library ; 
also  a  museum  of  natural  objects,  in  the 
assembling  of  which  he  is  said  to  have 
been  aided  by  Alexander.  He  enjoyed  the 
friendship  and  protection  of  Antipator, 
whom  Alexander  had  left  as  governor  of 
Macodon  and  Greece.  After  the  death  of 
Alexander  in  323  the  anti-Macedonian 
party  at  Athens  regained  the  ascendant 
(Antlpater  had  been  summoned  to  Asia), 
and  Aristotle  quitted  Athens.  He  died  the 
following  year  at  Chalcis.  His  will,  pre- 
served by  Diogenes  Laertius  (q.v.),  shows 
him  to  have  been  of  a  kindly  and  afleo- 

Aristotle  4 

tionate  disposition,  and  he  appears  to 
have  instilled  in  his  school  a  spirit  of 
familiarity  and  friendship. 

§  2.  General  character  of  his  work 
Aristotle  left  a  vast  number  of  works  on 
a  great  variety  of  subjects;  some  four 
hundred  were  attributed  to  him.  But  ho 
was  primarily  a  teacher  whose  influence 
was  exerted  on  his  pupils  by  the  spoken 
word,  not  a  literary  author.  It  was  his 
practice  to  treat  more  difficult  subjects 
with  his  pupils  in  the  morning,  and  to  give 
lectures  to  larger  audiences  in  the  after- 
noon. The  former  lessons  came  to  be 
known  as  acroamatic  (i.e.  oral)  or  esoteric, 
the  latter  as  exoteric.  But  Aristotle  him- 
self did  not  use  the  word  'esoteric';  and 
it  seems  probable  that  he  applied  the 
word  'exoteric'  to  his  early  published 
writings  (intended  for  the  cultivated  pub- 
lic outside  his  school),  as  opposed  to  his 
lectures.  Among  these  published  writings 
were  dialogues  on  philosophical  and  other 
subjects,  lucid,  eloquent,  grave,  less  poeti- 
cal than  those  of  Plato,  many  of  them 
probably  composed  when  he  was  still  a 
member  of  Plato's  Academy  or  was  teach- 
ing at  Assos.  We  possess  fragments  of 
fourteen  of  these,  notably  of  a  '  Protrepti- 
cus*  or  'exhortation  to  philofiophy'.  To 
a  late  period  of  his  life  probably  belong 
another  class  of  writings,  collections  of 
data  obtained  by  systematic  research,  in 
pursuance  of  his  final  system  (see  below) 
of  basing  philosophical  speculation  on  a 
wide  ascertainment  of  facts.  To  this  class 
belonged  the  groat  collection  of  the  con- 
stitutions of  158  cities,  and  the  'Dida- 
scaliae*  (q.v.)  or  records  of  dramatic  per- 
formances at  Athens.  These  likewise  are 
lost,  with  the  exception  of  the  'Polity  of 
the  Athenians',  discovered  in  an  Egyptian 
papyrus  in  1890,  the  first  of  the  collected 

The  treatises,  which  form  the  bulk  of 
Aristotle's  surviving  work,  consist  mainly 
of  notes  or  summaries  of  his  oral  lectures, 
written  either  by  himself  or  some  of  his 
pupils,  and  put  together  by  later  editors, 
sometimes  without  regard  to  the  fact 
that  various  passages  belong  to  different 
periods  of  his  philosophical  development 
and  do  not  harmonize  together.  They 
disappeared  not  long  after  his  death  and 
were  not  brought  to  light  until  the  1st  c. 
B.C.  There  is  a  story,  recorded  by  Strabo, 
that  they  were  disinterred  in  a  cellar 
belonging  to  tbe  descendants  of  Neleus, 
an  important  Aristotelian  of  the  group  at 
Assos.  The  story  has  been  doubted,  but 
Is  not  improbable. 

A  study  of  the  surviving  treatises  and 
fragments  of  Aristotle's  writings  shows 

5  Aristotle 

that  their  author  went  through  a  process 
of  philosophical  evolution:  from  being  a 
disciple  of  Plato  in  sympathy  with  much 
of  his  teaching,  he  passed  into  a  critic  of 
some  of  the  leading  Platonic  doctrines 
(e.g.  that  of  Ideas),  and  finally  adopted  a 
wholly  independent  position  and  philo- 
sophical method.  Of  this  the  principal 
features  were  the  careful  analysis  of  cur- 
rent philosophical  conceptions,  e.g.  the 
analysing  of  a  given  object  (robe  n)  in 
terms  of  matter  and  form;  and  the 
revolutionary  view  that  speculation  must 
be  based  on  experience  of  reality  and 
systematic  research,  converting  Ethics 
and  Politics,  for  instance,  from  abstract 
theoretical  sciences  into  practical  sciences 
based  on  careful  observation  of  life.  He 
thus  extended  philosophy  to  cover 
universal  science. 

§  3,  Aristotle  *8  extant  works 
The  surviving  treatises  may  be  classi- 
fied as  follows : 

1.  ON    LOGIC,    the   Organon    ('instru- 
ment'), as  this  group  came  to  bo  called 
much   later,   consisting   of   six   treatises 
known  as:  Categoriae  (a  theory  of  terms 
and  predicates),  De  interpret  at  ione,  Ana- 
lytica  priora  and  posteriora,  Topica,  and 
De  sophisticis  elenchis.    In  these  Aristotle 
was  the  first  to  explore  the  science  of 
reasoning,  both  formal  (hi  the  Prior  Ana- 
lytics)   and    scientific    (in  the  Posterior 
Analytics),  basing  himself  on  the  syllogism, 
which  ho  discovered.   Later  logicians  have 
added  little  to   his   conclusions  on   the 
syllogism.    The  Schoolmen  of  the  Middle 
Ages    summarized   his    teaching  on  this 
subject  in    the   famous   mnemonic   lines 
'Barbara,      Celarent,      Darii,      Ferioque 
prioris  .  .  .',  in  which  the  vowels  of  the 
words   Barbara-Ferio,  etc.   indicate  the 
nature  of  the  major  and  minor  premisses 
and  conclusion  of  the  various  moods  of 
the  syllogism,  A  a  universal  affirmative, 
E  a   universal   negative,  I  a   particular 
affirmative,  O  a  particular  negative. 

2.  ON  METAPHYSICS,  a  group  of  treatises 
known  as  Mftaphysica,  a  name  not  due  to 
Aristotle  (who  uses  the  term  irputrr)  (/>iXoao- 
<f>ia),  but  to  the  editors  who  placed  the 
writings  on  this  subject  after  the  Physics 
(aero,  ra  </>vau<d).    In  these  Aristotle  ex- 
plores the  nature  of  the  real,  the  essential 
substance  of  the  universe.   At  the  base  of 
his   doctrine  is  the   distinction  between 
matter  and  form.  Ho  finds  hi  the  universe 
a  hierarchy  of  existences,  each  of  which 
is  the  *  matter'  of  that  next  above  it,  and 
imparts  form  and  change  to  that  next 
below.    At  the  lower  end  of  the  scale  is 
primary  formless  matter,  which  has  no 
real  but  only  logical  existence.  At  the 

Aristotle  4 

upper  end  is  the  '  prime  unmoved  mover, ' 
an  eternal  activity  of  thought,  free  from 
matter,  giving  motion  to  the  universe 
through  an  attraction  akin  to  love;  this 
prime  mover  he  identifies  with  God.  The 
Aristotelian  'form',  the  intelligible  nature 
of  a  thing,  differs  from  the  Platonic '  idea* 
(at  least  as  Aristotle  conceived  it)  in  being 
immanent  in  the  thing  and  not  existing 
apart  from  it.  The  'Metaphysica',  as  we 
have  it,  is  a  medley  of  materials  from 
detached  writings  or  lectures  of  different 
periods,  and  is  not  self -consistent. 

Biology,  Psychology),  treatises  known  as 

(a)  Physica,  an  examination  of  the  con- 
stituent Clements  of  things  that  exist  by 
'nature'  ('nature'  being  'an  innate  im- 
pulse to  movement'),  and  a  discussion  of 
such  notions  as  matter  and  form,  time, 
space,  and  movement,  with  an  exposition 
of  the  Four  Causes,  the  Material  Cause 
(that  out  of  which  a  thing  comes  to  be), 
the  Formal  Cause  (the  intelligible  nature 
of  a  thing,  that  in  virtue  of  which  it  is 
what  it  is),  the  Moving  Cause  (from  which 
immediately  originates  the  change),  the 
Final  Cause  (the  end  or  aim  of  the  change) ; 

(b)  De  caelOj  on  the  movement  of  celestial 
and  terrestrial  bodies.  Aristotle  knew  that 
the  earth  is  a  sphere,  but  thought  it  was 
situated  at  the  centre  of  the  universe ;  his 
view  that  the  distance  between  Spain  and 
India  by  a  westerly  voyage  might  not  be 
very  great  influenced  Columbus;   (e)  De 
generfitione  et  corruptione,  on  coming  into 
being  and  passing  away ;  (d)  Mdcorologica, 
principally  on  weather  phenomena.    The 
group   of  works  on  biology  includes  the 
Historia  Animalium,  an  introductory  col- 
lection of  facts  regarding  animal  life,  show- 
ing in  some  respects  a  surprising  degree  of 
observation  (Aristotle  knew,  for  instance, 
that  whales  are  mammals) ;  and  a  series  of 
treatises  in  which  he  deals  with  the  classi- 
fication of  animals,  their  reproduction,  and 
the  adaptation  and  evolution  of  their  or- 
gans ;  for  ho  5ays  stress  on  final  causes  in 
the  problems  of  organic  life.    The  group  is 
closed  by  a  treatise  in  three  books — De 
anima,  that  is  to   say   on  the   internal 
principle    of    movement    and    sensibility 
which   holds  bodies  together  and  gives 
them  life.    This  vital  principle  or  'soul' 
docs  not  survive  the  death  of  the  body, 
though     the     intelligent    soul    of    man 
possesses  a.  portion  of  'active  reason', 
which  is  Immortal,  and  is  perhaps  to  bo 
Identified  with  God.    To  the  same  group 
belong  a  monograph  'On  the  interpreta- 
tion of  dreams ',  and  the  Parva  Naturalia  on 
the  general  physiological  conditions  of  life. 

4.  ON  ETHICS  AN»  POLITICS.   Aristotle 
regards  ethics  as  a  branch  of  politics  in  the 

I  Aristotle 

wider  sense,  for  the  individual  is  essen- 
tially a  member  of  society.  His  ethical 
treatises  are  known  as  the  Nicomachean 
and  Eudemian  Ethics.  These  cover  much 
the  same  ground,  though  with  certain  im- 
portant differences  of  view.  The  relation 
between  the  two  works  is  not  certain; 
they  are  probably  editions  by  Aristotle's 
son  Nicomachus  and  his  disciple  Eudemus 
of  two  courses  of  his  lectures  on  Ethics, 
the  Eudomian  earlier  than  the  Nico- 
machcan  and  representing  an  earlier  stage 
in  the  development  of  Aristotle's  moral 
theory,  when  the  Platonic  influence  was 
still  strong.  The  Nicomachean  Ethics  is 
generally  regarded  as  the  more  valuable 
work.  It  is  in  the  main  a  study  of  the 
end  to  which  conduct  should  bo  directed 
— the  Good.  Aristotle  accepts  happiness 
(evBaLfjiovLfi)  as  this  end,  but  rejects 
pleasure,  honour,  and  wealth  as  the  basis 
of  happiness.  He  finds  the  highest  happi- 
ness in  a  life  of  contemplation,  as  being1 
the  activity  peculiar  to  man,  in  accord 
with  the  virtue  of  the  best  part  of  him 
(the  rational  principle),  and  manifested 
not  for  short  periods  but  in  a  complete 
life.  By  contemplation  ho  means  con- 
templation of  philosophic  truth.  But 
such  a  life  is  beyond  the  reach  of  the 
ordinary  man,  whose  happiness  is  to  be 
sought  in  moral  virtue  and  practical  wis- 
dom. Aristotle,  distinguishing  between  the 
moral  and  intellectual  virtues,  discusses 
the  natvre  of  moral  virtue,  and  defines  it 
as  a  disposition,  developed  by  a  proper 
exercise  of  the  capacity,  to  choose  a  cer- 
tain mean,  as  determined  by  a  man  of 
practical  wisdom,  between  two  opposite 
extremes  of  conduct ;  a  mean,  for  instance, 
between  asceticism  and  the  yielding  to 
uncontrolled  impulses.  Aristotle  lays  stress 
on  the  notion  of  moral  intention;  virtue 
of  character  becomes  pre-eminent  instead 
of  virtue  of  intellect  (of.  Socrates). 

In  the  eight  books  of  the  Politico,, 
Aristotle  discusses  the  science  of  politics 
from  the  point  of  view  of  the  city-state, 
which  he  assumes  to  be  that  most  con- 
ducive to  the  fullest  life  of  the  citizen. 
He  thinks  the  State  was  developed  natur- 
ally by  the  grouping  of  families  in  villages, 
and  of  villages  in  a  State,  for  the  purpose 
of  securing  to  the  citizens  a  good  and  self- 
sufficing  life.  Since  this  moral  end,  and 
not  material  purposes,  is  the  essential 
characteristic  of  the  State,  it  is  necessary 
that  the  power  should  rest,  not  with  the 
wealthy  or  the  whole  body  of  free  citizens, 
but  with  the  good.  He  discusses  citizen- 
ship, the  classification  of  actual  constitu- 
tions, and  the  various  types  of  these,  their 
diseases  and  the  remedies;  he  recognizes 
the  advantages  of  democracy,  but  finds 




the  highest  type  in  the  monarchy  of  the 
perfect  ruler  if  such  a  ruler  is  available, 
and  failing  this  in  an  aristocracy  of  men 
of  virtue  and  enlightenment.  But  this,  too, 
is  difficult,  and  on  the  whole  he  regards 
a  limited  democracy  as  the  constitution 
best  suited  to  the  practical  conditions  of 
Greece  of  his  day.  Ho  regards  slavery  as 
a  natural  institution,  so  far  as  based  on 
the  inferiority  of  nature  of  the  slave  (not 
on  right  of  conquest).  But  the  master 
must  not  abuse  his  authority,  and  slaves 
must  have  the  hope  of  emancipation.  It 
is  'improbable  that  the  treatise  as  we  have 
it  was  ever  planned  as  a  whole  or  sprung 
from  a  single  creative  act  of  the  mind* 
(Jaeger).  Books  VII  and  VIII  containing 
the  discussion  of  the  ideal  State  belong  to 
an  early  text  in  which  the  purely  construc- 
tive method  of  Plato  is  followed.  Books 
IV-VI,  dealing  with  actual  historical 
States  and  containing  an  allusion  to  the 
death  of  King  Philip,  must  have  been 
written  later,  when  Aristotle  had  at  his 
disposal  the  collection  of  the  158  con- 
stitutions. Aristotle's  treatise  on  the 
Polity  of  the  Athenians  has  already  been 
referred  to.  It  traces  the  development  of 
the  Athenian  constitution  from  the  earliest 
times  (the  first  chapters  are  missing)  down 
to  the  fall  of  the  Thirty,  and  then  describes 
the  matured  democracy  of  Aristotle's  day. 
The  discovery  of  the  treatise  has  thrown  a 
new  light  on  a  number  of  historical  points. 

totle's Rhetoric  deals  with  the  methods  of 
persuasion,  divided  into  those  by  which 
the  speaker  produces  on  his  audience  a 
favourable  view  of  his  own  character, 
those  by  which  ho  produces  emotion,  and 
thirdly  argument,  whether  by  means  of 
example  or  of  cnthymeme  (the  rhetorical 
form  of  the  syllogism).  It  then  discusses 
etyle  (of  which  the  leading  characteristics 
should  be  clearness  and  appropriateness) 
and  arrangement.  The  whole  subject  was 
one  that  deeply  interested  the  Greeks  of 
Aristotle's  time,  and  the  treatise  had  for 
long  a  much  greater  authority  than  it  has 

For  Aristotle's  Poetics,  see  under  that 

§  4.  The  influence  of  Aristotte 
The  influence  that  Aristotle  exerted  on 
later  generations  of  philosophers  and 
scientists  was  immense,  by  the  stimulus 
he  gave,  by  the  instrument  of  investi- 
gation ho  forged,  and  by  his  actual  con- 
tributions to  knowledge.  In  the  Middle 
Ages  this  influence,  after  having  been 
seen  in  Boethius  and  the  great  French 
teacher  Abelard,  became  especially  pro- 
minent in  the  works  of  the  School- 

men. The  writings  of  Aristotle  reached 
them  mainly  in  Latin  translations  of 
Arabic  versions  (see  Texts  and  Studies, 
§  8),  and  were  used  in  support  of  Christian 
theology,  notably  in  the  lectures  and 
Summa  of  Thomas  Aquinas.  The  recog- 
nition in  Britain  of  his  importance  is 
especially  seen  in  the  writings  of  John 
of  Salisbury  (d.  1180,  Polycraticus  and 
Metalofficus] ;  Michael  Scot  the  astrologer 
(1175  ?-1234  ?),  who  translated  an  Arabic 
summary  of  the  'Historia  Animalium'; 
Bishop  Grosseteste  (d.  1253),  himself  a 
powerful  influence  on  subsequent  English 
thought;  Roger  Bacon  (1214?-94),  Duns 
Scotue(1265?-1308?),thoughhe  was  partly 
a  Platonist;  and  William  of  Ockham  (d. 
1349  ?).  Aristotle's  philosophy  was  one  of 
the  principal  subjects  of  study  in  our 
medieval  universities.  At  a  later  date  we 
see  his  influence  on  Francis  Bacon  (1561- 
1626),  who,  though  contemptuous  of  the 
ancient  philosophers  in  general,  adopts 
Aristotle's  division  of  the  Four  Causes,  and 
entitles  part  of  his  work  the  Novum  Orga- 
num.  In  the  sphere  of  literature,  Aristotle's 
'  Poetics '  was  regarded  as  an  authority  frorii 
Elizabethan  days  onward,  and  wo  find  re- 
ferences to  it  in  the  writings  of  Sidney,  Ben 
Jonson,  and  Milton;  and  other  traces  of  his 
fame  occur  in  Marlowe,  Spenser,  and  Shake- 
speare. Landor  has  an  'Imaginary  Con- 
versation* between  Aristotle  and  Callis- 
thenes  (q.  v. )  in  which  the  author  represents 
Aristotle  as  an  enemy  to  Alexander  the  con- 
queror and  despot. 


§  1.  Greek  Army 

In  Homeric  times  the  warrior,  armed 
with  spear  and  sword  and  protected  by 
helmet,  cuirass,  greaves,  and  an  ox-hide 
shield  strengthened  with  bronze,  rode  out 
to  battle  in  a  chariot.  From  this  he  dis- 
mounted to  encounter  some  opposing 
champion.  He  used  his  spear  as  a  missile, 
or  thrust  with  it  as  a  pike,  and  sometimes 
supplemented  it  by  hurling  a  boulder. 
Bows  and  arrows  were  also  used.  But 
there  was  no  cavalry.  The  common  folk, 
who  were  lightly  armed,  played  a  minor 
part  in  the  battles.  In  later  times  all  this 
was  changed.  The  armies  were  drawn  up 
in  well-ordered  lines  of  armoured  hoplltes 
(see  below)  and  rushed  against  each  other, 
each  endeavouring  to  hurl  back,  outflank, 
or  break  the  opposite  line.  As  time  went 
on  this  simple  manoeuvre  was  elaborated. 
More  use  was  made  of  light-armed  archers 
and  slingors  and  of  cavalry.  Epaminondas 
(q.v.)  introduced  real  tactics;  and  Philip 
of  Macedon  developed  the  phalanx  (q.v.). 

At  Athens  in  the  5th  and  4th  oo.  B.C. 
military  service  was  obligatory  on  all 

Army  48 

citizens,  and  from  the  age  of  18  to  20  they 
underwent  military  training  as  recruits 
(see  also  Ephebi).  The  cavalry,  service  in 
which  entailed  heavy  expense,  was  formed 
mainly  from  the  hippeis  (see  Athens,  §2); 
the  hoplites  or  heavy  infantry,  who  made  up 
the  bulk  of  the  army,  were  drawn  from  the 
zeugttai  and  the  richer  metics.  The  thctes 
served  as  light  infantry  or  in  the  fleet. 
From  20  to  49  years  of  age  an  Athenian 
formed  part  of  the  active  army.  From 
50  to  60  ho  was  included,  with  the  recruits 
and  the  remaining  metics,  in  a  territorial 
militia.  In  431  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Peloponnesian  War,  Athens  had  a  field 
army  of  13,000  and  a  territorial  army  of 
16,000  men.  There  were  also  some  foreign 
mercenaries,  light -armed  archers.  The 
cavalry  (1,000  in  number  after  446)  were 
organized  in  ten  squadrons,  the  hoplites 
in  ten  regiments  (taxeis),  based  on  the  ten 
tribes.  Each  regiment  numbered  about 
1,300  men,  was  divided  into  battalions 
(lochoi),  and  was  commanded  by  a  taxi- 
arch.  The  hoplite  wore  a  helmet,  cuirass, 
and  greaves  of  metal,  carried  a  shield  of 
leather  with  a  metal  rim,  and  was  armed 
with  a  lance  six  feet  long  (very  different 
from  the  Macedonian  sarissa  of  13  feet), 
and  a  short  sword.  He  received,  on  service, 
pay  at  two  (afterwards  three)  obols  a  day, 
and  subsistence  allowance  at  the  same 
rate  (hi  the  cavalry  the  allowance  was  1 
drachma).  Military  officers,  strategi  (q.v.), 
taxiarchs,  etc.,  were  elected  (not  chosen 
by  lot)  annually,  but  unlike  most  of 
the  civil  officials  might  be  re-elected  in- 
definitely (see  also  Polemarch).  See  PI.  3a. 
At  Sparta  (q.v.),  whore  the  whole  life 
of  the  male  citizens  was  organized  with  a 
view  to  the  military  efficiency  of  the  State, 
liability  to  foreign  military  service  ex- 
tended from  20  to  60  years  of  age,  and  a 
high  degree  of  mobility  and  dexterity  in 
the  use  of  weapons  was  attained  by  con- 
stant exercises.  It  was  from  Sparta  that 
the  institution  of  armoured  spearmen 
fighting  on  foot  in  serried  ranks  (hoplites) 
spread  through  Greece.  Our  knowledge  of 
the  organization  of  the  Spartan  army  is 
not  very  certain,  and  the  details  given  by 
Thucydides  and  Xenophon,  respectively, 
are  not  easy  to  reconcile.  Moreover  the 
Spartans  deliberately  kept  the  strength  of 
their  army  secret.  At  Mantinea  in  418  B.C. 
it  consisted,  according  to  Thucydides,  of 
seven  lochoi  of  512  spears,  subdivided 
down  to  16  platoons  (enomotiai)  of  32, 
each  with  its  commanding  officer,  thus 
securing  rapidity  of  movement  and  flexi 
bility.  It  seems  probable  that  before  the 
end  of  the  Peloponnesian  War  the  or- 
ganization was  modified,  and  a  formation 
called  a  mora  introduced,  numbering 


about  600  men,  subdivided  as  before  down 
to  platoons.  Four  such  moral  fought 
under  Cleombrotus  at  Leuctra,  but  the 
number  of  Spartiatae  included  in  them 
was  only  about  700.  With  the  dwindling 
number  of  Spartan  citizens,  the  ranks  were 
increasingly  filled  with  perioed  (see  Sparta, 
§  2),  supplemented  in  great  emergencies  by 
helots.  Cavalry  appears  to  have  played 
a  subordinate  part  in  the  Spartan  army. 
This  army  was  unique  not  only  in  its 
tactical  organization  (which  caused  Xeno- 
phon amazement)  but  hi  having  a  uniform 
and  military  flute-players.  In  all  Greek 
armies  the  men  had  to  supply  their  own 
arms  and  fend  for  themselves  in  provisions. 
In  the  early  part  of  the  4th  c.  the  in- 
creasing use  of  mercenary  troops,  drawn 
especially  from  the  wilder  parts  of  Greece, 
became  of  importance.  These  professional 
troops,  known  as  peltasts  (from  pelte,  a 
small,  light,  leather  shield),  were  armed 
with  a  javelin  and  light  shield,  and  were 
more  mobile  than  the  hoplites  (see  PI.  3b). 
In  the  Corinthian  War  (see  Corinth)  of  this 
period,  a  force  of  peltasts,  with  improved 
weapons,  was  organized  by  the  Athenian 
Iphicrates,  and  was  used  with  great  suc- 
cess against  the  Spartans.  Mercenary  ser- 
vice grew  in  importance  during  the  4th 
and  later  centuries,  and  Greek  mercenaries 
were  largely  employed  by  tho  Persian 
kings  and  their  satraps  (Xenophon  and 
the  10,000  afford  a  conspicuous  example). 
Demosthenes  frequently  protests  against 
it.  For  t  he  later  development  of  Greek  mili- 
tary tactics  see  Epaminondas  and  Phalanx. 
Alexander's  military  successes  were  prin- 
cipally duo  to  his  skilful  use  of  cavalry  (who 
were  more  numerous  in  his  than  in  earlier 
Greek  armies  and  were  trained  to  charge 
homo).  These  delivered  flank  attacks, 
while  the  phalanx  attacked  the  enemy 
front.  In  the  narrative  of  Alexander's 
battles  we  constantly  find  him  command- 
ing in  person  the  best  of  the  cavalry  and 
delivering  the  decisive  blow.  The  succes- 
sors of  Alexander  relied  largely  on  great 
masses  of  inferior  oriental  troops,  doubling 
tho  depth  of  the  phalanx  and  thus  further 
diminishing  its  mobility.  Pyrrhus  appears 
to  have  tried  to  remedy  this  defect  in  his 
wars  with  Rome  by  breaking  up  the 
phalanx  into  a  number  of  columns  with 
bodies  of  Italian  troops  placed  between 
them;  but  ho  failed  to  overcome  the 
Roman  resistance.  The  later  eastern 
adversaries  of  Rome,  such  as  Philip  V, 
Perseus,  and  Antiochus  III,  were  even  less 

§  2.  Greek  siege-craft 
Siege-craft  made  no  considerable  pro- 
gress before  the  5th  c.  B.C.  In  earlier  days 

Army  49 

Greek  citadels  on  rocky  hills,  or  walled 
towns  such  as  Thebes,  were  impregnable, 
and  had  to  be  reduced  by  blockade,  unless 
treachery  opened  a  way  to  the  besiegers. 
In  the  5th  c.  we  first  hear  of  siege  engines 
(chiefly  rams,  scaling-ladders,  and  screens 
lor  the  protection  of  the  attacking  force). 
But  the  defence  still  had  the  advan- 
tage, as  may  be  seen  from  the  account 
given  by  Thucydides  (n.  Ixxv  et  seq.)  of 
the  successful  resistance  offered  by  the 
Plataeans  in  429  B.C.  to  the  engines  of  the 
besiegers.  A  great  advance  in  siege -craft 
was  made  when,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
4th  c.,  Dionysius  I  of  Syracuse  introduced 
the  use  of  the  catapult.  From  a  large 
cross-bow  of  increased  range  and  power, 
this  was  developed  into  an  engine  capable 
of  discharging  heavy  missiles  against 
fortifications.  During  this  century  sieges 
began  to  be  conducted  more  scientifically, 
with  regular  covered  approaches,  mines, 
movable  towers,  and  various  types  of 
catapults.  The  methods  of  the  defence 
were  likewise  improved.  Countermines 
were  sunk  to  upset  movable  towers,  cata- 
pults were  extensively  used  against  the 
engines  of  the  besiegers,  and  fire-arrows 
and  similar  devices  wore  employed  to  set 
them  on  fire.  Among  the  most  notable 
sieges  of  this  century  were  the  siege  of 
Tyre  by  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.,  fc  4) 
and  the  unsuccessful  siege  of  Rhodes  by 
Demetrius  Poliorcutcs  (see  Macedonia, 
§  2,  and  Rhodes). 

§  3.  Roman  Army 

The  earliest  Roman  army  is  said  by 
tradition  to  have  been  an  exclusively 
patrician  body  (the  Ugio)  consisting  of 
three  regiments  of  1,000  infantry  each, 
with  three  'centuries'  of  cavalry.  This 
force  was  reorganized  and  enlarged  by 
Servius  Tullius  on  the  basis  of  his  classi- 
fication of  the  community  (see  Romet  §  2). 
It  was  raised  to  four  legions,  each  of  about 
3,000  infantry,  drawn  in  certain  propor- 
tions from  the  various  classes  of  the  census 
but  with  a  minimum  property  qualifica- 
tion of  11,000  asses  (12,500  according  to 
some  authorities).  These  were  required 
to  equip  themselves  and  serve  without 
pay.  The  legionaries  were  armed  with 
shield,  sword,  and  long  spear  (hasta); 
there  were  certain  differences  of  equip- 
ment according  to  class.  The  legion 
fought  in  mass  formation,  six  ranks  deep, 
with  a  front  of  500.  There  wore  also 
eighteen  'centuries'  of  cavalry.  Pay  was 
introduced,  according  to  tradition,  in  406 
during  the  siege  of  Veil,  owing  to  the 
prolonged  character  of  the  service.  The 
legion  was  reorganized  at  some  date  before 
the  2nd  c.  B.C.  on  the  basis  of  the '  maniple* 
4339  E 


of  two  centuries,  designed  to  give  the 
formation  greater  flexibility.  It  was  fur- 
ther divided  between  heavy-armed  and 
light-armed  troops  (velites);  and  the 
heavy -armed  in  turn  into  hastdti,  prin- 
cipes,  and  tridrii,  according  to  their  ago 
and  military  experience,  the  hastati  being 
the  youngest  soldiers,  the  triarii  the 
veterans.  The  hastati  and  principes,  occu- 
pying the  front  ranks,  had  two  javelins 
(pild)  for  throwing;  the  triarii,  used  as  a 
reserve,  retained  the  hasta.  The  heavy- 
armed  troops  had  a  bronze  helmet,  the 
light-armed  a  leather  helmet;  all  had  a 
shield  and  a  sword,  a  short  cut-and-thrust 
weapon,  worn,  unlike  the  modern  sword, 
on  the  right  side.  See  PI.  4. 

The  Roman  cavalry,  which  originally 
were  merely  mounted  infantry,  were  under 
the  Servian  organization  drawn  from 
the  richest  class.  Equites  equo  publico  re- 
ceived their  horses  from  the  State ;  equites 
equo  privato  provided  their  own.  Roman 
cavalry  disappeared  after  146  B.C.,  and 
Italians  did  not  servo  in  the  cavalry  after 
the  1st  c.  B.C.  Thereafter  the  cavalry 
formed  part  of  the  auxiliary  troops. 
Before  the  enfranchisement  of  Italy  the 
Roman  army  proper  was  assisted  by  con- 
tingents from  tho  Latin  and  Italian  allies 
(nominally  equal,  in  practice  often  more 
numerous).  Foreign  mercenaries  were 
freely  employed  for  cavalry  (Numidians, 
Gauls,  Spaniards)  and  special  arms 
(Balearic  slingers). 

The  original  Roman  army  was  a  militia 
of  Roman  citizens  in  which  service  was 
compulsory.  But  tho  shrinkage  in  tho 
number  of  available  citizens,  in  spite  of 
the  lowering  of  the  census-standard  from 
11,000  asses  to  4,000,  led  Marius  to  effect 
a  reorganization.  There  had  been  a  gradual 
transition  before  his  time;  owing  to  tho 
almost  continuous  wars  a  professional 
type  of  soldier  was  growing  up.  Marius 
abolished  tho  property  qualification  and 
abandoned  conscription.  The  cohort  (of 
three  maniples)  became  the  military  unit ; 
there  were  ten  cohorts  in  the  legion;  the 
legion  was  raised  (nominally)  to  6,000  men 
(in  practice  it  sometimes  fell  to  half  this 
strength),  and  equipment  became  uniform. 
The  hasta  was  abandoned,  and  all  carried 
the  pttum.  The  eagle  was  adopted  as  the 
standard  of  tho  legion,  and  was  carried  by 
the  first  maniple  of  the  first  cohort.  En- 
listment was  normally  for  twenty  years  ; 
pay  was  120  dendrii  a  year  (increased  under 
Caesar  to"  225  denarii) ;  the  cost  of  rations 
was  deducted  from  the  pay.  The  command 
of  each  legion  was  exercised  by  one  of  six 
tribunes  (tribuni  militum),  commanding  in 
turn  (in  Caesar's  army  and  under  the  empire 
each  legion  had  one  commanding  officer,  tho 




UgQius\  the  tribunes  were  retained  with 
subordinate  duties).  Under  these  were 
sixty  centurions,  each  commanding  a 

Professional  armies  of  this  description, 
owing  their  allegiance  to  their  generals,  to 
whom  they  looked  for  rewards  and  chances 
of  booty,  were  at  the  root  of  the  civil  wars 
of  the  1st  c.  B.C.  Great  military  comman- 
ders, relying  on  their  legions,  were  able  to 
dominate  the  State,  and  their  conflicting 
ambitions  brought  about  the  terrible 
struggles  of  that  period. 

The  number  of  legions  varied  with  the 
requirements  of  the  time.  Augustus  was 
the  first  to  create  a  standing  army,  which 
at  his  death  included  25  legions,  per- 
manently existing,  with  fixed  stations 
and  definite  members  and  names.  Three 
legions,  XVII,  XVIII,  and  XIX,  had 
been  destroyed  in  the  Varus  (q.v.)  disaster 
and  these  numbers  were  never  used  again. 
Two  legions  were  added  by  Claudius,  and 
three  more  before  the  accession  of  Ves- 
pasian; and  this  total  of  30  legions  was 
retained  in  the  reign  of  Trajan.  The  origin 
of  the  practice  of  giving  names  as  well  as 
numbers  to  certain  legions  appears  to  be 
the  retention  by  Augustus  of  some  of  the 
legions  of  Antony  as  well  as  his  own ;  those 
bearing  the  same  number  in  their  original 
armies  kept  them,  with  a  distinguishing 
name  in  addition,  e.g.  II  Adjutrix  and 
II  Augusta.  The  military  establishment 
of  the  empire  consisted  of:  (A)  Legions, 
recruited  nominally  from  Roman  citizens, 
but  actually  often  from  provincials ;  from 
Hadrian's  time,  if  not  earlier,  local  re- 
cruitment became  the  rule.  The  term  of 
service  in  the  legions  was  16  years  (soon 
raised  to  20).  Pay  was  at  the  rate  of 
225  denarii  a  year  (with  a  free  ration  of 
corn),  raised  to  300  by  Domitian,  with  a 
lump  Bum  on  discharge  of  3,000  denarii. 
The  legionaries  were  not  allowed  to  marry 
during  their  service,  but  the  unions  they 
formed  during  their  service  were  legalized 
on  their  discharge.  (B)  Auxiliary  cohorts 
(under  tribuni)  and  dlae  (under  prefects 
of  equestrian  rank),  infantry  and  cavalry 
respectively,  recruited  from  provincials; 
they  had  a  longer  period  of  service  and 
lower  pay,  and  acquired  Roman  citizen- 
ship on  discharge.  They  were  originally 
recruited  from  special  races,  after  which 
they  are  normally  called.  They  also  for 
the  most  part  came  to  be  recruited  locally 
and  Roman  citizens  often  entered  them. 
There  wore  also  some  cohorts  of  Roman 
citizens.  Some  of  the  auxiliary  infantry 
retained  their  national  weapons  and  were 
called  sagittdrii  (archers),  funditores  (slin- 
gers),  etc.  Auxiliary  cohorts  were  attached 
to  the  several  legions,  or  were  used  for  the 

garrisons  of  the  less  important  provinces. 
A  contingent  of  auxiliary  cavalry  (four  aloe 
of  30  men  each  in  Hadrian's  time)  was  at- 
tached to  each  legion.  Pay  in  the  auxiliary 
forces  was  at  the  rate  of  70  denarii  a  year. 
(C)  Special  corps,  (a)  Praetorians  (q.v.  and 
see  also  Praefectus  Praetorio),  nominally 
Italians  till  Septimius  Severus;  (b)  four 
cohortes  urbanae  for  police  duties  in  the 
capital,  recruited  from  freedmen;  they 
served  under  the  Prefect  of  the  City, 
ranked  after  the  Praetorians,  and  received 
higher  pay  than  the  legions;  (c)  Vigilum 
cohortes,  the  fire-brigade,  also  recruited 
from  freedmen. 

The  army  of  the  empire  was  stationed 
almost  entirely  on  the  frontiers.  These 
were  defended  by  forts  (castella),  and, 
where  the  frontier  was  not  protected  by  a 
river,  by  methods  which  varied  at  different 
periods.  Under  Domitian  a  series  of  small 
earth  forts  were  erected,  with  larger  stone 
forts  at  greater  intervals  in  the  rear; 
under  Trajan  and  his  successors  the 
defence  consisted  of  a  wall  of  stone  or 
earth  with  a  ditch  in  front  of  it  and  forts 
at  intervals.  For  Hadrian's  Wall  from  the 
Solway  to  the  Tyne,  see  Britain,  §  2.  For 
the  Roman  camps,  see  under  Castra.  See 
also  Elephants. 

%  4.  Roman  siege-craft 
Siege-craft  developed  in  the  Roman 
army  in  much  the  same  way  as  in  the 
Greek  armies  (see  above,  §2).  Blockade 
was  increasingly  supplemented  or  replaced 
by  assault,  as  the  devices  of  Greek  en- 
gineers came  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
Romans  and  were  developed  by  them. 
The  testudo  was  a  Roman  device  by  which 
interlocked  shields  formed  a  screen  under 
which  a  scaling  party  could  approach  the 
walls;  and  there  were  other  protective 
devices  of  the  same  kind,  such  as  the 
musculus  (a  long  gallery  on  wheels  with 
sloping  roof),  used  by  Caesar  at  the  siege 
of  Massilia.  The  lines  of  the  besieging 
force  were  protected  by  trenches  and  pits 
against  sallies  of  the  enemy,  and  when 
threatened  by  a  relieving  army  (as  at 
Alesia  in  52  B.C.),  by  an  external  rampart 
and  palisade.  A  causeway  (agger)  might 
bo  built  up  to  the  walls  and  a  huge  mov- 
able tower  brought  along  it  into  a  position 
from  which  the  assailants  could  drive  the 
defenders  from  the  wall  and  cross  to  it  by 
drawbridges.  The  chief  battering  engine 
was  the  ram  (arils),  a  beam  tipped  with 
iron,  sometimes  of  great  weight  and  swung 
on  ropes,  hi  the  more  developed  type  on 
a  wheeled  frame.  The  catapult  and 
ballista  (discharging  respectively  large 
arrows  and  heavier  missiles)  were  a  sort 
of  giant  crossbow  to  which  the  propulsive 


force  was  given  by  the  torsion  of  ropes; 
the  onager  was  a  large  mechanical  sling. 
These  engines  were  used  especially  for  the 

Arnold,  THOMAS,  see  Historians  (Modern). 

Arpi'num,  a  town  in  Latium,  the  birth- 
place of  Marius  and  Cicero. 

A'rria,  (1)  wife  of  Caecina  Paetus,  who, 
when  her  husband  was  ordered  to  death 
under  the  emperor  Claudius,  'taught  her 
husband  how  to  die',  stabbing  herself  and 
handing  him  the  dagger,  with  the  words 
'Paete,  non  dolet*.  (2)  The  daughter  of 
the  above,  wife  of  Thrasea,  a  Stoic  philo- 
sopher who  was  put  to  death  by  Nero. 

A'rrian  (Fldvius  Arridnus)  (c.  A.D.  OS- 
ITS),  a  Greek  of  Nlcomedia  in  Blthynia, 
a  successful  officer  in  the  Roman  army, 
who  became  consul  and  legate  in  Cappa- 
docia.  Ho  was  author  of  various  extant 
works  in  Greek:  a  valuable  Anabasis  of 
Alexander  the  Great,  in  seven  books, 
narrating  his  campaigns,  with  an  eighth 
book  descriptive  of  India  and  Indian 
customs  and  relating  the  voyage  of 
Nearchus  in  the  Persian  Gulf ;  anEncheiri- 
dion  or  manual  of  the  philosophy  of  his 
master  Epictetus  (q.v.),  and  a  record  of 
the  'Lectures'  (Diatribai)  of  the  same 
philosopher,  four  books  of  which  out  of 
the  original  eight  survive ;  a  Periplous  or 
geographical  description  of  the  Euxino 
Sea;  a  Kunegetikos  (on  Hunting)  purport- 
ing to  supplement  tho  treatise  attributed 
to  Xenophon ;  and  other  minor  works. 

Ars  Amato'ria,  a  poem  in  three  books 
of  elegiacs  by  Ovid,  written  shortly  before 
the  beginning  of  tho  Christian  era.  The 
term  *ars'  was  applied  to  a  technical 
treatise,  and  is  playfully  applied  to  a 
treatise  on  tho  devices  of  love.  Tho  first 
two  books  consist  of  instructions  to  men 
on  the  wooing  of  women  of  easy  virtue ; 
the  third,  of  instructions  to  women  on 
the  seduction  of  men.  The  work  is  full 
of  humour  and  charm,  and  contains 
interesting  glimpses  of  Roman  life  and 
manners — the  circus,  tho  theatre,  the  ban- 
quet. It  was  very  popular,  and  quotations 
from  it  have  been  found  on  the  walls 
of  Pompeii.  It  was  perhaps  partly  on 
account  of  its  immorality  that  Augustus 
banished  tho  poet  to  Tomi. 

Ars  PoS'tica,  the  title  (it  was  not  the 
author's)  by  which  tho  'Epistle  to  tho 
Pisos*  of  Horace  is  generally  known.  It 
is  addressed  to  a  father  and  two  sons  of 
the  name  of  Piso,  whose  identity  depends 
on  the  date  to  be  assigned  to  the  work 
(see  Horace);  the  elder  was  perhaps  the 
son  of  the  Piso  who  was  Caesar's  father- 



in -law.  It  is  a  rather  haphazard  letter  of 
advice  on  the  pursuit  of  literature,  and 
appears  to  consist  largely  (and  this  agrees 
with  a  statement  by  an  early  commenta- 
tor) of  maxims  extracted  from  a  Greek 
manual  by  Neoptolomus  of  Parium,  a 
Hellenistic  writer  of  uncertain  date,  each 
followed  by  the  comments  of  Horace 
himself.  But  the  poet's  charm  pervades 
the  whole,  which  is  rendered  more  inter- 
esting by  apt  illustrations  and  by  shrewd 
criticisms  on  authors  of  tho  day.  After 
dealing  with  technical  points  on  the 
composition  of  a  drama  (such  as  pro- 
portion, subject,  metre,  language)  and  a 
short  passage  on  tho  epic,  Horace  passes 
to  advico  en  poetic  composition  in 
general.  He  insists  on  the  seriousness  of 
the  poetic  art:  study  life  and  human  rela- 
tions; avoid  the  corrupting  influences  of 
gain  and  flattery;  do  not  write  unless 
inspired  by  the  Muse;  submit  your  work 
to  a  competent  judge;  keep  it  by  you  for 
nine  years.  The  work  exercised  a  great 
influence  in  later  ages  on  European  litera- 
ture, notably  on  French  drama  through 
Boileau's  translation.  It  was  translated 
into  English  by  Bon  Jonson.  Many  liter- 
ary phrases,  such  as  tho  'purple  patch', 
the  'ridiculus  mus'  of  bathos,  the  refer- 
ence to  'Hoiner  nodding',  tho  'labour  of 
the  file',  the  abrupt  entry  on  a  subject 
('in  medias  res'),  have  their  origins  in  it. 

Arsi'noe,  (1 )  see  Alcmaeon.  (2)  The  name 
of  several  Macedonian  princesses.  The 
most  important  was  Arsinoe  II,  Phila- 
delphus  the  daughter  of  Ptolemy  I  and 
tho  wife  successively  of  Lysimachus, 
Ptolemy  Ceraunus,  and  her  brother 
Ptolemy  II.  She  was  a  woman  of  great 
vigour  and  ability,  successful  both  in  war 
and  peace,  and  'the  years  till  her  death 
in  270  were  Egypt's  golden  age*  (Tarn). 
She  was  deified  before  her  death.  (3)  For 
tho  Egyptian  town  of  that  name  see 

Art.  (1)  GREEK,  see  Architecture,  Paint- 
ing, Sculpture,  Toreutic  Art.  (2)  ROMAN. 
Whether  or  not  there  existed  an  indigen- 
ous Italian  or  Romano -Etruscan  art  before 
the  invasion  of  Hellenism  is  a  matter  of 
discussion.  But  such  remains  as  can  be 
claimed  for  it  are  of  no  high  merit.  Greek 
art  on  the  other  hand,  whose  inspiration 
had  become  exhausted  and  whoso  expres- 
sion had  become  conventional,  found  re- 
newed youth  and  fresh  themes  on  Roman 
soil  and  in  Roman  history.  Roman  sculp- 
ture reached  its  highest  excellence  in  the 
lst-2nd  o.  A.D.,  and  is  seen  at  its  best  in 
portrait  busts,  where  it  showed  great 
power  of  expressing  character,  and  in  bas- 
reliefs,  the  subjects  of  which  are  largely 



Arval  Priests 

historical.  Fine  examples  of  them  are  seen 
in  the  sculptures  of  the  Ara  Pacis  (q.v.) 
of  the  Augustan  Age,  and,  at  later  stages 
of  development,  of  the  Arch  of  Titus 
and  the  frieze  and  column  of  Trajan;  but 
breadth  and  grandeur  of  treatment  are 
sometimes  marred  by  excessive  crowding 
of  figures  and  meticulous  attention  to 
detail.  There  are  also  many  examples  of 
decoration  of  altars  and  columns  with 
convolutions  and  festoons  of  foliage  and 
flowers.  Though  the  artists  may,  at  least 
in  the  first  period,  have  been  mainly 
Greeks,  the  art  was  a  new  one.  • 

Painting  was  used  by  the  Romans 
chiefly  to  decorate  the  inner  walls  of 
houses.  The  subjects  of  these  frescoes, 
of  which  many  examples  have  been  found 
in  Herculaneum  and  Pompeii,  were  prin- 
cipally scenes  from  Greek  myth,  or  single 
figures  such  as  Orpheus  or  a  Centaur,  less 
frequently  landscapes,  still  life,  or  contem- 
porary scenes.  Many  of  them  show  much 
beauty  of  colour,  line,  and  expression. 

Roman  architecture  was  even  more  dis- 
tinctive, being  marked  especially  by  the 
development  of  the  arch,  the  vault,  and 
the  dome.  It  evolved  the  plans  of  great 
public  buildings,  on  which  our  modern 
conceptions  have  been  based ;  these  build- 
ings were  remarkable  for  unity  of  design, 
solidity  of  construction,  and  grandeur  of 
decoration  (though  the  latter  was  some- 
times tasteless).  The  masonry  took  the 
form  of  either  ashlar,  concrete,  or  brick. 
The  architecture  is  seen  at  its  best  in 
such  buildings  as  the  Pantheon  built  by 
Agrippa  in  27  B.C.  (which  survives  much 
altered),  the  mighty  Colosseum,  and  in 
the  plan  of  the  Baths  of  Caracalla;  also 
hi  the  great  aqueducts,  bridges,  theatres, 
&c.,  of  which  the  remains  are  still  to  be 
seen  in  all  parts  of  the  Roman  Empire. 

Mention  must  also  be  made  of  the  art 
of  gem-engraving  which  became  popular 
at  Rome  in  the  last  century  of  the  republic 
and  was  further  developed  under  the 
empire,  both  in  the  form  of  the  intaglio 
where  the  design  is  sunk,  and  in  the  cameo 
where  it  is  engraved  in  relief.  Engraved 
gems  were  used  for  signet-rings,  and  the 
surviving  examples  include  portraits  of 
Caesar,  Pompey,  Cicero,  and  Tiberius. 
Larger  examples  are  the  splendid  portrait 
of  Augustus  in  the  British  Museum;  the 
Gemma  Augustea  at  Vienna  representing 
Augustus,  Tiberius,  Germanicus,  and  a 
group  of  deities,  with  a  military  scene 
below ;  and  the  grand  camee  in  Paris  repre- 
senting Tiberius,  Livia,  and  Germanicus, 
with  various  symbolical  figures.  The 
gem-cutters  were  probably  Greeks  or 
artists  from  the  Hellenistic  East ;  the  most 
famous  of  them  was  named  Dioscorides. 

Artemidd'rus  (Artemidoros)  of  Daldis, 
see  Divination  (ad  fin.). 

A'ijtemis  (identified  by  the  Romans  with 
iflana,  q.v.),  in  Greek  mythology  the 
daughter  of  Zeus  and  Loto  (q.v.),  and 
sister  of  Apollo.  For  the  legend  of  her 
birth  see  Apollo.  She  was  a  goddess  of 
wild  life,  a  virgin  huntress,  attended  by 
a  train  of  nymphs,  and  also  a  goddess  of 
childbirth  and  of  all  very  young  things. 
She  was  also  identified  with  the  moon. 
A  famous  centre  of  her  cult  was  Ephesus 
(q.v.),  where  her  maternal  character  was 
prominent,  and  where  she  may  have  been 
in  origin  the  Asiatic  goddess  of  fertility, 
identified  by  the  lonians  with  the  Greek 
Artemis ;  the  high  priest  of  tlte  temple  at 
Ephesus  was  known  as  the  Megabyzus. 
At  Brauron  in  Attica  there  was  an  ancient 
shrine  of  the  moon-goddess,  supposed 
to  contain  the  imago  of  the  goddess 
brought  from  Tauris  by  Iphigenia  (q.v.). 
It  was  so  highly  venerated  that  a  sanctuary 
was  dedicated  on  the  Acropolis  of  Athens 
to  Artemis  Brauronia.  Artemis  had  a 
special  association  with  the  bear  (she 
turned  Callisto,  q.v.,  into  a  bear)  and  the 
little  girls  who  were  her  temple-servants 
at  Athens  were  called  'bears'.  She  is 
treated  with  scanty  respect  in  the  'Iliad* 
(xxi.  489  et  seq.),  where  Homer  represents 
her  as  beaten  by  Hera  with  her  own  bow, 
and  sent  away  weeping.  See  also  Hecate. 
Artemis  is  involved  in  the  myths  of 
Callisto,  Hippolytus,  and  Orion  (qq.v.). 
See  also  Britomartis. 

Artemi'sia  (Artemisia).  (1)  daughter  of 
Lygdamis  king  of  Halicarnassus  and  after 
his  death  regent  of  his  kingdom.  With 
five  ships  she  accompanied  Xerxes  in  his 
invasion  of  Greece,  and  is  said  to  have 
shown  bravery  and  resource  at  Salamis. 
(2)  The  wife  of  Mausolus  (q.v.). 

Arundel  Marbles,  see  Marmor  Parium. 

Arval  Priests  (Frdtres  Arvdles),  a  college 
of  twelve  priests  charged  in  ancient  times 
with  the  observance  of  the  annual  cere- 
mony (Ambarvalia,  q.v.)  designed  to  pro- 
pitiate the  gods  of  agriculture.  The  text 
of  an  Arval  hymn  survives,  one  of  tho 
earliest  fragments  of  Latin  literature.  It 
is  an  invocation  of  tho  Lares  and  Mars  (ha 
his  early  character  of  an  agricultural  god) 
to  protect  the  fields.  The  college  of  the 
Arval  priests  was  revived  by  Augustus. 
As  we  know  from  inscriptions  that  have 
been  recovered,  they  worshipped  in  a 
grove  on  the  Via  Campania,  five  miles 
from  Rome.  They  carried  on  the  cult  of 
the  Dea  Dia,  an  earth  goddess,  and  on 
solemn  occasions  offered  sacrifices  for  the 



Asia  Minor 

imperial  house.  Hence  the  inscriptions 
recording  their  sacrifices  are  of  historical 

Arx,  at  Rome,  the  NE.  summit  of  the 
Capitoline  Hill,  the  citadel  proper.  Hero 
was  the  temple  of  Juno  (q.v.)  Moneta. 

Asca'laphus  (Askalaphos),  seo  Perse- 

Asca'nius  or  TCrLUS,  the  son  of  Aeneas, 
and  according  to  legend  the  ancestor  of 
the  gens  Julia  (q.v.).    See  Acneid. 
Ascle'piade'an,  seo  Metre,  §  3. 

Asclepi'ades  of  Samos  (c.  290  B.C.), 
a  famous  Greek  writer  of  epigrams,  of 
the  Hellenistic  Age,  a  contemporary  of 
Philitas  and  Theocritus  (qq.v.).  Eighteen 
of  his  poems  are  included  in  the  Palatine 
Anthology  (q.v.)  and  show  great  elegance 
and  finish.  He  probably  gave  his  name  to 
the  Asclepiadean  metre  (seo  Metre,  §  3) 
employed  by  Horace. 
Ascle'pius  (Asklepios,  Lat.  Aesculapius), 
in  Greek  mythology,  son  of  Apollo  (q.v.), 
and  god  of  medicine.  Apollo  loved 
Coronis,  daughter  of  Phlegyas,  but  she 
was  unfaithful  to  him,  and  ho  slew  her. 
Afterwards  ho  was  sorry,  and  turned  the 
crow  which  had  told  him  of  her  infidelity 
from  a  white  bird  into  a  black.  He  saved 
the  child  of  Coronis  (Asclepius)  and  en- 
trusted him  to  the  wise  Centaur  Chiron 
(q.v.).  From  him  Asclepius  learnt  the  art 
of  medicine.  At  the  prayer  of  Artemis  he 
restored  her  favourite  llippolytus  to  life. 
Zeus,  angered  at  his  interference,  slew 
Asclepius  with  a  thunderbolt,  Apollo,  in 
turn,  was  wroth  at  the  death  of  his 
son,  and  in  revenge  killed  the  Cyclopes 
(q.v.)  who  had  made  the  thunderbolt. 
To  expiate  this  murder  he  became  for  a 
year  the  slave  of  Admetus  (q.v.).  Homer 
represents  Asclepius  as  the  father  of 
Machaon  and  Podaleirius,  the  surgeons 
of  the  Greek  host  before  Troy;  and  he 
came  to  bo  worshipped  as  the  god  of  heal- 
ing, the  most  famous  seat  of  his  cult  being 
Epidaurus.  Here  patients  coming  to  bo 
cured  slept  in  his  temple,  and  the  cure 
was  effected  in  the  night,  or  the  means  of 
it  communicated  by  dreams.  The  sanc- 
tuary of  Asclepius  at  Athens  stood  under 
the  S.  cliff  of  the  Acropolis,  adjoining  the 
Theatre  of  Dionysus  (q.v.).  It  was  here 
that  Plutus  (q.v.)  in  Aristophanes'  play 
was  cured  of  his  blindness.  The  attribute 
of  Asclepius  was  the  snake,  a  symbol  of 
rejuvenescence  (because  the  snake  slough- 
ing his  skin  was  thought  to  renew  his 
youth),  and  sacred  serpents  were  kept  in 
the  temples  of  Asclepius;  these  were 
believed  to  heal  the  sick  by  licking  them. 
The  yellow  snakes  referred  to  by  Pausanias 

as  kept  in  the  sanctuary  of  Epidaurus,  a 
harmless  variety,  are  said  still  to  be 
found  in  the  neighbourhood.  Sacred  dogs 
were  also  kept  in  this  sanctuary,  and 
Asclepius  is  represented  on  coins  with  a 
dog  under  his  chair.  According  to  some 
authorities  Asclepius  after  his  death  was 
turned  into  the  constellation  Ophiuchus, 
the  snake-holder.  See  also  Aesculapius. 

Asia  Minor,  GREEK  CITIES  OF.  Greek 
cities  and  States  (Aeolian,  Ionian,  and 
Dorian)  extended  along  the  W.  coast  of 
Asia  Minor  and  the  adjoining  islands  from 
the  Troad  in  the  N.  to  Halicarnassus  and 
Rhodes  in  the  S.  (see  Migrations  and 
Dialects  and  PI.  8).  In  the  early  stages 
of  their  history  these  Greek  States  were 
in  contact  with  the  neighbouring  kingdom 
of  Lydia  and  the  more  distant  Phrygia, 
and  Greeks  and  Asiatics  influenced  one 
another.  The  Phrygians  and  Lydians 
adopted  the  alphabet  of  the  Greeks,  and  the 
Phrygian  king,  Midas,  dedicated  a  throne 
at  Delphi.  The  Greeks  adopted  the  Asiatic 
modes  of  music,  introduced  Eastern  myths 
into  their  religion,  took  from  Lydia  the 
invention  of  coinage,  and  were  affected 
by  Asia  in  their  art,  science,  and  technical 
skill.  They  came  in  the  6th  c.  under  the 
dominion  of  Croesus  of  Lydia,  and  a  little 
later  under  that  of  the  Persian  Cyrus. 
But  the  Persians  did  not  interfere  much 
with  their  trade  or  internal  life.  The 
Greek  cities  had  been  independent  States, 
jealous  of  each  other,  torn  by  aristocratic 
and  democratic  factions,  and  strategically 
weak  against  attack  from  the  interior. 
The  Persians  favoured  the  establishment 
of  tyrannies,  which  became  common. 
These  States  were  wealthy  and  prosperous 
communities.  Their  soil  was  more  fertile 
than  that  of  Greece  and  they  had  good 
harbours.  They  grew  corn,  raised  stock, 
and  cultivated  the  olive  and  (especially 
in  the  islands)  the  vine.  They  were  im- 
portant industrial  centres,  for  they  had 
raw  materials,  metals,  wood,  wool,  leather, 
and  dyes,  and  produced  textiles,  furniture, 
gems,  and  pottery.  Their  trade  became 
active,  and  was  facilitated  by  their  inclu- 
sion in  the  Persian  Empire.  Prosperity 
developed  their  social  and  political  life 
and  led  them  to  send  out  fresh  colonies, 
especially  to  places  from  which  they  could 
obtain  corn  and  salt  fish  (see  Colonization, 
§2).  Prosperity  also  encouraged  a  great 
intellectual  development,  of  which  we  see 
the  proof  in  the  large  number  of  philo- 
sophers and  poets  born  in  Ionia  at  a  time 
when  Greece  itself  was  still  comparatively 
benighted  (see  Birthplaces).  With  the 
coming  of  the  5th  c.  the  history  of  Greek 
Asia  Minor  becomes  bound  up  with  that 

Asianism  5 

of    Greece   proper.     See  Persian   Wars, 

Athens,  §  4,  and  the  names  of  the  principal 

Greek  cities  in  Asia  such  as  Ephesus  and 


Asianism,  see  Oratory,  §  1,  ad  fin. 

AsinS'Ha,  a  farcical  comedy  by  Plautus 
adapted  from  the  'Onagos'  of  the  Greek 
comedian  Demophilus. 

Demaenetus,  an  indulgent  father,  wishes 
to  help  his  son  Argyrippus  to  redeem  the 
courtesan  Philaenium  from  an  old  procur- 
ess ;  but  he  is  tyrannized  over  by  his  wife 
Artcmona,  who  keeps  a  tight  control  of  the 
purse-strings.  By  a  trick  of  one  of  his  slaves 
ho  gets  possession  of  twenty  minae  which 
were  to  be  paid  to  Artemona's  steward 
for  some  asses  which  have  been  sold 
(whence  the  name  of  the  play),  and  father 
and  son  spend  the  evening  banqueting 
with  Philaenium.  But  a  rival  for  tho 
girl's  favours,  furious  at  finding  himself 
anticipated,  warns  Artemona,  who  de- 
scends on  the  party,  and  with  dire  threats 
carries  off  her  guilty  husband. 

The   saying   'homo   homini   lupus'   is 
derived  from  this  play  (1.  495). 
Asi'nius  Po'llio,  see  Pollio. 
Aspa'sia  (Asp&sid),  see  Pericles. 

Assa'racus,  the  great-grandfather  of 
Aeneas  (see  genealogy  under  Troy).  Virgil 
refers  to  the  Lar  (see  Lares)  of  Assaracus 
(Aen.  ix.  259),  and  Aeneas  finds  Assaracus 
among  his  Trojan  ancestors  in  Elysium. 

Aste'rope,  one  of  tho  Pleiades  (q.v.). 
Astrae'a  (Astraia),  the  'Starry  Maid',  the 
constellation  Virgo,  identified  with  Dike 
(Justice)  by  Aratus  (q.v.).  In  the  Golden 
Age  (q.v.)  she  lived  among  men,  but  in 
the  later  ages,  owing  to  the  wickedness 
of  men,  she  withdrew  to  the  sky. 
Astrology,  the  art  of  predicting  the 
future  from  signs  given  by  tho  stars,  was 
introduced  into  Rome  from  the  East. 
It  came  into  some  repute  in  tho  later  days 
of  the  republic,  and  still  more  under  the 
empire.  Attempts  to  repress  it  were  re- 
peatedly made  by  the  emperors,  and 
astrologers  were  banished  under,  e.g., 
Tiberius,  Claudius,  Vitellius,  and  Ves- 
pasian, not  from  disbelief  in  the  genuine- 
ness of  tho  art,  but  probably  from  fear  of 
it  as  likely  to  favour  conspiracies.  The 
emperors  themselves  kept  their  own 
astrologers  and  caused  horoscopes  to  be 
cast.  In  spite  of  repression,  astrology  con- 
tinued to  be  generally  practised,  as  ap- 
pears from  Juvenal,  Sat.  vi.  535  et  scq. 

Astrono'mica,  see  Manttiits. 

Asty'anax  (Asfiianax),  known  also  as 
SKAMANDRIOB,  the  son  of  Hector  and 


Andromache  (qq.v.),  born  during  the 
siege  of  Troy,  and  thrown  from  its  battle- 
ments by  the  victorious  Greeks  after  the 
capture  of  tho  city.  See  Trojan  Women. 

Asty'nomi  (Astunomoi),  see  Athens,  §  9. 

Asy'ndeton  ('not  bound  together'),  a 
figure  of  speech  in  which  words  or  clauses 
which  in  ordinary  speech  would  be  con- 
nected by  conjunctions,  are  left  uncon- 
nected; e.g.  'Quaero  ab  inimicis,  sintne 
haec  investigata,  comperta,  patefacta, 
sublata,  deleta,  extincta  per  me*  (quoted 
by  Quintilian,  probably  from  a  lost  passage 
of  Cicero). 

Atala'nta  (Atalante),  in  Greek  mythology, 
daughter  either  of  lasos  an  Arcadian, 
and  Clymene  (q.v.),  or  of  Schoineus,  a 
Boeotian.  She  was  a  great  huntress  and 
her  part  in  the  hunt  of  the  Calydonian 
boar  is  told  under  Meleager.  She  refused 
to  marry  any  man  who  could  not  defeat 
her  in  a  foot-race;  and  any  suitor  whom 
she  defeated  was  put  to  death.  Hippo - 
menes  (or  Meilanion)  took  up  the  chal- 
lenge, and  by  the  advice  of  Aphrodite 
carried  with  him  three  apples  of  the 
Hcspcridcs  (q.v.).  He  dropped  these  at 
intervals,  and  as  Atalanta  could  not 
resist  the  temptation  to  stop  and  pick 
them  up,  he  won  the  race.  The  story  of 
Atalanta  and  Meleagcr  is  tho  subject  of 
Swinburne's  beautiful  drama  '  Atalanta  in 
Calydon'  (1865). 

A'te  (from  ddodai '  to  be  blinded '),  in  early 
Greek  mythology  the  personification  of 
blind  folly  or  tho  agency  which  causes  it. 
Tho  Litai  (prayers)  follow  after  her,  un- 
doing the  evil  she  has  done.  In  the 
tragedians,  Ate  is  a  bane  or  curse  aveng- 
ing unrighteousness. 
Ate'ius  Ca'pitd,  GAlus,  see  Capita. 
Ate'llan  Farces  (Fdbulae  Mellanae), 
named  from  tho  town  of  Atella  in  Cam- 
pania, appear  to  have  been  (for  the  subject 
is  obscure)  ancient  comic  dramatic  per- 
formances, representing  scenes  in  the  life 
of  country  towns.  Certain  stock  charac- 
ters, Maccus  the  fool,  Dossennus  the 
hunchback,  Manducus  the  glutton,  Pap- 
pus tho  greybeard,  &c.,  were  probably 
introduced  in  ridiculous  situations.  Some 
of  tho  later  titles  suggest  burlesques  of 
mythology.  Atellan  plays  became  popular 
at  Rome  probably  in  the  3rd  c.  B.C.  and 
were  acted  by  amateurs.  They  were 
revived  in  more  literary  form,  with  the 
same  stock  characters  and  with  a  written 
verse  plot,  by  Pomponius  of  Bononia  and 
Novius,  who  probably  flourished  early  in 
the  1st  c.  B.C.  These  farces  were  acted  by 
professional  comedians,  and  continued 
intermittently  until  the  end  of  the  1st  c. 




A.D.  In  this  later  form  the  Atellan  farce 
was  played  after  a  tragic  performance. 

A'thamas  (Athamas)  in  Greek  mythology, 
son  of  Aeolus  (q.v.  (2))  and  king  of  Thebes. 
By  his  first  wife  Nephele  ('the  Cloud') 
he  had  two  children,  Phrixus  and  Helle. 
Ino  (q.v.),  his  second  wife,  conceived  a 
hitter  hatred  of  her  step -children.  They 
escaped  from  the  death  that  menaced 
them  on  a  winged  and  golden-fleeced 
ram,  which  carried  them  away  across  the 
sea,  Helle  became  giddy  and  fell  off  into 
the  part  of  the  sea  called,  in  consequence, 
the  Hellespont.  Phrixus  arrived  safely  in 
Colchis,  where  the  king  Aeetes  received 
him  hospitably.  The  ram  was  sacrificed 
to  Zeus  and  its  golden  fleece  hung  up  in 
Colchis  and  guarded  by  a  dragon.  For  the 
continuation  of  this  myth  see  Argonauts ; 
and  for  the  fate  of  Athamas,  Ino,  and  her 
two  SODS  see  Dionysus. 

Athenae'us  (Athenaios)  (fl.  c.  A.D.  200)  of 
Naucratis,  a  Greek  writer,  author  of  the 
Deipnosophislai  ('Sophists  at  Dinner'  or 
more  correctly  'Connoisseurs  in  Dining') 
in  fifteen  bookR,  in  which  twenty-three 
learned  men  (some  of  whom  have  the 
names  of  real  persons,  such  as  Galen  and 
Ulpian)  are  represented  meeting  at  dinner 
in  Rome  on  several  occasions,  and  con- 
versing on  food  in  all  its  aspects  and  on  a 
wide  range  of  other  subjects.  In  reality 
Athenaeus  was  an  industrious  collector 
of  excerpts  and  anecdotes,  which  he  re- 
produces in  the  form  of  conversation.  The 
work  is  the  source  of  much  information 
on  the  literature  and  usages  of  ancient 
Greece ;  it  survives  with  the  exception  of 
the  first  two  books  and  part  of  the  third, 
which  we  have  only  in  a  later  epitome. 
Athe'ne  or  Athe'na  (in  Homer  Athene, 
from  the  4th  c.  commonly  Athena)  or 
PAIXAS  ATHENE,  in  Greek  mythology  the 
daughter  of  Zeus  and  of  his  first  wife 
Metis  (qq.v.).  Zeus  swallowed  Metis  for 
fear  that  she  should  give  birth  to  a  son 
stronger  than  himself.  Thereafter  Athene 
sprang  from  the  head  of  her  father,  which 
Hephaestus  (or  Prometheus)  had  opened 
with  an  axe.  Athene  was  probably  a  pro- 
Hellenic  goddess,  and  this  curious  legend 
may  be  the  outcome  of  an  attempt  to 
reconcile  her  cult  with  that  of  the  chief 
god  of  the  invading  Greeks.  She  was  the 
patron  goddess  of  Athens  (for  her  conflict 
with  Poseidon  for  Attica,  see  Athens,  §  2) 
and  of  Greek  cities  in  general,  and  in  this 
capacity  had  a  dual  aspect,  as  Athene 
Promachos  or  Polios,  the  protector  and 
champion  of  the  city,  and  secondly  as  the 
patroness  of  urban  arts  and  handicrafts, 
especially  spinning  and  weaving  (in  this 
connexion  see  Arachne).  She  was  also 

the  inventor  of  the  flute  (see  Marsyaa). 
She  is  generally  represented  as  a  woman 
of  severe  beauty,  hi  armour,  with  the 
Gorgon's  (q.v.)  head  on  her  shield.  She 
is  frequently  referred  to  as  olauk&pis, 
which  probably  meant  blue-eyed,  and 
Pausanias  remarks  on  the  blue  eyes  of  a 
statue  of  Athene  which  he  saw.  No  certain 
explanation  of  her  title  '  Pallas '  is  known, 
nor  of  the  epithet  Tritogeneia  applied  to 
her  by  Homer.  For  her  great  temple  on 
the  Acropolis  see  Parthenon,  and  for  the 
temple  there  of  Athene  Nike  or  'Victory 
Athene*  see  Acropolis.  See  also  Pallas. 
The  Romans  identified  Athene  with  their 
goddess  Minerva  (q.v.). 

Athenians,  Polity  or  Constitution  of,  The, 
(Athenaion  PolUeia),  see  Aristotle,  J§  2 
and  3. 

A'thens  (Athenai,^.  Athenae),  the  capital 
of  Attica  (q.v.). 

§  1.  General  topography  in  the  5th  and 
4th  centuries  B  a. 

The  city,  standing  about  three  miles 
from  the  sea  at  its  nearest  point,  included 
within  its  walls  (built  or  rebuilt  on  the 
advice  of  Themistocles  after  Plataea,  see 
Persian  Wars)  three  principal  eminences: 
the  Acropolis  (its  fortress)  roughly  in  the 
centre,  the  Areopagus  to  the  W.  of  this, 
and  the  Pnyx  to  the  SW.  of  the  Areopagus. 
N.  and  NW.  of  the  Acropolis  and  Areo- 
pagus was  the  district  known  as  the  Cera- 
micus.  This  contained  the  Agora  or 
market-place,  on  which  abutted  the  Stoa 
Poikile  or  Painted  Colonnade  and  the  Stoa 
Basilcios  or  Royal  Colonnade.  The  Outer 
Ceramicus  outside  the  walls  was  a  cem- 
etery. The  Acropolis  was  approached  at  its 
western  extremity  by  the  splendid  gate- 
way of  the  Propylaca.  At  the  foot  of  the 
southern  slope  of  the  Acropolis  was  the 
great  theatre  of  Dionysus.  To  the  SE.  of 
the  Acropolis  stood  the  partially  built 
Olympicum  or  sanctuary  of  Olympian 
Zeus.  The  principal  gate  in  the  walls  was 
the  Dipylon,  on  the  NW.  side  of  the  city. 
From  this,  roads  led  to  Colonus  and  the 
grovo  of  Academus.  From  the  adjoining 
Sacred  Gate  the  Sacred  Way  led  to 
Eleusis.  Other  gates  led  to  the  Piraeus,  to 
Phalcrum,  to  Sunium,  &c.  An  aqueduct 
dating  probably  from  the  6th  c.  B.C., 
perhaps  built  by  Pisistratus,  brought 
water  to  the  centre  of  the  city,  perhaps 
from  the  upper  course  of  the  Ilissue.  The 
houses  of  the  citizens  were  grouped  in 
narrow,  winding  streets  about  the  Acro- 
polis, and  must  have  presented  a  mean 
appearance,  especially  as  the  walls  of  the 
houses,  built  of  sun-dried  bricks,  were 
usually  blank  on  the  street  side.  W.  of  the 

Athens  i 

city  flowed  the  Cephisus;  the  bed  of  the 
Ilissus,  generally  dry,  lay  close  to  the  city 
on  the  SE.  and  S.  The  Stadium  or  race- 
course was  outside  the  walls,  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Ilissus.  For  the  places,  rivers, 
and  buildings  above  mentioned,  see  under 
their  names.  See  also  Long  Walls,  Par- 
thenon, Metroum,  Cynosarges,  and  see 
PI.  13. 

§  2.  Origins  and  primitive  constitution 
The  Athenians  claimed  to  be  autoch- 
thonous (original  inhabitants  of  the 
land),  but  in  fact  there  had  been  a  pre- 
Hellenic  population  (see  Migrations  and 
Dialects)  to  which  the  Myccnean  (q.v.) 
civilization  had  extended.  To  this  popu- 
lation the  migrations  added  successive 
Hellenic  elements,  especially  Ionian,  but, 
it  is  thought,  without  any  violent  con- 
quest. Attica,  by  its  position,  lay  outside 
the  stream  of  the  Dorian  invasion.  Its 
population  in  later  tunes  was  further 
modified  by  the  gradual  infiltration  of 
foreigners  from  many  lands,  attracted  to 
it  by  the  commercial  importance  of  its 
capital.  The  country  was  not  at  first  a 
single  political  whole,  but  was  divided 
into  small  communities.  At  some  moment, 
not  later  than  the  8th  c. ,  a  union  (synoe- 
cism)  of  these  communities  was  effected, 
associated  by  the  ancients  with  the  name 
of  Theseus  (q.v.).  The  precipitous  hill 
known  later  as  the  Acropolis,  which  had 
long  been  occupied,  was  taken  as  the 
capital  of  the  now  State.  It  had  at  some 
early  date  been  held  sacred  to  the  owl, 
later  to  the  serpent-god  Cecrops  (q.v.), 
the  legendary  ancestor  of  the  Cecropos, 
probably  the  first  Greek  occupants  of  the 
citadel.  Some  later  change  in  the  dominat- 
ing race  appears  to  underlie  the  myth 
of  the  defeat  of  Poseidon  by  the  god- 
dess Athene.  There  was  a  contest  be- 
tween Athene  and  Poseidon  for  the  land 
of  Attica,  and  the  gods  promised  the  pre- 
ference to  whichever  gave  the  more  use- 
ful present  to  the  inhabitants.  Poseidon 
struck  the  ground  with  his  trident  and  a 
horse  sprang  up  (according  to  another 
version  a  salt  spring  on  the  Acropolis); 
Athene  produced  the  olivo-treo  and  was 
adjudged  the  victor.  From  her  Athens 
took  its  name.  The  State  was  at  first 
governed  by  kings,  said  to  be  descendants 
of  Erechtheus  (q.v.);  the  population  was 
grouped  in  families  (gene),  phratriai  (q.v.), 
and  in  four  tribes  (phulai).  The  monar- 
chical power  gradually  succumbed  to  the 
attacks  of  the  old  aristocratic  families 
(eupatridai,  q.v.),  and  it  was  replaced  by 
the  rule  of  three  archons,  elected  at  first 
for  ten  years  and  later  annually,  and  a 
council  (BouU,  q.v.).  The  three  archons 

>  Athens 

were,  (1)  the  King  Archon,  the  king 
reduced  in  powers  and  made  elective, 
the  religious  representative  of  the  State; 
(2)  the  Eponymous  Archon,  the  real  head 
of  the  State,  especially  the  supremo  judge ; 
he  gave  his  name  to  the  year  (an  event 
was  said  to  have  occurred  in  the  archon- 
ship  of  So-and-so);  (3)  the  Polomarch 
(q.v.),  who  commanded  the  military  forces 
and  saw  to  the  safety  of  the  State.  Later 
the  demand  of  the  lower  classes  for  the 
publication  of  the  laws,  hitherto  unwrit- 
ten, led  to  the  appointment  of  six  ad- 
ditional archons,  thesmothetai,  codiflers 
and  guardians  of  the  law  (later  these 
had  important  functions  connected  with 
judicial  procedure,  q.v.  §  1).  The  Boule 
supervised  the  magistrates  and  was  the 
judicial  tribunal.  It  was  composed  of  the 
men  who  had  previously  occupied  one  of 
the  archonships.  It  held  its  meetings  on 
the  Areopagus  (q.v.).  Each  of  the  four 
tribes  was  divided  into  twelve  naukrariai, 
and  each  of  these  was  required  to  furnish 
a  ship  for  the  State's  navy.  The  presidents 
of  the  naukrariai  appear  to  have  formed 
an  important  administrative  council.  The 
population  was  further  divided  into  eupa- 
tridai  (the  nobles),  georgoi  (peasants),  and 
dcmiourgoi  (artisans),  and  later  according 
to  wealth  into  pentakosiomedimnoi  (those 
whose  land  yielded  five  hundred  measures 
of  corn  or  oil),  hippeis  (knights,  those 
whose  property  yielded  three  hundred  such 
measures,  and  who  could  therefore  keep 
a  horse),  zeugitai  (those  whose  property 
yielded  two  hundred  measures,  and  who 
could  keep  a  team  of  oxen),  and  thetes 
(small  peasants  and  labourers).  (For  the 
area  of  land  represented  by  the  above 
qualifications,  see  Agriculture,  §  1.)  The 
definition  of  the  three  upper  classes  was 
later  established  on  a  monetary  basis :  the 
pentakosiomedimnoi  were  those  who  had 
an  income  of  500  drachmas,  the  hippeis  of 
300,  and  the  zeugitai  of  200.  The  magi- 
strates were  chosen  from  the  wealthy 

§  3.  Seventh  and  Sixth  centuries  B.C. 

The  accumulation  of  land  and  wealth  in 
comparatively  few  hands,  the  increasing 
indebtedness  of  the  peasantry  and  their 
consequent  reduction  to  the  position  of 
serfs  bound  to  the  soil,  provoked  a  social 
crisis  about  the  middle  of  the  7th  c.  In  the 
troublous  period  that  ensued  occurred 
the  affair  of  Cylon  and  the  Alcmaeoni- 
dae  (q.v.),  followed  by  the  legislation  of 
Draco  (q.v.),  and  at  the  beginning  of  the 
6th  c.  by  the  legislation  of  Solon  (q.v.).  But 
the  reforms  introduced  by  the  latter  had 
only  a  limited  success,  and  the  strife  of 
parties  continued.  They  were  now  dif- 




ferently  grouped,  into  the  'men  of  the 
plain*  (pediakoi),  consisting  of  the  nobles 
and  well-to-do  farmers  whoso  interests 
lay  in  the  land,  and  the  *  men  of  the  shore ' 
(poroZioi),  the  sailors,  fishermen,  and  arti- 
sans whose  interests  were  commercial. 
Later  Pisistratus  gathered  about  himself 
a  third  group,  the  'men  of  the  hills' 
(diakrioi),  the  herdsmen  and  poor  peasants 
who  had  no  share  in  either  agricultural  or 
commercial  prosperity,  and  these  ho  organ- 
ized as  a  frankly  revolutionary  faction; 
he  seized  the  supreme  power  in  561.  For 
the  period  of  his  tyranny  and  that  of 
his  sons,  Hippias  and  Hipparchus,  BGQ  Pisi- 
stratus. Their  fall  was  succeeded  by  a 
struggle  between  the  partisans  of  oligarchy 
and  of  democracy,  headed  respectively  by 
Isadoras  and  Cleisthenes  (q.v.).  The  latter 
won  the  day  and  introduced  the  changes 
that  were  to  transform  Athens  into  a  truly 
democratic  State,  and  in  which  Herodotus 
rightly  saw  one  of  the  chief  sources  of 
her  future  greatness.  The  new  democracy 
was  attacked  by  jealous  neighbours 
(Sparta,  Boeotia,  and  Chalcis),  but  was 
able  to  drive  them  back  (506)  and  con- 
solidate its  position. 

It  is  in  this  period  that  the  literary  and 
artistic  history  of  Athens  may  be  said  to 
begin.  Although  she  did  not  as  yet  pro- 
duce native  poets  and  artists  of  impor- 
tance (except  Solon  and  the  shadowy 
Thespis),  Pisistratus  and  his  sons  were 
zealous  patrons  of  literature  and  art, 
attracting  Simonidcs  and  Anacreon  to 
Athens,  decorating  the  city  with  the 
works  of  foreign  sculptors,  and  establish- 
ing musical  and  poetic  contests  at  the 
festival  of  the  Panathcnaea.  See  also  under 
Homer.  Attic  sculpture,  still  somewhat 
primitive,  but  graceful  and  sincere,  was 
developing",  and  also  the  art  of  vase* 

§  4.  Growth  of  the  Athenian  Empire : 

Fifth  century  to  the  Thirty  Years 

Peace  (446) 

At  the  beginning  of  the  5th  c.  Athens 
already  figures  as  a  powerful  State,  but 
exposed  to  the  menace  of  Persia,  where  the 
exiled  Hippias  was  intriguing  to  get  him- 
self restored.  The  Persian  attack  was 
delayed  for  six  years  by  the  revolt  of  the 
Greek  cities  of  Ionia  (see  Persian  Wars), 
to  which  Athens,  in  contrast  to  the  selfish 
policy  of  Sparta,  lent  her  assistance.  The 
first  Persian  invasion  was  defeated  at 
Marathon  (490).  When  the  second  in- 
vasion came,  ten  years  later,  Athens  had, 
under  the  influence  of  Themistocles  (q.v.), 
built  a  strong  navy,  and  she  emerged  from 
the  struggle  (briefly  described  under  Per- 
sian Wars)  with  her  city  in  ruins  and  her 

territory  ravaged,  but  with  her  fleet 
intact,  her  prestige  increased,  and  her 
position  as  leader  of  all  the  Ionian  Greeks 
acknowledged.  She  had  become,  more- 
over, since  the  days  of  Pisistratus,  a 
great  commercial  and  industrial  centre, 
needing  foodstuffs  for  her  population 
and  raw  materials  for  her  industries; 
the  control  of  the  sea  was  therefore  of 
great  importance  to  her.  She  alone 
possessed  a  fleet  capable  of  protecting 
Greece  and  the  islands  of  the  Aegean 
against  Persian  attack.  The  Greek  cities 
which  had  rebelled  against  Persia  accept- 
ed the  leadership  of  Athens,  and  this  was 
the  origin  of  the  Delian  Confederacy  (see 
Delos).  As  head  of  this  confederacy  and 
by  means  of  her  colonies  and  cleruchs 
(q.v.)  on  the  shores  of  the  Aegean  and 
Euxine,  Athens  under  the  guidance  of 
Cimon  and  Pericles  (qq.v.)  became  an 
imperial  power.  She  obtained  complete 
control  of  the  allied  forces  by  a  series  of 
administrative  and  political  measures,  and 
only  three  of  her  allies,  Samos,  Chios,  and 
Mytilcne,  remained  autonomous.  By  the 
constitutional  reforms  of  Ephialtes  (q,v.) 
and  Pericles  democracy  reached  its  fullest 
development — the  government  of  the 
people  by  themselves,  offices  open  to  all, 
and  payment  of  the  citizens  for  exercising 
their  political  rights,  so  that  even  the 
poorest  could  afford  to  take  their  share  of 
the  public  duties.  But  the  empire  of 
Athens  offended  Greek  political  sentiment, 
which  was  essentially  in  favour  of  the 
independence  of  each  city-state;  and  her 
commercial  expansion  brought  her  into 
competition  with  the  great  trading  city 
of  Corinth.  The  uneasiness  of  the  latter 
was  increased  by  the  Athenian  occupation 
of  Naupactus  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gulf  of 
Corinth  (c.  4,59),  and  by  the  Athenian  con- 
trol over  Megara,  both  of  which  threatened 
the  freedom  of  Corinthian  commerce.  By 
459  Athens  was  at  war  with  Corinth,  and 
soon  after  with  Aegina  and  Sparta.  But 
Athens,  by  also  undertaking  an  attack  on 
the  Persian  power  in  Egypt,  attempted  too 
much.  The  expeditionary  force  was  block- 
aded and  had  to  capitulate,  and  a  relief 
squadron  was  almost  entirely  destroyed  in 
454 ;  and  although  Aegina  had  fallen  after 
a  long  blockade  in  457-456,  and  Boeotia 
had  been  subdued  in  457  (battle  of 
Oenophyta),  Athens  met  with  reverses  in 
various  directions,  including  a  severe 
defeat  by  the  Boeotians  at  Coronea  in 
447.  She  was  therefore  glad  to  make  a 
thirty  years'  peace  with  Sparta  in  446, 
thus  ending  what  is  sometimes  known  as 
the  First  Peloponnesian  War.  Some  im- 
portant constitutional  changes  fall  in  this 
period,  notably  the  creation  of  ten  generals 




(see  Strategus)  from  501,  and  from  487 
the  choosing  of  the  archons  by  lot.  The 
archonship  was  in  effect  thrown  open  to 
all  citizens  from  ahout  458/7. 

The  fifty  years  that  followed  the  close 
of  the  Persian  War  saw  the  beginning  of 
the  great  poetical  and  creative  age  of 
Athens,  and  were  rendered  illustrious  by 
the  names  of  Aeschylus,  Sophocles,  Euri- 
pides, Phidias,  and  Polygnotus.  The  posi- 
tion of  Athens  as  saviour  of  Hellas  from 
the  barbarian,  her  sense  of  independence 
and  political  freedom,  her  newly  acquired 
maritime  empire,  brought  about  an 
exaltation  favourable  to  the  production 
of  great  intellectual  works.  She  was  now 
moreover  one  of  the  chief  commercial 
centres  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean,  a 
point  of  attraction  to  visitors  from  all 
parts  of  the  Greek  world,  where  ideas  and 
information  could  be  freely  interchanged, 
and  wits  were  sharpened  in  the  process. 
See  Pentecontaetia. 

§  5.  The  great  struggle  with  Sparta  to 
the  Peace  of  Antalcidas  (387) 

The  peace  with  Sparta  was  destined  to 
last  only  fifteen  years,  and  in  431  began 
the  decisive  struggle  between  Athens 
and  Sparta  for  the  hegemony  of  Greece, 
and  at  the  same  time  between  Athens  and 
Corinth  for  the  control  of  the  trade  routes 
to  the  West  (see  Pcloponncsian  War). 
The  failure  of  the  Sicilian  Expedition,  the 
culminating  incident  of  this  war,  was  the 
signal  for  the  revolt  of  many  of  the  sub- 
ject-allies of  Athens,  which  she  made 
vigorous  and  partially  successful  efforts 
to  suppress.  The  latter  part  of  the  war 
was  marked  also  by  the  co-operation 
against  her  of  Sparta  and  Persia,  furthered 
by  the  intrigues  of  the  exiled  Alcibiadcs 
(q.v.).  An  oligarchical  revolution  broke 
out  in  the  city  itself.  A  council  of  Four 
Hundred  was  established  in  411,  nomin- 
ally supplemented  by  an  assembly  of 
Five  Thousand,  which  was  in  fact  never 
summoned.  But  the  Athenian  fleet  at 
Samos  remained  democratic  in  sentiment, 
led  by  Alcibiadcs  whom  it  had  recalled. 
The  revolt  of  Euboca  at  this  time  caused 
deep  alarm  at  Athens,  and  the  Four 
Hundred  were  overthrown  by  the  end 
of  the  same  year.  In  this  oligarchic  move- 
ment and  also  in  its  overthrow  Thcra- 
menes  (q.v.)  took  an  important  part.  A 
constitution  devised  by  him,  the  rule  of 
the  Five  Thousand,  was  now  set  up.  It 
was  a  mixture  of  oligarchy  and  democracy 
praised  by  Thucydides  and  Aristotle.  This 
was  displaced  after  the  victory  of  the 
Athenian  fleet  at  Cyzicus  (410)  and 
democracy  was  restored,  largely  under  the 
influence  of  the  demagogue  Cleophon; 

democratic  rule  endured  until  the  surren- 
der of  Athens  to  Sparta  in  404.  Athens 
emerged  from  the  Peloponnesian  War 
crippled,  impoverished,  and  at  the  mercy 
of  the  Spartan  Lysander  (q.v.).  This  gave 
an  opportunity  to  the  oligarchs,  and  under 
the  menace  of  Lysander,  a  body  known 
as  the  Thirty,  of  which  Critias  (q.v.) 
was  the  leading  spirit,  was  nominated 
to  frame  a  constitution  and  meanwhile 
to  rule  the  State.  A  council  of  Five 
Hundred,  supporters  of  the  oligarchy,  was 
appointed,  and  a  reign  of  terror  followed. 
But  dissensions  arose  among  the  oligarchs 
and  civil  war  broke  out,  the  democrats 
being  led  by  Tbrasybulus  (q.v.).  It  was 
ended  by  the  intervention  of  the  Spartan 
king  Pausanias,  and  the  old  democracy 
was  restored  (403).  In  395  Athens  joined 
Thebes,  Argos,  and  Corinth  in  their 
attempt  to  overthrow  the  Spartan  supre- 
macy (see  Thebes),  an  attempt  that  failed 
in  its  object  and  was  terminated  by 
the  inglorious  peace  of  Antalcidas  (387), 
dictated  by  the  king  of  Persia,  who  re- 
covered the  Ionian  cities  of  Asia  Minor 
and  remained  master  of  the  Aegean. 

During  this  period,  although  the  age 
of  the  great  tragedians  was  drawing  to  a 
close  (Euripides  died  in  406),  the  wonder- 
ful intellectual  productiveness  of  Athens 
continued,  illustrated  by  the  names  of 
Socrates,  Plato,  Thucydides,  and  Aristo- 

§  6.  The  Fourth  century  to  the  rise  of 
the  Macedonian  Empire 

The  political  interest  now  passes  to  the 
struggle  of  Sparta  and  Thebes  (q.v.),  in 
which  Athens  played  only  a  secondary 
part.  A  wanton  raid  by  a  Spartan  force 
under  Sphodriaa  on  the  Piraeus  in  378 
led  to  the  alliance  of  Athens  with  Thebes, 
to  war  with  Sparta,  and  to  the  develop- 
ment of  a  second  Athenian  Confederacy, 
composed  of  various  islands  and  cities  of 
the  Aegean,  Corcyra,  and  other  States, 
professedly  directed  against  Sparta. 
Athens  retained  her  commercial  supre- 
macy and  recovered  a  good  deal  of  her 
maritime  power,  for  the  loss  of  her  empire 
had  not  deprived  her  of  her  sources  of 
prosperity,  and  her  successes  in  the  war 
with  Sparta,  which  was  terminated  by 
the  peace  of  Callias  in  371,  did  much  to 
restore  her  prestige.  The  most  prominent 
Athenian  statesman  of  this  period  was 
Callistratus  (q.v.),  whose  general  policy 
was  based  on  harmony  with  Sparta  and 
hostility  to  Thebes.  The  latter  State, 
under  the  leadership  of  Epaminondas 
(q.v.),  was  now  rising  to  the  hegemony  of 
Greece,  and  Athens  was  more  influenced 
by  jealousy  of  her  neighbour  than  by  her 




old  rivalry  with  Sparta.  In  the  ensuing 
struggle  between  Sparta  and  Thebes  we 
find  Athens  in  alliance  with  Sparta  (369), 
and  an  Athenian  contingent  was  present 
at  the  battle  of  Mantinea  (362).  Meanwhile 
Athens  was  reviving  her  old  empire  in  the 
Aegean  (see  Timotheus  (2))  and  causing 
discontent  and  uneasiness  among  her 
allies.  A  revolt  of  these  broke  out  in  357, 
and  the  attempts  of  Athens  to  suppress 
it  were  ineffectual.  What  is  known  as  the 
'Social  War'  ended  in  the  peace  of  354, 
by  which  the  independence  of  the  prin- 
cipal members  of  the  Confederacy  was 
recognized ;  in  accordance  with  the  policy 
urged  by  Isocrates  (q.v.),  Athens  re- 
nounced her  attempt  at  naval  empire. 
Her  attention  was  shortly  required  in 
another  direction,  for  Macedonia  (q.v.) 
was  rising  to  importance  and  threatening 
the  Athenian  position  in  the  northern 

§  7.  The  struggle  with  Macedonia  and 
the  subjugation  of  Athens 

For  the  growth  of  Macedonian  ascen- 
dancy, see  Philip  of  Macedon.  In  the  face 
of  this  development  Athens  had  to  choose 
between  two  policies:  an  attempt  to 
recover  her  hegemony,  or  accommodation 
with  Philip.  Her  course  of  action  was  tho 
outcome  of  tho  conflict  of  two  parties, 
a  peace  party  directed  by  Eubulus,  an 
able  financier  and  a  cautious  statesman, 
the  orator  Aeschincs,  tho  honest  and 
sensible  soldier  Phocion,  and  Philocrates 
(qq.v.);  and  a  war  party,  determined  on 
hostility  to  Philip,  led  by  Demosthenes, 
Lycurgus,  and  Hyperides  (qq.v.).  The 
passionate  eloquence  of  Demosthenes  pro- 
vailed,  the  attempts  made  by  Philip  to 
conciliate  Athens  failed,  and  Philip  was 
driven  to  assert  his  supremacy  by  force 
of  arms  at  Chacronea  (338).  Athens 
was  obliged  to  accept  the  lenient  peace- 
terms  imposed  by  Philip  and  to  join  the 
Hellenic  confederacy  organized  by  him. 
Whether  the  opposite  policy  might  have 
proved  more  advantageous  depends  on 
whether  Philip  and  Alexander  would  in 
any  event  have  loft  Athens  really  inde- 
pendent. If  not,  the  policy  of  Demos- 
thenes was  the  only  one  that  offered  her 
a  chance  of  freedom.  After  the  abortive 
risings  that  followed  the  accession  of 
Alexander  the  Great,  and  tho  destruction 
of  Thebes  which  ended  them,  a  period 
of  tranquillity  ensued  at  Athens.  During 
this  the  most  notable  incidents  are  tho 
attack  on  Demosthenes  by  Aeschines 
and  the  affair  of  Harpalus  (see  Demos- 
thenes, §  1).  The  death  of  Alexander  in 
323  appeared  to  give  an  opportunity  for 
the  recovery  of  freedom,  and  Athens  with 

various  States  of  northern  Greece  revolted 
against  Macedonia.  Under  the  Athenian 
general  Leosthencs  the  Greeks  were  for  a 
time  successful,  and  besieged  Antipater, 
the  regent  of  Macedonia,  in  Lamia  (a 
Thessalian  town).  But  in  322,  after 
Leosthenes  had  been  killed,  the  Lamian 
War  ended  with  tho  battle  of  Crannon,  in 
which  the  Macedonians  had  the  advan- 
tage. Tho  Macedonian  fleet  had  played  an 
important  part  in  the  war,  and  put  an 
end  for  ever  to  the  sea-power  of  Athens. 
Antipater  imposed  on  Athens  a  change  of 
her  democratic  constitution,  and  the  fran- 
chise was  restricted  to  citizens  possessed 
of  more  than  2,000  drachmas.  He  placed 
a  Macedonian  garrison  at  Munychia.  He 
also  demanded  the  surrender  of  Demos- 
thenes and  tho  other  anti-Macedonian 
agitators.  Demosthenes  took  poison  to 
avoid  capture ;  tho  others  were  put  to 
death.  Tho  democrats  were  reinstated  at 
Athens  under  the  brief  rule  of  Polyperchon 
(the  immediate  successor  of  Antipater), 
but  Cassander  (Antipater's  son)  restored 
in  tho  main  his  father's  constitution  and 
appointed  (317)  as  his  viceroy  at  Athens 
a  distinguished  Athenian  citizen,  Deme- 
trius (q.v.)  of  Phalorum,  a  learned  man 
and  a  friend  of  Aristotle.  His  ten  years 
of  virtual  rule  wore  a  period  of  peace  and 
prosperity  for  tho  city.  None  tho  less, 
when  Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  son  of  Anti- 
gonus  (see  Macedonia,  §  2),  captured  the 
city  from  Cassandcr  in  307,  he  was  looked 
upon  by  tho  Athenians  as  a  liberator  and 
was  granted  divine  honours. 

The  4th  c.  shows  tho  last  phase  of 
the  literary  and  artistic  pre-eminence  of 
Athens.  The  character  of  her  Intellectual 
activity  had  somewhat  changed:  it  had 
become  less  creative,  more  analytical  and 
critical,  more  concerned  with  facts  and 
their  reasons.  It  was  the  age  of  Aristotle, 
the  age  also  of  tho  great  orators,  and  of  the 
New  Comedy.  Art  became  less  simple 
and  more  realistic;  it  sought  to  render 
youth  and  grace  rather  than  to  interpret 
the  old  religious  ideas.  Praxiteles  was  tho 
great  sculptor  of  this  period. 

§  8.  The  Period  of  Decadence 
Tho  3rd  c.  B.C.  saw  the  end  of  tho  politi- 
cal importance  of  Athens.  The  Chremoni- 
doan  War  (266-262  B.C.)  is  notable  as  the 
last  occasion  when  Athens  took  tho  lead 
against  Macedon.  Supported  by  Sparta 
and  Ptolemy  II,  she  revolted  against 
Antigonus  Gonatas  (see  Macedonia,  §  3), 
was  besieged,  and  finally  yielded  to 
famine.  The  war  derives  its  name  from 
the  Athenian  ChremonidGs,  who  orga- 
nized the  alliance.  In  229,  on  the  death 
of  Demetrius  II,  son  of  Gonatas,  Athens 




recovered  her  freedom.  Philip  V,  grand- 
son of  Gonatas,  once  attacked  her,  hut 
otherwise  she  had  a  peaceful  existence 
until  88.  After  the  defeat  of  the  Achaean 
League  by  Mummius  in  146,  Greece  be- 
came a  Roman  protectorate,  not  yet  a 
province.  Some  cities  were  taxed  by 
Rome;  others,  including  Athens  and 
Sparta,  were  not.  There  was  a  revival  of 
material  prosperity  and  of  religion.  The 
great  quadrennial  festival  of  Athens  at 
Delos,  for  instance,  was  restored.  But 
this  prosperous  period  came  to  an  end 
with  the  Mithridatic  War  of  88-86,  when 
Athens,  which  had  espoused  the  cause  of 
Mithridates,  was  sacked  and  in  part 
destroyed  by  Sulla.  Greece  suffered 
severely  both  from  Sulla's  exactions  and 
depredations  and  from  the  barbarian 
allies  of  Mithridates,  who  sacked  Delphi. 
Even  greater  ruin  followed  from  the 
Roman  civil  wars,  and  endured  until 
Augustus  made  Greece  a  Roman  province 
in  27  B.C.  But  in  spite  of  her  political 
decline,  Athens  retained  much  of  her 
intellectual  prestige  and  continued  to  be 
frequented  as  a  centre  of  philosophic  study 
(see  Hellenistic  Age,  §2).  She  was  patron- 
ized in  the  2nd  c.  B.C.  by  the  Attalids  (q.v.) 
of  Pergamum,  who  adorned  her  with  colon- 
nades and  sculptures.  Apollodorus  (q.v.) 
composed  there  his  works  on  chronology 
and  mythology;  Timaeus  (q.v.)  spent 
many  years  there.  It  became  fashionable 
for  Romans  to  pass  some  time  in  study 
at  Athens.  Atticus  (q.v.)  lived  there  for 
many  years ;  Cioero  and  Cicero's  son  and 
Horace  were  among  those  who  studied 
in  the  city.  Horace,  and  in  a  later  ago 
Lucian,  rejoiced  in  the  peaceful  charm  of 
Athens  as  compared  with  the  turmoil 
of  Rome.  Athens  enjoyed  some  revival 
of  her  lustre  under  Hadrian  and  the 
Antonines,  and  Julian  the  Apostate  was 
a  lover  of  the  city.  The  end  of  her  period 
of  intellectual  eminence  came  in  A.D.  529, 
when  Justinian  ordered  the  closing  of  her 
schools  of  philosophy. 

§  9.  General  administration  in  the 

Fifth  and  Fourth  centuries 
A  striking  feature  of  the  Athenian 
democratic  system  ia  the  power  wielded 
by  orators  who  held  no  official  position. 
We  have  instances  of  this  in  Alcibiades, 
Cleon,  and  Demosthenes,  who  as  private 
citizens  exerted  at  times  a  dominating 
influence  on  the  course  of  events.  The 
actual  administration  in  the  5th  and  4th 
cc.  was  carried  on  by  a  largo  number  of 
officials  of  various  grades.  Except  where 
experience  or  technical  knowledge  was 
required,  officials  were  as  a  rule  chosen 
by  lot,  for  one  year,  and  as  a  rule  in 

boards  of  ten,  one  from  each  tribe. 
Though  this  method  may  appear  strange 
to  us,  its  results  seem  to  have  been  on  the 
whole  satisfactory.  It  must  be  remem- 
bered that  the  lots  were  drawn  only  among 
candidates  who  offered  themselves,  that 
the  successful  candidate  had  to  pass  the 
ordeal  of  the  dokimasia  (examination  as 
to  worthiness  by  the  Boulo  or  Heliaea) 
before  entering  on  office,  that  he  was 
liable  to  account  for  his  actions  while  in 
office,  and  that  the  system  of  boards 
tended  to  yield  an  average  of  ability. 
The  chief  administrative  officials  were 
the  archons  (but  their  functions  were 
largely  ceremonial  and  judicial)  and  the 
strategi  (see  Strategus).  Next  in  order  of 
importance  were  perhaps  the  numerous 
treasurers,  who  had  charge  of  the  public 
moneys  assigned  to  various  funds  (see 
§  11  below).  Chief  among  these  were  the 
ten  Treasurers  (tamiai)  of  Athene.  There 
were  also  (besides  the  receivers-general 
referred  to  in  §  11  below)  ten  polctai,  who 
sold  confiscated  property,  farmed  out 
taxes,  &c. ;  ten  praktores,  who  collected 
judicial  fines;  and  ten  logistai,  who 
audited  the  accounts  of  outgoing  magi- 
strates. The  policing  and  care  of  the 
city  were  in  the  charge  of  ten  astunomoi 
(five  for  Athens  and  five  lor  the  Piraeus), 
while  street  repairs  were  looked  after  by 
five  hodopoioi.  There  were  also  boards 
of  market-inspectors,  inspectors  of  weights 
and  measures,  &c.  All  the  above  were 
chosen  by  lot.  The  hcllenotamiai  or 
treasurers  of  the  federal  tribute  were  prob- 
ably elected,  as  were  also  such  technical 
officials  as  tho  surveyor  of  the  water- 
supply,  and  the  specially  appointed  com- 
missioners of  public  works  (when  such 
works  were  undertaken).  The  policing 
of  tho  city  was  carried  out  by  a  body  of 
300  Scythian  archers  (public  slaves),  and 
there  was  a  board  known  as  the  Eleven, 
under  whom  were  the  executioner,  the 
gaolers,  and  the  officials  who  arrested 
malefactors  (all  these  subordinates  were 
public  slaves).  Public  slaves  were  also 
employed  in  many  clerical  functions, 
some  of  them  important,  such  as  the  caro 
of  archives.  See  also  Boule,  Ecclesia,  and 
Judicial  Procedure ,  §  1. 

§  10.  Economic  Conditions 
(a)  The  Archaic  period.  The  archaic 
period  (7th-6th  cc.  B.C.)  which  succeeded 
the  Homeric  Age  (q.v.)  witnessed  a  trans- 
formation of  tho  Homeric  patriarchal 
economy.  The  power  of  the  head  of  the 
family  weakened,  the  State  became  more 
powerful,  the  individual  freer.  Population 
increased  and  the  soil  became  insufficient 
to  support  it.  Land  was  converted  largely 




from  pasture  to  arable.  A  great  part  of 
it  was  held  by  the  aristocracy  and  worked 
for  them  by  tenants.  Below  the  aristo- 
cracy, a  middle  class  included  the  owners 
of  smaller  estates  sufficient  for  their  sup- 
port and  the  artisans  and  traders  who 
were  profiting  by  the  development  of 
industry  and  commerce.  The  lowest  class 
included  tho  peasants,  owners  of  an  inade- 
quate plot  or  tenants  of  the  great  land- 
owners. They  were  heavily  in  debt  and 
in  general  were  hi  a  miserable  condition. 
Tho  legislation  of  Solon  (q.v.)  at  the 
beginning  of  the  6th  c.  had  at  least  this 
measure  of  success,  that  in  freeing  tho 
person  of  the  debtor  it  prevented  the 
Athenian  peasant  from  becoming  per- 
manently a  serf  like  the  helot  of  Sparta. 

(6)  The  5th  and  4th  centuries.  The 
population  of  Attica  in  the  5th  and  4th  cc. 
is  unknown  and  has  been  very  variously 
estimated.  One  of  the  latest  estimates 
(Glotz,  'Histoire  grecque')  is  based  on 
the  number  of  Athenian  hoplites  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Peloponnesian  War,  as 
stated  by  Thucydides:  according  to  this 
calculation  there  were  then  some  40,000 
adult  Athenian  citizens  of  all  classes, 
making  with  their  families  some  140,000 
souls.  The  metics  (q.v.)  may  have  num- 
bered (both  sexes  and  all  ages)  some 
70,000.  The  number  of  slaves  is  likewise  a 
matter  of  conjecture,  but  was  probably  be- 
tween 150,000  and  400,000  at  this  time. 
The  census  taken  by  Demetrius  of  Phale- 
rum  at  the  end  of  the  4th  c.  is  said  to  have 
shown  21,000  citizens,  10,000  metics,  and 
400,000  slaves.  Tho  soil  of  Attica  was 
unable  to  feed  the  population,  and  Athens 
imported  largo  quantities  of  wheat,  dried 
flsh,  salt  meat,  and  cattle;  also  raw 
materials,  such  as  copper,  wood,  ivory, 
wool,  flax,  papyrus,  and  also  some  manu- 
factured articles  such  as  furniture.  She 
exported  wine  and  oil,  silver,  marble, 
pottery*  arms,  books.  She  also  derived 
largo  profits  from  her  position  as  a  com- 
mercial centre  and  from  her  carrying 
trade.  Her  ships  plied  to  many  parts  of 
the  Mediterranean — Thrace  and  Chalci- 
dice,  Asia  Minor,  Phoenicia,  Egypt,  Italy 
(and  later  Sicily);  and  especially  to 
the  Euxine,  the  principal  source  of  the 
Athenian  corn  supply.  Tho  annual  value 
of  the  total  trade  of  the  Piraeus  at  tho 
beginning  of  the  4th  c.,  that  is  to  say  at  a 
moment  of  extreme  depression,  has  been 
estimated,  on  the  basis  of  the  yield  of  the 
import  and  export  dues,  at  a  sum  varying 
between  1,875  and  2,400  talents  (equiva- 
lent in  bullion  value  to  about  £375,000- 
£480,000,  but  of  much  greater  purchasing 
power);  it  was  doubtless  much  greater 
at  a  tune  of  Athenian  prosperity  (Glotz, 

*Le  travail  dans  la  Grece  ancienne',  on 
which  the  present  section  is  in  part 
founded).  Athens  had  merchant  ships  of 
10,000  talents  (say  250  tons  displacement) 
which  could  go  five  knots,  could  cross  the 
open  sea  (instead  of  hugging  the  coast), 
and  could  sail  at  night.  Traffic  by  land, 
on  the  other  hand,  was  hampered  by  the 
scarcity  and  defective  condition  of  the 
roads.  Tho  cost  of  transporting  goods  by 
land  was  extremely  high.  Some  idea  of 
the  cost  of  living  may  bo  formed  from  the 
following  data.  The  price  of  the  medimnus 
(1-4  bushels)  of  wheat  appears  to  have 
risen  during  the  5th  c.  with  fluctuations 
from  1  to  3  or  4  drachmas;  in  Demos- 
thenes' time  it  normally  averaged  5  dr. 
A  day's  allowance  of  wheat  for  a  man  (his 
staple  food)  was  1  choenix,  Ath  part  of 
a  modimnus,  about  If  Ib. ;  at  3  dr.  the 
medimnus  this  would  cost  221  dr.  a 
year.  Adding  about  the  same  amount  for 
opsonion  (relish,  i.e.  meat,  flsh,  veget- 
ables, fruit),  it  has  been  estimated  that 
a  single  man  could  feed  himself  for  60  dr. 
a  year,  and  could  live  in  comfort  for 
120  dr.  A  family  of  four  could  live  for 
about  280  dr.  In  the  4th  c.,  with  wheat  at 
5  dr.,  the  cost  of  living  for  a  single  man 
and  for  a  family  may  be  put  at  180  dr.  and 
450  dr.  respectively.  In  the  latter  part 
of  tho  5th  c.  tho  normal  rate  of  pay  for 
skilled  and  unskilled  labour  was  1  dr.  a 
day;  but  to  arrive  at  a  man's  annual 
earnings  allowance  must  be  made  for  the 
sixty  holidays  in  the  year  and  for  varying 
periods  of  unemployment.  He  would 
probably  find  it  difficult  to  earn  300  dr. 
in  the  year.  With  this  may  be  compared 
the  remuneration  of  the  architect  of  the 
Erechtheum  in  409-408 :  ho  was  paid,  as 
a  public  official,  at  the  rate  of  1  dr.  for 
every  day  in  the  year.  In  the  4th  c.  tho 
wages  of  skilled  labour  rose  to  2  or  2J  dr., 
the  wages  of  unskilled  labour  remaining 
at  1  dr.  or  rising  a  little  above  it.  The 
remuneration  of  the  architect  at  Eleusis 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  4th  c.  was  at  tho 
rate  of  2  dr.  a  day  for  every  day  in  tho 
year.  At  the  same  period  public  slaves 
at  Athens  received  for  their  subsistence 
180  dr.  a  year,  besides  their  clothing.  Tho 
poorer  classes  wore  supported  at  first  by 
tho  great  works  of  fortification  and  em- 
bellishment of  tho  city ;  later  in  part  by 
the  misthos  or  payment  for  the  discharge 
of  public  duties,  while  the  Theoric  Fund 
(q.v.)  provided  for  their  amusement.  In 
times  of  war  or  distress  the  State  came  to 
the  aid  of  the  needy  by  means  of  the 
diobelia  or  daily  grant  of  two  obols. 
Further,  to  provide  land  for  the  poor, 
thousands  were  established  as  cleruchs 
(q.v.)  in  territories  across  tho  sea.  The 

Athens  € 

accounts  of  the  construction  of  the 
Erechtheum  in  409-408  suggest  that 
citizens  were  then  taking  only  a  small 
part  in  industry,  leaving  manual  occupa- 
tions to  metics  (q.v.)  and  slaves.  These 
Boem  likewise  to  have  taken  the  chief  part 
in  commerce. 

The  annual  rent  of  land  and  houses  in 
the  4th  c.  was  normally  equal  to  about 
8  per  cent,  of  their  capital  value.  The  rate 
of  interest  on  loans  on  mortgage  was 
normally  12  per  cent.  For  commercial 
loans  it  was  generally  10-18  per  cent. ;  but 
for  loans  on  marine  ventures  it  was  much 
higher.  For  the  full  navigation  season  of 
seven  months  it  might  bo  30  per  cent. ;  it 
might  even  be  more  for  voyages  involving 
special  risks.  Banking  was  highly  organ- 
ized by  the  end  of  the  5th  c. ;  banks  lent 
on  mortgage,  on  cargoes,  or  on  personal 
security,  and  issued  letters  of  credit  on 
correspondents  abroad.  The  bank  founded 
by  Antisthencs  and  Archcstratos  at  the 
end  of  the  5th  c.  and  carried  on  in  the 
4th  c.  by  the  famous  Pasion,  had  largo 
foreign  transactions,  especially  with  By- 
zantium; when  Pasion  retired  it  had  a 
capital  of  50  talents  (£10,000). 

Urban  industries  (pottery,  metal - 
working,  &c.)  were  conducted  on  a 
comparatively  small  scale.  The  largest 
factory  we  know  of  was  that  of  Cephalus, 
the  father  of  Lysias,  which  employed 
]  20  slaves  on  the  manufacture  of  shields. 
The  two  factories  of  the  father  of  Demos- 
thenes employed  respectively  33  on  the 
manufacture  of  arms  and  20  on  the  manu- 
facture of  beds.  The  shoemaker  in  the 
mime  of  Herodas  had  13  assistants.  Even 
ship-building  appears  to  have  been  carried 
on  hi  a  large  number  of  small  yards. 
Many  industries  were  purely  family 
affairs  in  the  hands  of  an  artisan  and  his 
wife.  The  return  from  industry  appears 
to  have  been  normally  30  per  cent,  a  year 
on  the  capital  value  of  the  slaves  em- 
ployed, but  allowance  has  to  be  made  in 
this  for  amortization. 

There  is  occasional  mention  of  large 
fortunes  at  Athens,  but  they  do  not  appear 
to  have  been  numerous.  Callias,  cousin  of 
Aristidcs  and  son-in-law  of  Cimon,  was 
reputed  the  richest  man  in  Greece;  he  is 
said  to  have  had  200  talents  (say  £40,000). 
Nicias  had  100  talents.  Both  these  for- 
tunes wore  derived  from  mining  enter- 

See  also  Agriculture,  §  1,  Slaveri/,  §  1, 
Colonization,  §  1,  Hellenistic  Age,  §  1. 

§  11.  Finances  in  the  Fifth  and  Fourth 


The  public  revenue  of  Athens  in  the 
5th  and  4th  cc.  consisted  principally  of  the 

S  Athens 

following  items  (talent  =  about  £200, 
drachma  =  about  Sd.). 

(a)  The  produce  of  the  silver  mines  afc 
Laurium.  These  were  leased  to  contrac- 
tors, who  extracted  the  ore  by  slave 
labour.  The  annual  revenue  was  probably 
50-100  talents. 

(&)  The  metoikion,  a  direct  tax  on  the 
resident  aliens,  12  drachmas  on  each  head 
of  a  family.  The  yield  was  probably 
20  talents  or  more. 

(c)  Customs  duty  on  goods  imported  and 
exported  at  the  Piraeus,  2  per  cent,  ad 
valorem,   yielding   30-40   talents.    There 
were  also  minor  taxes,  such  as  octroi  and 
market  dues. 

(d)  Judicial  fees  and  flues.  In  addition 
to  the  judicial  fees  payable  by  litigants,  a 
considerable  revenue  accrued  to  the  State 
from  penalties  in  public  suits  (see  Judicial 
Procedure,  §   1),   which  took  largely  the 
form  of  fines,  and  occasionally  of  con- 
fiscation of  property.    Moreover  the  ac- 
cuser in  a  public  suit  who  failed  to  secure 
one-fifth  of  the  votes  paid  a  fine  of  1,000 
drachmas.  The  revenue  from  these  sources 
(which  went  to   supply   the  fund  from, 
which  the  jurymen  were  paid)  must  have 
varied  considerably  and  cannot  be  esti- 

(e)  In  war  time  the  eisphorfi,  an  extra- 
ordinary tax  on  the  estimated  capital  of 
each  citizen  owning  property  worth  more 
than  1,000  drachmas,  at  the  rate  of  2  or 
3  per  cent.    Metics  were  subject  to  the 
tax  at  a  higher  rate.    In  428  B.C.,  when 
it  was  perhaps  first  imposed,  it  yielded 
200  talents. 

(/)  From  the  middle  of  the  5th  c.  and 
until  the  break-up  of  the  Athenian 
Empire,  the  phoros  or  tribute  of  the  allies, 
an  amount  that  varied,  at  first  about 
400  talents  (actually  received),  later  much 
more,  perhaps  1,000  talents. 

(g)  The  budget  was  helped  out  by  the 
system  of  liturgies  (q.v.)  or  public  services 
discharged  by  the  wealthier  citizens. 

The  total  revenue  amounted  in  431, 
according  to  Xcnophon,  to  not  less  than 
1,000  talents. 

The  public  expenditure  varied  greatly, 
especially  as  between  periods  of  peace  and 
war.  At  certain  moments,  for  instance 
after  the  Persian  Wars,  and  in  the  time 
of  Pericles,  heavy  expenditure  was  in- 
curred for  public  works  and  the  building 
of  temples  (see  the  figures  under  Par- 
thenon). The  provision  of  the  fleet  and 
the  pay  of  the  crews  absorbed  the  greater 
part  of  the  tribute  of  the  allies.  Even  in 
time  of  peace  part  of  the  fleet  was  kept 
in  commission,  A  trireme  with  its  crew 
of  200  men  receiving  2-3  obols  a  day 
would  cost  for  pay  alone  2,000  to  3,000 




drachmas  a  month.  At  the  beginning 
of  the  Peloponnesian  War  Athens  had 
300  triremes,  later  increased  to  400.  The 
initial  cost  of  a  ship  hi  the  5th  o.  is  un- 
known, but  it  was  more  than  one  talent. 
The  peace  expenditure  on  the  army  (pay 
of  1,500  recruits  constantly  in  train- 
ing, equipment  and  forage  allowance  of 
cavalry>  pay  of  mercenaries)  is  estimated 
at  40-50  talents.  In  war  time  each  hoplite 
received  1-2  drachmas  a  day. 

The  normal  peace-time  expenditure  in- 
cluded these  further  items : 

(a)  The  members  of   the   Boule   each 
received  (in  Aristotle's  day)  5  obols,  and 
those  of  the  Prytany  1  drachma  for  each 
day's  sitting.  The  citizens  attending  meet- 
ings of  the  Ecclcsia  received  in  the  first  half 
of  the  4th  c.  3  obols  a  day  (afterwards 
raised  to  1  drachma).    The  archons  re- 
ceived only  4  obols  a  day,  but  there  were 
a    considerable    number    of    subordinate 
officials  to  be  paid.    The  total  cost  rose 
perhaps  from  15  talents  to  40  talents  or 

(b)  The  total  cost  of  the  pay  of  the 
holiasts  or  jurymen  must  have  depended 
on  the  number  employed  and  the  num- 
ber of  days  of  employment.    If  2,000  on 
the  average  were  employed  on  300  days, 
with  pay  at  3  obols  (from  425  B.C.),  the 
charge  would  be  50  talents. 

(c)  Miscellaneous  expenditure  on  fes- 
tivals,   embassies,    reception    of    foreign 
missions,  public  relief  to  the  poor  and 
disabled,  &c. 

There  was  no  single  budget,  but  the 
Ecclesia  distributed  the  revenues  over  a 
number  of  separate  funds,  administered 
and  accounted  for  by  various  magistrates 
and  their  treasurers.  The  revenues  were 
all  paid  to  ten  apodektai  or  receivers- 
general,  chosen  by  lot  from  the  ten  tribes, 
who  handed  them  over  to  the  magistrates 
as  directed.  The  goddess  Athena  (and 
the  other  gods)  played  an  important  part 
In  the  financial  system.  From  454  B.C. 
Athena  received  l/60th  of  the  tribute  of 
the  allies ;  she  and  the  other  gods,  more- 
over, had  revenues  from  sacred  lands, 
offerings,  and  miscellaneous  receipts.  The 
temples  consequently  became  extremely 
wealthy,  and  from  their  treasures  loans 
were  made  at  interest  to  the  State  as 
required.  The  distribution  between  these 
sacred  funds  and  the  public  funds  was  in 
fact  nominal,  and  the  sacred  treasuries 
wore  much  impoverished  by  the  failure 
to  repay  the  large  loans  made  during  the 
Peloponnesian  War.  In  the  4th  c.  there 
was  a  tendency  to  the  simplification  and 
unification  both  of  funds  and  accounts. 
Moreover  the  advantage  of  centralized 
control  was  discovered;  this  was  first 

realized  in  the  person  of  Eubulus,  the 
president  of  the  Theoric  Fund  (q.v.),  who 
was  hi  fact  from  354  to  339  a  general 
minister  of  finance;  and  after  him  in  Lycur- 
gus,  who  discharged  the  same  functions 
from  338  to  326,  with^ho  actual  title  of 
Treasurer -general  (ra/uay  TTJS  BLOLK^UCCDS)' 
Atla'ntids,  the  daughters  of  Atlas  (q.v.). 
Atla'ntis,  see  Timaeus  (Plato's  dialogue). 

A'tlas  (Atlas),  in  Greek  mythology,  accord- 
ing to  Hesiod  a  son  of  the  Titan  lapetus 
and  Clymene,  daughter  of  Oceanus  (qq.v.). 
As  punishment  for  his  part  in  the  revolt 
of  the  Titans  (q.v.),  he  was  employed  to 
support  the  heavens  with  his  head  and 
hands,  somewhere  in  the  extreme  west  of 
the  earth.  Ho  was  father  of  the  Pleiades 
and  the  Hyades  (qq.v.)  and  (in  Homer)  of 
Calypso;  also,  in  later  writers,  of  the 
Hesperides  (q.v.).  Perseus  (q.v.),  being 
inhospitably  received  by  him,  turned  him 
into  a  mountain  by  means  of  the  Medusa's 
head.  See  also  Heracles. 

A'treus,  in  Greek  mythology,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Pelops;  he  was  king  of  Mycenae, 
brother  of  Thyestes,  and  father  of  Aga- 
memnon and  Menelaus.  For  the  story  of 
his  house,  see  Pelops. 

Atreus  appears  to  represent  a  real  per- 
son, if,  as  there  is  reason  to  suppose,  he  is 
the  Attarisayas,  ruler  of  the  Ahhiyava 
(Achaeans?),  whoso  marauding  bands, 
according  to  the  Hittite  archives,  attacked 
the  Hittite  coasts  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
13th  c.  B.C. 

A'trium  Liberta'tis,  at  Homo;  see 
Libraries.  The  censors  had  their  office 
there,  and  it  was  in  this  Hall  of  Liberty 
that,  in  Cicero's  time,  the  judicial  ex- 
amination of  slaves  by  torture  was  carried 
out  (Pro  Mil.  59);  also  the  manumission 
of  slaves. 

A'trium  Ve'stae,  or  Hall  of  Vesta,  was 
the  residence  at  Rome  of  the  Vestal 
Virgins,  in  which  they  lived  as  in  a  con- 
vent. It  stood  near  the  Temple  of  Vesta, 
in  the  Forum,  S.  of  the  Via  Sacra  (see 
PI.  14).  In  republican  times  it  appears  to 
have  consisted  of  rooms  built  round  two 
sides  of  a  small  court.  It  was  repeatedly 
rebuilt  and  restored  in  imperial  times. 
In  its  latest  form  it  was  a  splendid  build- 
Ing  of  several  stories,  surrounding  an 
oblong  cloistered  court. 
A'tropos,  see  Fates. 

A'tta,  Trrus  QUINTIUS  (d.  77  B.C.),  writer 
of  togatae  (q.v.),  of  whose  comedies  very 
little  survives.  In  his  'Aquae  Caldae'  he 
depicted  life  at  a  Roman  watering-place. 
He  is  said  to  have  excelled  in  his  female 

Attalids  6 

A'ttalids,  the  dynasty  that  in  the  course 
of  the  3rd  c.  B.C.  acquired  Pergamum,  in 
the  NW.  of  Asia  Minor,  and  its  surround- 
ing territory,  expanded  its  dominions  at 
the  expense  of  the  Seleucids  (q.v.),  and 
enjoyed  the  support  of  Rome.  Attains  I 
(241-197)was  the  nephew  and  adoptive  son 
of  Eumenes,  who  first  secured  the  indepen- 
dence of  Pergamum  from  the  Seleucids 
(see  his  life  by  Plutarch).  By  driving  back 
the  Galatian  barbarians,  Attains  obtained 
power  and  prestige,  took  the  royal  title, 
and  was  able  to  bring  under  his  control  for 
a  time  nearly  the  whole  of  Seleucid  Asia 
Minor.  In  201  the  Pergamenes  and  the 
Rhodians  became  embroiled  with  Philip  V 
of  Macedonia  (q.v.,  §  3)  and  took  the 
momentous  step  of  soliciting  the  support 
of  Rome.  This  gave  Rome  the  pretext 
for  the  Second  Macedonian  War  and  for 
intervention  in  Greek  affairs.  As  the  ally 
of  Rome  against  Antiochus  III  at  the 
great  victory  of  Magnesia  (190  B.C.,  see 
Seleucids),  Pergamum  established  its  posi- 
tion as  the  leading  State  in  Asia  Minor, 
receiving  the  bulk  of  the  dominions  coded 
by  Antiochus.  In  172  Eumenes  II  of  Per- 
gamum again  stimulated  Rome  against 
Macedonia  and  provided  the  pretext  on 
which  war  was  declared  against  Perseus 
in  171.  The  dynasty  of  the  Attalids  came 
to  an  end  in  133  B.C.,  when  Attains  III 
bequeathed  his  dominions  to  Rome.  The 
government  of  the  Attalids  was  efficient, 
and  pit  was  successful  in  accumulating 
wealth,  partly  from  slave  labour  hi  the 
royal  factories  which  produced  parchment 
and  textiles.  Under  them,  the  treatment 
of  the  population  and  subject  cities  ap- 
pears to  have  been  more  arbitrary  than 
that  of  the  Seleucids,  who  were  regarded 
as  the  champions  of  Hellenism.  This,  and 
the  relations  of  the  Attalids  with  Rome, 
made  Greek  feeling  hostile  to  them.  On 
the  other  hand  they  provided  a  bulwark 
against  the  Galatlans.  With  their  wealth 
they  made  Pergamum  into  a  splendid 
city,  adorned  with  sculptures.  Those 
commemorating  the  victory  of  Attains  I 
over  the  Gallic  invaders  included  a  bronze 
representation  of  the  'Dying  Gaul*  of 
which  a  marble  reproduction  survives 
in  the  Capitoline  museum.  Eumenes  II 
erected  a  great  altar  to  Zeus  with  a  frieze, 
some  400  feet  long,  showing  the  battle  of 
the  Gods  and  the  Giants.  Under  the  same 
king,  Pergamum  became  an  important 
centre  of  literary  studies,  and  a  great 
library  was  built,  the  rival  of  that  of 
Alexandria.  It  was  at  Pergamum  that  the 
use  of  parchment  (a  word  derived  from 
Pergamum)  was  first  developed  on  a  large 
scale  (see  Books,  Ancient,  §  5).  The  Per- 
gamene  kings  sent  sculptures  to  Athens 


and  erected  two  colonnades  there  (see 

A'tthis  (meaning  'Attic'),  a  name  given 
to  chronicles  of  early  events  in  Attica. 
The  first  of  such  chronicles  was  made  by 
Hollamcus  in  the  5th  c.  B.C.  (see  Logo- 
graphi),  and  the  best-known  by  Philo- 
chorus  in  the  3rd  c.  B.C.  Only  fragments 
of  their  chronicles  survive. 

Attic  dialect,  see  Migrations  and  Dialects. 
Attic  Nights,  see  Gellius. 

A'ttica  (Attike),  a  mountainous  and  hi 
great  part  arid  country,  forming  the  SE. 
promontory  of  central  Greece,  about 
1,000  square  miles  in  extent,  or  a  little 
larger  than  Derbyshire.  Its  city  was 
Athens  (q.v.).  See  PI.  8. 

A'tticus,  TiTUS  POMPONIUS  (109-32  B.C.), 
the  intimate  friend  of  Cicero,  was  born  at 
Homo  of  an  equestrian  family.  Ho  with- 
drew in  88  from  the  turbulence  and  blood- 
shed of  Rome  to  Athens,  where  he  lived 
for  many  years  (whence  his  cognomen 
Atticus).  Ho  took  no  active  part  in  the 
politics  of  the  ensuing  troubled  period, 
but  maintained  an  attitude  of  neutrality 
and  friendship  with  all  parties.  He  helped 
Marians  and  Pompeians  in  their  hours 
of  difficulty:  ho  protected  Cicero's  wife 
Tercntia  when  Cicero  went  into  exile, 
and  Antony's  wife  Fulvia  and  his  lieuten- 
ant Volumnius  at  the  tune  of  Mutina.  In 
consequence  he  was  spared  by  Antony  in 
the  proscriptions.  He  became  the  friend 
of  Augustus,  and  his  daughter  married 
Agrippa,  the  minister  of  the  latter.  Their 
daughter  Vipsania  married  Tiberius  and 
was  mother  of  the  younger  Drusus  (see 
Julio-Claudian  Family  and  Germanicus 
and  Drusus,  B.  1).  Pomponia,  sister  of 
Atticus,  married  Cicero's  brother  Quintus. 
The  series  of  Cicero's  letters  to  Atticus 
begins  in  68,  and  their  friendship,  which 
had  its  origin  when  they  were  fellow 
students  in  youth,  continued  until  Cicero's 
death.  Cicero  constantly  turned  to  him 
for  sympathy  in  distress  and  difficulty, 
and  for  advice,  both  in  connexion  with 
public  and  private  affairs.  Atticua  had 
inherited  a  considerable  fortune,  with 
which  he  bought  land  in  Epirus,  and  which 
he  gradually  increased  by  judicious  in- 
vestment. He  became  very  wealthy  and 
had  strong  literary  tastes ;  he  kept  a  large 
staff  of  slaves  trained  in  copying  and  bind- 
ing manuscripts.  He  acted  as  Cicero's 
publisher.  His  works,  which  have  not 
survived,  included  a  'Liber  Annalis',  an 
epitome  of  Roman  history  in  one  book, 
dealing  with  laws,  wars,  and  political 
events  from  the  earliest  times  to  his  own 
day ;  and  a  genealogical  treatise  on  certain 




Roman  families  and  the  magistracies  they 
had  held.  He  also  helped  to  establish 
the  date  of  the  founding  of  Rome  (see 
Calendar.)  We  have  a  life  of  him  by 
Nepos  (q.v.). 

A'ttis,  a  Phrygian  deity  associated  with 
the  myth  of  Cybele  (q.v.)  or  Agdistis. 
Attis  was  the  son  of  Nana,  daughter  of 
the  river-god  Sangarius  (a  rivor  hi  Asia 
Minor).  She  conceived  him  after  gathering 
the  blossom  of  an  almond-tree  sprung  from 
the  blood  of  Agdistis.  When  Attis  wished 
to  marry,  Agdistis,  who  loved  him  and  was 
jealous,  drove  him  mad,  so  that  he 
castrated  himself  and  died.  At  the  prayer 
of  the  repentant  goddess,  Zeus  allowed 
his  spirit  to  pass  into  a  pine-tree,  while 
violets  sprang  from  his  blood.  This  myth 
(like  that  of  Adonis)  symbolizes  the  death 
and  revival  of  plant  life.  See  also  Catullus. 

A'ttius  La'beo,  a  translator  of  Homer 
(q.v.,  ad  fin.). 

Au'fldus,  a  river  in  Apulia  (S.  Italy),  on 
which  stood  Venusia,  the  birthplace  of 
Horace,  who  refers  in  his  poems  to  its 
swift  and  roaring  current  ('  longe  sonantcm 
natus  ad  Aufldum').  It  was  on  the  banks 
of  this  river  that  Hannibal  defeated  the 
Romans  in  216  B.C.  at  the  battle  of 

Auge'as  (Augeids),  see  Heracles  (Labours 
of)  and  Trophonius. 

Augury  and  Auspices.  Auspices  (au- 
spida)  were  the  means  by  which  the 
Romans  sought  to  ascertain  whether  the 
gods  were  favourable  to  an  undertaking, 
and  the  augurs  were  a  priestly  college 
whose  members  had  the  knowledge  neces- 
sary for  taking  the  auspices  and  inter- 
preting them.  In  the  household  nothing 
of  importance  was  undertaken,  Cicero 
tells  us,  except  with  the  sanction  of  the 
auspices.  But  of  the  details  of  domestic 
augury  we  know  hardly  anything.  The 
auspices  were  taken  by  the  master  of  the 
house,  with  the  assistance,  if  necessary,  of 
a  professional  augur.  We  know  also  that 
there  were  agricultural  auguries  in  spring 
and  at  midsummer.  The  college  of  augurs 
was  second  in  importance  only  to  the 
pontifices  (q.v.) ;  they  were  the  repositories 
of  tradition  about  augury  and  were  con- 
sulted in  cases  of  doubt,  public  or  private. 
They  alone  had  the  right  of  public  augury, 
exercised  on  all  occasions  when  the  ap- 
proval of  the  gods  for  public  action  (e.g. 
a  meeting  of  the  Assembly)  was  required. 
The  auspices,  originally  *  signs  from  birds' 
(avis-spicere)  were  taken  as  follows.  The 
augur  marked  off  a  templum,  a  rectangular 
space  In  which  the  auspices  were  to  be 
sought.  There,  after  offering  a  prescribed 

prayer  for  a  sign,  he  sat  looking  south- 
ward. (In  certain  pla-ces,  e.g.  in  the  Arx  on 
the  Capitoline  hill,  there  were  permanent 
templa ;  the  view  from  these  might  not  be 
obstructed  by  new  buildings.)  Signs  on 
the  E.  side  (the  augur's  left)  were  regarded 
as  propitious,  on  the  W.  as  unfavourable. 
Hence,  in  general,  signs  on  the  left  side 
were  of  good  omen.  (There  was  also 
authority  for  the  augur  adopting  an 
eastward-facing  position.)  The  signs  were 
either  the  flight  or  song  of  birds,  thunder 
and  lightning,  or  the  movement  of  ani- 
mals. Later,  auspices  were  taken,  espe- 
cially during  military  operations,  from  the 
manner  of  feeding  (eager  or  the  reverse) 
of  chickens.  The  gods,  moreover,  might 
spontaneously  send  a  sign,  such  as  thun- 
der, upon  which  the  augur  advised;  and 
in  later  republican  times  public  business 
was  frequently  obstructed  by  the  observa- 
tion of  pretended  signs  and  similar  devices. 
The  college,  until  the  lex  Ogulnia  of 
300  B.C.,  consisted  of  patricians.  The 
augurs  received  a  salary;  their  official 
dress  was  the  trabea,  a  mantle  with  a 
purple  border,  and  they  were  further 
distinguished  by  the  lituus  or  curved  staff 
without  knots,  which  they  used  for  mark- 
ing off  the  templa.  Much  light  is  thrown 
on  Roman  augury  by  the  'De  Divina- 
tione*  (q.v.)  of  Cicero.  The  classical 
example  of  the  supposed  danger  of  neg- 
lecting the  warnings  of  the  auspices  was 
that  of  the  consul  C.  Flaminius,  who,  on 
the  morning  of  the  battle  of  Lake  Trasi- 
mene  (217  B.C.),  insisted  on  marching 
against  the  enemy  in  defiance  of  the 
obvious  indications  of  the  omens,  which 
he  ridiculed.  Within  three  hours  the 
consul  lay  dead  on  the  field  and  his  army 
was  destroyed.  Similarly  on  the  occasion 
of  the  great  sea-fight  off  Drepanum  in 
249  B.C.  between  the  Roman  and  Cartha- 
ginian fleets,  it  was  reported  to  the  Roman 
admiral  that  the  sacred  chickens  would 
not  eat.  *  Then  let  them  drink ',  he  replied 
and  had  them  thrown  overboard.  The 
utter  defeat  of  the  Roman  fleet  followed. 
For  omens  drawn  by  the  Romans  from 
inspection  of  the  entrails  of  sacrificial 
victims,  see  Haruspices. 

Augusta'les.  There  were  during  the 
Roman  empire  several  priesthoods  or 
dignities  bearing  this  title.  (1)  On  the 
death  of  Augustus  (A.D.  14)  Tiberius 
instituted  the  college  of  Sodales  Augustales 
to  look  after  the  cult  of  the  gens  Julia. 
Its  members  belonged  to  the  imperial 
family  or  were  important  personages  in 
the  State.  (2)  The  Seviri  Augustales  were 
members  of  similar  colleges  instituted 
by  Tiberius  in  the  provinces  for  the 




commemoration  of  Augustus.  They  were 
freedmen,  who  thus  acquired  in  Rome  the 
social  standing  they  desired.  Trimalchio, 
in  the  novel  of  Potronius  Arbiter  (q.v.), 
prides  himself  on  being  a  seoir  Augustalis, 
an  honour  all  the  greater  because  he  was 
chosen  in  absence  without  having  to 
stand  for  election.  (3)  During  his  lifetime, 
Augustus  had  associated  his  'genius'  (see 
Religion,  §  5)  for  purposes  of  worship  with 
the  Lares  Compitales,  the  Lares  of  the 
cross-roads.  He  instituted  the  Magistri 
Vlcorum  to  attend  to  the  worship.  These 
Augustales  also  were  freedmen.  The  con- 
nexion and  difference  between  Seviri 
Augustales,  Seviri  et  Augustales,  Magistri 
Augustales,  and  Augustales  (in  the  pro- 
vinces), is  still  far  from  clear. 
Augusta'lia,  Ludi,  §  2  ad  fin. 

Augustan  Age  of  Roman  literature,  a 
term  applied  to  the  period  which  followed 
the  Ciceronian  Age  (q.v.),  and  of  which  the 
empire  of  Augustus  was  the  chief  his- 
torical feature;  it  is  generally  regarded 
as  covering  the  years  from  the  death  of 
Julius  Caesar  (44  B.C.)  to  the  death  of 
Ovid  in  A.D.  17.  The  great  authors  of  this 
period  were  Virgil,  Horace,  Tibullus, 
Proportius,  Ovid,  and  Livy.  The  period 
covers  a  variety  of  political  conditions, 
for  the  old  republican  system  did  not  end 
until  after  the  battle  of  Actium  in  31  B.C., 
and  even  then  continued  nominally. 

The  most  prominent  characteristic  of 
this  period  was  the  restoration  of  tran- 
quillity and  order  after  nearly  a  century 
of  revolution,  civil  turmoil,  and  massacre. 
Political  activity  came  to  an  end  with  the 
institution  of  the  empire;  freedom  of 
political  and  historical  inquiry  and  ex- 
pression was  limited;  hence  the  disap- 
pearance of  oratory  and  the  scantiness 
of  prose  literature  in  general  during  this 
age.  Poetry  is  frequently  under  the  in- 
fluence of  patrons  such  as  the  emperor 
himself  and  other  men  in  high  official 
positions,  like  Maecenas  and  Messalla;  it 
is  addressed  to  a  polished  society,  and  is 
concerned  with  patriotic  themes  (pride 
in  Rome  and  its  imperial  destiny),  or  with 
the  passion  of  love,  or  with  the  beauty  of 
nature.  It  is  a  mature  literature,  the 
product  of  study  and  training,  showing 
less  originality  and  spontaneity  than  the 
literature  of  the  preceding  age. 
Augu'stine,  ST.  (Aurelius  Augustinus) 
(A.D.  354-430),  was  born  at  Thagaste  in 
Numidia.  His  father  was  a  pagan;  his 
mother,  Monica,  was  a  devout  Christian 
and  greatly  influenced  her  son.  He  taught 
rhetoric  successively  at  Thagaste,  Car- 
thage, Rome  (383),  and  Milan.  At  Milan 
he  came  under  the  influence  of  Bishop 

Ambrose  (q.v.),  and  in  387,  after  a  long 
intellectual  and  moral  struggle,  in  which 
he  states  that  he  was  influenced  by  the 
'Hortensius'  of  Cicero,  received  Christian 
baptism.  He  then  returned  to  Africa 
(Monica  dying  at  Ostia  on  the  way) 
and  became  a  priest,  and  in  395  bishop  of 
Hippo,  which  office  he  occupied  till  his 
death.  He  was  a  man  of  wide  erudition, 
with  a  bent  for  philosophy,  of  strong  prac- 
tical sense,  combined  with  intense  sensi- 
bility and  an  ardent  religious  faith.  Many 
of  his  writings,  especially  his  earliest 
works,  have  a  philosophic  cast:  the  'Con- 
tra Academicos',  'De  Vita  Beata',  and 
*Do  Ordlne*  are  a  criticism,  from  the 
religious  standpoint,  of  ancient  philo- 
sophy. His  treatises  'Do  Immortalitate 
Animi*  (in  which  he  adopts  the  Platonic 
arguments  for  a  future  life)  and  'Do 
Libero  Arbitrio*  (in  which  he  discusses 
the  vexed  question  of  free  will  and  divine 
foreknowledge)  are  other  examples  of  his 
philosophical  attitude.  After  his  appoint- 
ment to  his  bishopric  his  writings  assume 
a  more  purely  religious  character — polemi- 
cal treatises  against  the  Manichaean  and 
Pelagian  heretics  and  the  Donatist  schis- 
matics, letters  of  advice,  encouragement, 
instruction,  or  direction,  and  numerous 
practical  treatises.  His  methods  as  a 
teacher  of  Christianity  are  set  forth  in  two 
works,  'De  CatecMzandis  Rudibus'  ('On 
the  Art  of  Catechizing')  and  'De  Doc- 
trina  Christiana '  on  a  scheme  of  Christian 
education,  including  the  interpretation  of 
the  Scriptures  and  Christian  eloquence. 
His  two  most  famous  works  are  his  *  Con- 
fessions', the  moving  story  of  his  own 
spiritual  struggles,  written  for  the  edifica- 
tion of  others,  with  deep  psychological 
insight;  and  his  'De  Civitate  Dei'  (q.v.), 
'The  City  of  God',  the  longest  (it  con- 
tains twenty-two  books)  and  the  latest 
of  his  writings ;  he  worked  on  it  for  nearly 
fourteen  years.  Augustine's  early  practice 
of  rhetoric  left  its  mark  not  only  in  his 
wide  knowledge  of  profane  literature,  but 
in  an  easy,  supple  style  and  a  fondness  for 
rhetorical  devices  and  conceits. 

Augu'stus,  an  honorary  title  conferred 
in  27  B.C.  on  C.  Julius  Caesar  Octavianus, 
the  first  Roman  emperor.  See  Octavian 
and  Rome,  §§  7  and  9.  He  received  this 
title  because  it  had  no  monarchical  ring 
and  yet  designated  him  as  something 
greater  than  an  ordinary  citizen. 

The  title  Augustus  was  assumed  by  the 
succeeding  emperors  at  the  request  of  the 
Senate  and  gradually  became  their  official 
designation.  The  title  Augusto  was  con- 
ferred on  Livia  after  the  death  of  Augustus 
and  was  afterwards  borne  by  various  ladies 




of  the  imperial  family,  not  always  consorts 
of  the  emperor. 

Aulul&'rin  ('The  pot  of  gold'),  a  comedy 
by  Plautus,  probably  adapted  from  a  play 
by  Menander.  The  prologue  is  spoken  by 
the  Lar  Familiaris  (q.v.). 

Euclio,  an  old  curmudgeon,  has  found 
a  pot  full  of  treasure  buried  in  his  house. 
Ho  hides  it  away,  continues  to  pretend 
poverty,  and  is  in  terror  that  the  treasure 
may  be  taken  from  him.  His  daughter 
Phaodria  has  been  ravished  by  a  young 
man,  Lyconides,  at  a  feast  of  Ceres. 
Lyconides  is  repentant  and  wishes  to 
marry  her.  But  meanwhile  his  uncle 
Megad6rus  proposes  to  Euclio  for  the 
girl's  hand.  Euclio  thinks  that  Megadorus 
has  designs  on  the  treasure,  takes  it  away 
from  his  house,  and  hides  it  in  one  place 
after  another.  He  is  seen  by  a  slave  of 
Lyconides.  The  latter  gets  possession  of 
the  treasure,  and  restores  it  to  Euclio, 
who,  overjoyed  at  its  recovery,  apparently 
(the  end  of  the  play  is  lost)  bestows  his 
daughter  on  Lyconides. 

The  play  is  noteworthy  especially  for 
the  character  of  the  old  miser,  on  whom 
the  Harpagon  of  Moliere's  'L'Avare*  is 
closely '  modelled.  The  incident  of  the 
cock  that  scrapes  the  earth  near  Euclio's 
treasure,  and  is  killed  by  him  for  its  mani- 
fest thievish  intention,  is  also  famous. 
The  *  Aulularia'  was  performed  at  Cam- 
bridge hi  1564  before  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Au'lus  Ge'llius,  see  Oellius. 
Auro'ra,  see  Eos. 

Auso'nia,  a  poetic  name  for  Italy,  from 
Ausones,  an  ancient,  perhaps  Greek,  name 
for  the  inhabitants  of  middle  and  southern 

Auso'nius,  DKCIMUS  MAGNUS  (c.  A.D. 
310-c.  395),  the  son  of  a  physician  of 
Bordeaux,  was  educated  there  and  at 
Toulouse,  and  after  teaching  rhetoric  for 
thirty  years  at  Bordeaux  was  appointed 
tutor  to  Valentinian's  son,  Gratian. 
With  his  pupil  he  accompanied  Valen- 
tinian's  expedition  of  368-9  against  the 
Germans,  and  under  Gratian  received 
rapid  official  advancement,  becoming  pre- 
fect of  the  Gallic  provinces,  then  of 
Italy,  Illyria,  and  Africa  jointly  with  the 
emperor's  son,  and  finally  consul  in  379. 
He  then  returned  to  his  family  estate  at 
Bordeaux,  where  he  appears  to  have  spent 
most  of  the  remainder  of  his  life,  though 
he  was  at  Treves  at  the  time  of  the 
usurpation  of  Maximus.  He  was  nomin- 
ally at  least  a  Christian,  but  without  any 
depth  of  religious  feeling:  he  tried  to 
dissuade  his  pupil  Paulinus  from  abandon- 
ing the  world  for  a  life  of  religion. 

He  wrote  a  great  deal  of  verse  in  a 
great  variety  of  metres,  showing  rather 
the  technical  ability  of  a  professor  of 
rhetoric  than  poetic  inspiration.  He  seems 
to  have  versified  any  theme  that  pre- 
sented itself,  such  as  the  names  of  the 
days  and  months,  or  the  properties  of  the 
number  three.  He  particularly  delighted 
in  verso  catalogues:  thus  he  catalogued 
in  the  'Parentalia'  his  relatives  and  ances- 
tors, assigning  a  few  lines  of  pious  praise 
to  each ;  in  other  poems  the  professors  of 
Bordeaux,  the  famous  cities  of  the  world, 
the  twelve  Caesars,  the  Seven  Sages,  even 
the  Roman  consuls  (but  this  work  is  lost). 
He  delighted  also  in  such  feats  of  skill  as 
the  composition  of  a  prayer  in  42  rhopalio 
(q.v.)  hexameters  beginning  'Spes  deus 
aeternao  stationis  conciliator',  and  of 
nearly  two  hundred  hexameters  (the 
Technopaegnion)  each  ending  in  a 

His  more  important  and  interesting 
poems  arc,  (1)  the  EpMmeris,  or  descrip- 
tion of  a  normal  day  in  his  life  (the  date 
and  place  represented  are  uncertain),  his 
awakening,  talk  with  his  servant,  his 
cook,  his  secretary,  &c. ;  and  (2)  the 
Mosella.  This  is  a  long  poem  on  a  visit 
to  the  Moselle,  artificial  in  its  arrange- 
ment: his  journey  through  Gaul,  apo- 
strophe to  the  river,  list  of  its  fishes, 
description  of  its  vineyards,  the  reflec- 
tions in  its  water,  aquatic  sports,  the 
luxurious  villas  on  its  banks,  its  tribu- 
taries, ending  with  its  junction  with  the 
Rhine  and  a  final  tribute  of  praise. 

Ausonius  possesses  neither  depth,  in- 
sight, nor  passion ;  but  he  shows  affection 
for  his  country  and  feeling  for  natural 
beauties,  and  his  verse  (which  includes, 
besides  the  pieces  named  above,  Epistles, 
Epigrams,  &c.)  throws  light,  here  and 
there,  on  middle-class  life  in  the  provinces 
in  his  day.  His  prose  writing  Includes  a 
long  Ordtiarum  actio  or  thanksgiving  for 
his  consulship,  addressed  to  Gratian. 
Auspices,  see  Augury. 
Au'ster,  the  south  wind  (Gk.  Notos). 

Auto'lycus  (Autolukos),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, a  son  of  Hermes  and  a  master  of 
trickery  and  thieving.  He  received  from 
his  father  the  gift  of  making  himself  and 
his  stolen  goods  invisible,  or  of  changing 
the  appearance  of  the  latter  so  as  to 
escape  detection.  But  he  was  outwitted 
by  Sisyphus  (q.v.).  He  was  the  father  of 
Aiiticlea,  the  mother  of  Odysseus. 

Auto'medon  (Automeddn),  In  the  'Iliad', 
the  charioteer  of  Achilles  (q.v.). 

A'ventine,  the  most  southerly  of  the 
seven  hills  of  Rome  (see  PL  14).  According 




to  the  traditional  view,  tho  Avcntine, 
though  within  the  wall  of  Servius  Tullius 
(see  Rome,  §  1),  remained  outside  the 
pomoerium  or  city  boundary  for  religious 
reasons  until  the  time  of  Claudius.  An- 
other theory  is  that  it  was  not  included 
within  any  wall  until  the  rebuilding  of 
the  Servian  Wall  in  the  4th  c.  B.C.  It  was 
the  scene  of  the  story  of  Hercules  and 
Cacus  (q.v.),  whose  cave  Evander  showed 
to  Aeneas  (Aon.  viii.  184  et  soq.).  In 
later  times  it  was  a  quarter  occupied  by 
tho  poorer  classes,  and  was  crowned  by 
a  temple  of  Diana. 

Ave'rnus,  a  lake  near  Cumae  and  Naples. 
Close  to  it  was  tho  cave  by  which  Aeneas 
descended  to  the  nether  world  (Aen.  vi). 
The  name  was  sometimes  used  for  the 
nether  world  itself.  It  was  generally  writ- 
ten in  Greek  "Aopvos,  which  was  supposed 
to  mean  'without  birds',  and  the  lake  was 
in  consequence  thought  to  be  birdless,  a 
feature  which  is  often  referred  to. 

AvSst  see  Birds. 

Avie'nus,  RUFIUS  FESTUS  (4th  c.  A.D.), 
who  tells  us  that  he  was  a  native  of  Vol- 
sinii  and  twice  proconsul,  was  author  of  an 
extant  translation  of  Aratus  (q.v.)  into 
Latin  hexameters.  Of  two  other  verso 
translations  by  him  (of  Greek  poems  on 
geographical  subjects)  tho  whole  of  one 
and  part  of  the  other  survive. 

Ba'brius,  VALERIUS  (?)  (c.  A.D.  100?)  of 
whom  nothing  is  known,  author  of  123 
Acsopic  fables  (see  Aesop)  in  Greek  chol- 
iambio  verse  (see  Metre,  §  5),  pleasantly 
told  and  probably  based  on  some  prose 
collection  of  these.  The  fables  of  Babrius 
are  extant. 

Ba'cchae,  a  tragedy  by  Euripides,  pro- 
duced in  405  B.C.  by  his  son  after  his  death, 
probably  written  after  Euripides  had  gone 
to  Mace  don  to  tho  court  of  Arehelaus;  the 
last  of  tho  groat  Greek  tragedies. 

Dionysus,  the  young  god,  son  of  Zeus 
and  tho  Theban  princess  Semelo  (q.v.), 
travelling  through  tho  world  to  make 
himself  known  as  god  to  man,  comes  to 
Thebes,  where  his  worship  has  been  re- 
jected, even  by  Agave,  sister  of  Somele 
and  mother  of  PentheHs,  king  of  Thebes. 
Dionysus  has  maddened  the  recalcitrant 
women,  and  sent  them  to  adore  him  on  the 
mountain.  Pentheus,  bitterly  hostile  to 
the  new  religion  in  spite  of  the  remon- 
strances of  his  grandfather  Cadmus  and 
of  Tiresias  (qq.v.),  insults  and  trios  to 

imprison  Dionysus  (it  is  usually  supposed 
that  the  poet  intended  to  represent 
Dionysus  himself  in  the  captive;  but  in 
the  tragedy  itself  the  captive  proclaims 
himself  merely  a  votary  of  the  god).  By 
him  Pentheus  is  induced  to  spy  on  the 
women's  mystio  worship,  is  discovered  by 
them,  and  torn  in  pieces.  Agave,  in  her 
frenzy,  bears  his  head  triumphantly  to 
Thebes.  It  is  only  when  she  recovers  that 
she  finds  she  has  killed  her  son.  Dionysus 
proclaims  tho  doom  of  tho  house  of  Cad- 
mus, and  Cadmus  himself  and  Agave  go 
their  ways  into  oxilo. 

Pentheus  exemplifies  the  limitations  of 
ordinary  human  reason,  closed  to  tho 
mysteries  beyond  tho  material  world.  But 
while  Euripides  shows  sympathy  with  the 
mystio  side  of  tho  Dionysiao  religion,  he 
appears  to  condemn  its  extravagances. 

Bacchanalia  (Bacchanalia),  orgies  of 
Dionysus  (q.v.)  or  Bacchus.  They  spread 
in  Italy  early  in  tho  2nd  c.  B.C.,  led  to 
excesses,  and  had  to  be  suppressed  in 
18C  B.C.  Tho  decree  of  the  Senate  for- 
bidding these  rites  survives  in  an  inscrip- 

Bacchi,  see  Dionysus. 
Ba'cchiac  or  Ba'cchius,  see  Metre,  §  1. 
Ba'cchidgs,     a    comedy     by    Plautus, 
adapted  probably  from  a  lost  play  (Jt? 
€^a7rara)v)  of  Menander. 

A  young  man  is  searching  on  behalf  of 
an  absr  at  friend  for  tho  courtesan  Bacchis 
of  Samos ;  ho  finds  her,  but  falls  under  the 
charm  of  her  sister  Bacchis  of  Athens.  His 
conduct  arouses  suspicion  in  his  friend's 
mind  until  it  comes  out  that  there  are  two 
courtesans  of  the  same  name.  Tho  slave 
Chrysalus  is  tho  pivot  of  tho  play.  In 
contrast  to  the  pedagogue  Lydus,  he  aids 
his  young  master  in  his  love  affair,  ly- 
ing unblushingly  and  resourcefully.  By 
a  bold  and  ingenious  trick  he  extracts 
from  the  young  man's  father  the  money 
required  for  the  affair,  and  likens  himself 
to  a  conqueror  of  Troy.  Finally  the  sisters 
beguile  the  fathers  of  the  two  young  men 
into  forgiveness  and  all  ends  merrily. 
Ba'cchus  (BakcJios),  see  Dionysus. 
Bacchy'lides  (Bakchulides)  (c.  505-c. 
450  B.C.),  born  like  his  uncle  Simonides 
(q.v.)  in  the  island  of  Ceos,  a  Greek  lyric 
poet.  He  appears  to  have  visited  the  tyrant 
llieron  I  of  Syracuse  (q.v.,  §  1),  whom  he 
celebrated  in  three  odes.  He  wrote  choral 
lyrics  of  all  the  principal  kinds.  Thanks  to 
a  discovery  among  the  Oxyrhynchus  papyri 
(see  Papyri,  Discoveries  of),  we  possess 
nineteen  of  his  poems  (more  or  less  muti- 
lated), including  thirteen  epinicia  (q.v.) 
and  five  other  poems  classed  as  dithy- 




rambs.  In  the  former  he  celebrated  per- 
eons  from  all  parts  of  the  Greek  world. 
The  dithyrambs  treat  detached  scenes 
taken  from  heroic  legend.  One  of  them, 
entitled  *  Theseus',  is  of  special  interest 
as  being  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue  between 
Aegeus  (see  Theseus)  and  the  chorus. 
Barchylides  was  a  poet  of  great  elegance 
and  imagination,  of  more  natural  magic 
than  Pindar,  but  without  the  latter's  gran- 
deur, gravity,  and  power.  Ho  makes  ample 
use  of  myths ;  some  of  them  are  new  to  us. 
But  they  are  less  aptly  connected  with 
his  theme  than  those  of  Pindar.  There 
was  an  edition  of  Bacchylides  by  R.  C. 
Jobb  in  1905. 

Ba'cis  (Balds),  an  old  Boeotian  prophet* 
whose  name  became  a  common  designa- 
tion for  male  soothsayers,  as  Sibyl  for 

Bacon,  ROGER,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  8. 

Ba'lbus,  QUINTUS  LtJclLius,  one  of  the 
interlocutors  In  Cicero's  *De  Natura 
Deorum*  (q.v.),  a  learned  Stoic,  known 
only  from  Cicero's  dialogue. 
Bandu'sia,  a  fountain  celebrated  by 
Horace  in  the  beautiful  Ode  (in.  xiii) 
'  O  fons  Bandusiao,  splendidior  vitro'.  It 
may  have  been  on  his  Sabino  farm,  or  near 
his  birthplace  Venusia. 
Basilica,  from  the  Gk.  word  meaning 
*  royal*  sc.  house,  a  roofed  hall  sometimes 
divided  into  aisles  by  rows  of  columns, 
used  for  judicial  or  other  public  business, 
or  as  a  bazaar.  The  earliest  is  said  to  have 
been  built  by  M.  Porcius  Cato  in  184  B.C. 
There  were  five  or  six  basilicac  about  the 
Forum  at  the  end  of  the  republican  period, 
among  them  the  Basilica  Julia,  built  by 
Caesar,  and  used  for  judicial  proceedings. 

A  form  of  basilica,  with  aisles  flanking 
a  nave  and  terminating  in  an  apse, 
became  the  prototype  of  the  Christian 

Ba'ssarids     (Bassaridcs),     votaries     of 
Dionysus  (q.v.);  a  word  perhaps  meaning 
'wearers  of  fox-skins'. 
Bathos,  hi  rhetoric,  a  drop  from  the  lofty 
or  sublime  to  the  mean  or  ridiculous  (the 
Gk.  word  ftddos,  'depth',  was  not  used  in 
this    metaphorical   sense).     There    is    an 
example  of  it  in  a  line  by  the  bombastic  epic 
poet  Furius  Bibaculus: 
Juppitcr    hibernas    cana    nive    conspuit 


'Jupiter  spits  the  bleak  Alps  over  with 
white  snow.'  This  line  is  parodied  by 
Horace,  Sat.  n.  v.  39-41. 
Baths,  ROMAN  (balneae).  For  those  in 
private  houses  see  Houses.  Public  baths 
Played  an  important  part  in  the  daily  life 

of  the  Romans,  particularly  in  late  repub- 
lican and  imperial  times.  They  included 
rooms  heated  to  different  degrees  (the 
frigiddrium,  tepiddrium,  and  calddrium), 
provided  with  hot  water  for  washing  and 
a  cold  plunge -bath.  Women  some  tunes 
had  separate  accommodation  or  had  par- 
ticular hours  allotted  to  them,  though 
promiscuous  bathing  was  not  uncommon 
under  the  empire.  The  vast  and  luxurious 
structures  built  under  the  emperors  (not- 
ably Caracalla  and  Diocletian),  of  which 
there  are  considerable  remains,  had  in 
addition  halls,  lecture  rooms,  and  places 
for  exercise,  running,  wrestling,  ball-play- 
ing (for  it  was  usual  to  take  exercise  before 
the  bath).  Rhetoricians  used  the  baths 
for  recitations,  and  authors  read  their  new 
works  there.  Excavations  have  shown 
that  they  were  highly  ornamented;  and 
beautiful  statues  have  been  found  hi  then* 
ruins,  such  as  the  Farncse  Hercules  and 
the  Farnese  Bull  (from  the  Baths  of  Cara- 
calla, and  now  at  Naples).  The  usual 
charge  for  admission  to  the  baths  was  a 
quadrans  (a  small  copper  coin,  one-fourth 
of  an  as). 

Bathy'llus  (Bathullos),  see  Pantomime. 
Ba'trachomyoma'chiG,  or  Battle  of  the 
Frogs  and  Mice,  a  parody  of  an  epic  poem, 
attributed   in  antiquity  to   Homer,   but 
probably  of  much  later  date. 

A  mouse  named  Pslcharpax  is  invited 
by  a  frog,  Physignathos,  son  of  Peleus,  to 
ride  on  his  back  and  visit  his  watery  king- 
dom. Unfortunately,  at  the  sight  of  a 
water-snake  (or  perhaps  otter),  the  frog 
dives  and  the  mouse  is  drowned.  But  the 
incident  has  been  seen  by  another  mouse, 
and  a  great  war  ensues  between  the  mice 
and  the  frogs,  in  which  the  mice  seem  to 
be  winning.  At  the  request  of  Athena 
Zeus  intervenes,  and,  having  failed  with 
thunderbolts,  sends  crabs  to  quell  the 

Ba'ttus,  the  founder  of  Cyrcne,  see 
Colonisation,  §  4. 

Ba'vius  and  Mae'vius,  poetasters  sar- 
castically alluded  to  in  Virgil's  Third 
Eclogue.  Maevius  is  also  attacked  in 
Horace's  Tenth  Epode.  In  English  litera- 
ture they  supplied  the  titles  of  Gifford's 
satires  on  the  Delia  Cmscan  school  of 
poets,  'The  Baviad'  and  'The  Maeviad' 

Be'driacum,  between  Cremona  and 
Verona,  where  in  A.D.  69  Otho's  forces 
were  defeated  by  the  ViteUians,  and  where 
the  ViteUians  later  were  defeated  by  the 
supporters  of  Vespasian. 
Bekker,  IMMANUEL,  see  Texts  and  Studies, 




Belisa'rius,  see  Justinian. 
Belle'rophon  (Bellerophon  or  Bettero- 
phontfa),  in  Greek  mythology?  son  of 
Glaucus  (q.v.  (3)),  the  eon  of  Sisyphus 
(q.v.).  He  spent  some  time  at  the  court  of 
Proetus,  king  of  Argos,  where  Anteia  (or 
Stheneboea),  wife  of  Proetus,  fell  in  love 
with  him.  As  he  slighted  her  passion, 
Anteia  accused  him  to  her  husband. 
Proetus,  unwilling  to  violate  the  laws  of 
hospitality  by  killing  Bellerophon  under 
his  own  roof,  sent  him  to  his  father-in-law 
lobates  bearing  a  letter  requesting  him 
to  put  Bellerophon  to  death  (whence  the 
expression  Bellerophontis  litteroe.  Homer 
says  cn}/Ltara  Auypa;  it  has  been  disputed 
whether  this  was  a  letter.).  lobates  ac- 
cordingly sent  Bellerophon  against  the 
Chimaera  (q.v.);  but  Bellerophon,  with 
the  aid  of  the  winged  horse  Pegasus  (q.v.) ; 
destroyed  it.  He  then  defeated  the  fierce 
tribe  of  the  Solymi,  and  the  Amazons,  with 
whom  he  was  sent  to  fight,  and  overcame 
the  warriors  placed  in  an  ambush  to  await 
him  on  his  return.  Thereafter  lobates, 
despairing  of  killing  him,  gave  him  his 
daughter  to  wife,  by  whom  he  was  father 
of  Laodamia,  mother  of  Sarpedon  (qq.v.), 
and  of  Hippolochus,  father  of  the  Glaucus 
(q.v.  (4)),  who  at  the  siege  of  Troy  ex- 
changed armour  with  Diomedes.  But  ho 
came  to  be  hated  of  the  gods ;  two  of  his 
children  perished,  and  he  is  last  heard  of 
'wandering  alone,  eating  his  heart  out, 
avoiding  the  paths  of  men'  (D.  vi.  201-2). 
Later  legend  relates  that  ho  attempted  to 
fly  to  heaven  on  Pegasus,  but  that  Zeus 
by  a  gadfly  caused  the  horse  to  throw  its 

Bello  Civili,  Commentarii  de,  see  Com- 

Hello  Gallico,  Commentarii  de,  see  Com- 

Bello'na  (in  the  old  form  of  the  name, 
Duelldna),  the  Roman  goddess  of  war. 
The  first  temple  to  her  appears  to  have 
been  built  by  Appius  Claudius  Caecus 
(q.v.)  in  the  Campus  Martius.  (In  Pliny's 
'Natural  History*  we  are  told  that  in 
495  B.C.  Appius  Claudius  Regillus  con- 
secrated at  Rome  the  images  of  his  ances- 
tors in  a  temple  dedicated  to  Bellona. 
Wissowa  believes  this  to  be  an  additional 
explanation  and  that  the  temple  of  Appius 
Claudius  Caecus  is  referred  to.)  The  tem- 
ple, being  outside  the  walls,  was  used  for 
meetings  of  the  Senate  to  receive  foreign 
ambassadors  and  Roman  generals  return- 
ing from  active  service  (see  Triumph). 
Here  took  place,  after  the  battle  of  the 
Colline  Gate,  the  meeting  between  Sulla 
and  the  Senate,  when  the  proceedings 
were  interrupted  by  the  shrieks  of  Sulla's 

enemies  who  were  being  massacred  by  his 
orders.  Near  the  temple  stood  the  little 
column  over  which  the  Fetialis  (q.v.) 
symbolically  threw  his  spear  on  a  declara- 
tion of  war. 

The  moon-goddess  of  Asia  was  intro- 
duced at  Rome  after  the  Mithridatic  Wars. 
A  temple  was  erected  to  her,  and  she  seems 
to  have  become  identified  with  the  Italian 
Bellona,  whose  Greek  equivalent  was 
recognized  to  be  Enyo  (q.v.). 

Bellum  Cat ill'nuc,  see  Sallust. 
Bellum  Civile,  see  Pharsalia. 
Helium  Jugurthl'num,  see  Sallust. 
Bellum  Pu'nicum,  see  Nacvius. 

Be'ndis,  a  Thracian  goddess  of  the  moon, 
who  was  identified  at  Athens  with  Artemis 
and  whose  ,cult  became  popular  there  in 
the  5th  c.  B.C.  She  had  a  temple  at  the 
Piraeus  and  her  festival  was  celebrated 
with  a  torch -race. 

Bentley,  RICHARD,  see  Texts  and  Studies, 
§  10. 

Bereni'ce,  see  article  below  and  Titus. 

Berent'cS,  The  Lock  of  (Berenikes  Ploka* 
mos),  the  title  of  a  poem  in  Greek  elegiacs 
by  Callimachus,  of  which  only  fragments 
survive.  It  was  translated  by  Catullus 
(Poem  66). 

This  Berenice  was  the  wife  of  Ptolemy 
III.  Another  Berenice,  sister  of  Pto- 
lemy III,  had  been  married  to  Antio- 
chus  II  of  Syria;  but  on  the  death  of 
Antiochus  in  247  B.C.  his  widow  had  been 
displaced  and  killed  by  Laodice,  an  earlier 
divorced  wife  of  Antiochus ;  and  Laodicc's 
eon,  Scleucus  II,  had  been  proclaimed  his 
successor.  Ptolemy  III  set  out  in  246  to 
vindicate  the  claims  of  his  sister's  son. 
On  his  departure,  Berenice  his  wife  dedi- 
cated to  the  gods  a  lock  of  her  hair  as 
an  offering  for  his  safe  return.  This  lock 
mysteriously  disappeared.  Conon,  the 
court  astronomer,  pretended  to  discover 
it,  transformed  into  a  constellation  there- 
after known  as  Coma  Berenices. 

In  Pope's  'Rape  of  the  Lock',  the  lock 
of  Belinda's  hair  which  had  been  snipped 
off  is  finally  wafted,  as  a  new  star,  to  adorn 
the  skies. 

Bero'sus  (BSrossos),  a  priest  at  Babylon, 
of  the  3rd  c.  B.C.,  who  wrote  in  Greek  a 
work  on  the  chronology  of  Chaldaea. 

Bi'as  (Bids),  see  Melampus. 

Bi'on  (Blon)  (c.  100  B.C.?),  born  at 
Smyrna,  a  Greek  poet,  imitator  of  Theo- 
critus. Of  the  half-dozen  short  poems 
attributed  to  him  that  have  come  down 


to  us,  the  most  remarkable  is  the  *  Lament 
for  Adonis  ',  probably  intended  for  recita- 
tion at  one  of  the  festivals  of  Adonis,  such 
as  that  described  by  Theocritus  in  his 
'  Adoniazusae '  (Idyll  xv).  The  others  have 
love  for  their  subject,  or  the  charms 
of  the  various  seasons.  Bion  is  generally 
coupled  with  Moschus  (q.v.).  It  appears 
from  the  beautiful  dirge  hi  which  some 
friend  or  pupil,  perhaps  Moschus,  lamented 
the  death  of  Bion,  that  the  latter  was 

Birds  (Ornlthes,  L.  Aves),  a  comedy  by 
Aristophanes,  produced  at  the  Groat 
Dionysia  of  414  B.C.  It  won  the  second 
prize.  The  Athenian  fleet  had  set  out  on 
the  Sicilian  Expedition  in  the  previous 
year.  Before  it  started,  the  city  had  been 
profoundly  disturbed  by  the  mysterious 
and  sacrilegious  mutilation  of  the  Hermao 
(q.v.).  Melos  had  been  cruelly  and  un- 
justly destroyed  in  416-415.  Aristophanes 
hated  the  war  and  its  consequences,  and 
turned  from  political  themes  to  construct 
an  Utopia. 

Peithetairos  and  Euelpidod,  sick  of  life 
in  Athens  with  its  worries  and  anxieties, 
seek  out  King  Tereus  (see  Philomela),  who 
had  married  an  Athenian  princess  and 
been  turned  into  a  hoopoe,  to  consult  him 
as  to  the  best  place  to  live  in.  Tereus 
suggests  various  countries,  but  there 
are  objections  to  them  all.  Peithetairos 
now  has  a  brilliant  idea.  Lot  the  birds 
all  unite  and  build  a  great  walled  city  in 
the  air.  From  this  they  will  rule  both 
mankind  and  the  gods,  for  they  will  con- 
trol the  food  supply  of  both.  They  can 
devour  the  seed  in  the  earth,  and  intercept 
the  steam  of  the  sacrifices  on  which  the 
gods  are  nourished.  Tho  chorus  of  birds, 
at  first  hostile,  are  won  over  to  the  pro- 
posal, and  they  quickly  set  about  building 
the  city  under  the  direction  of  Peithetairos 
and  Euelpides,  who  grow  wings  to  suit 
their  new  condition.  Then  various  unwel- 
come visitors  arrive :  a  needy  poet  with  a 
hymn  in  honour  of  the  new  city,  an 
oracle-monger,  Meton  (the  famous  astro- 
nomer) to  lay  out  the  streets,  and  an 
inspector  of  ceremonies.  They  are  all 
appropriately  dealt  with.  The  new  city 
(Nephelococcygia,  'Cloud-cuckoo-land')  is 
now  finished,  and  the  guard  come  in 
with  a  trespasser  whom  they  have  caught, 
Iris,  the  messenger  of  Zeus,  on  her  way  to 
discover  why  the  sacrifices  have  stopped 
on  earth.  She  is  asked  for  her  passport 
and  generally  bullied,  and  finally  goes  off 
in  tears  to  complain  to  her  father.  Mean- 
while mankind  has  become  bird-mad  and 
wants  wings.  Further  visitors  arrive:  a 
father-beater,  because  young  cocks  fight 

71  Boadicea 

their  fathers  (he  is  reminded  that  young 
storks  must  also  feed  their  fathers); 
Cinesias,  the  lyric  poet,  because  he  wants 
to  soar  on  airy  pinions ;  an  informer,  who 
would  find  wings  useful  for  serving  writs ; 
and  Prometheus,  who  hides  from  Zeus 
under  an  umbrella  while  he  tells  of  the 
food  shortage  among  the  gods,  and 
advises  Peithetairos  to  make  hard  terms 
with  them,  and  Insist  on  having  Basileia 
(sovereignty),  daughter  of  Zeus,  to  wife. 
Then  come  ambassadors  from  the  gods, 
Poseidon,  Heracles,  and  a  god  of  the  bar- 
barous Triballians.  Thanks  to  the  greedi- 
ness of  Heracles,  Peithetairos  gets  the 
sceptre  and  Basileia,  is  hailed  as  the 
highest  of  the  gods,  and  preparations  are 
made  for  his  wedding. 

Birthplaces  of  Greek  authors.  These, 
where  of  sufficient  importance  or  interest, 
are  dealt  with  under  their  several  names. 
The  table  on  p.  72,  in  which  the  principal 
Greek  men  of  letters  are  summarily 
grouped  according  to  their  birth-places 
and  their  periods,  brings  out, 

(1)  the  predominance  of  Ionia  and  the 
islands  of  the  Aegean  as  the  centre  of 
literary  activity  in  the  earliest  period  j 

(2)  the  shifting  of  this  centre  to  Attica 
in  the  5th  and  4th  cc. ; 

(3)  the  cessation  of  literary  production 
at  Athens  after  the  end  of  the  4th  c. ; 

(4)  the  dispersion  of  literary  talent  over 
all  parts  of  the  Greek-speaking  world  in 
the  period  of  decadence.  This  would  have 
appeared  even  more  strikingly  if  the  table 
had  included  critics,  grammarians,  writers 
on  science,  and  authors  generally  of  minor 
merit ; 

(5)  the  small  share  in  literary  production 
which  falls  to  the  States  of  Greece  proper 
other  than  Athens.    Only  ten  names  are 
included  in  this  category,  and  four  of  them 
belong  to  Boeotia.    Magna  Graecia  like- 
wise contributed  very  little. 

Birthplaces  of  Latin  authors.    In  the 

table  on  p.  73  the  principal  Latin  authors 
of  the  republican  period  and  the  early 
empire  are  roughly  grouped  according 
to  their  birthplaces.  Some  important 
authors,  such  as  Tibullus  and  Tacitus,  are 
excluded,  because  their  birthplaces  are 
unknown.  It  is  remarkable  how  few  of 
the  authors  of  the  first  rank  are  thought 
to  have  been  born  in  Rome  itself.  Tho 
increased  literary  importance  in  imperial 
times  of  Spain  and  other  Roman  territories 
outside  Italy  is  the  natural  consequence 
of  the  spread  of  Roman  culture. 

Bi'ton,  see  Cleobte. 

Boadice'a  (Boudicca),  queen  of  the  Iceni 
in  East  Anglia,  whose  rising  against  the 


Herodotus  ( 
Zeno  the  El 
Protagoras  ( 
Aristotle  (S 
Diogenes  (S 
Ephorus  (C 


'5  o  S  .9 


_»  j-i  -4->      * 



W     H 







fn  il 



a    3 





Rest  of  C 




fl(      0  1-5 




oajdrao  eq^  jo  pojjod 











Romans  and  its  suppression  by  SuetSnius 
Paulinas  are  described  by  Tacitus  (Ann, 
xiv).  Boadicea  took  her  own  life  after  the 
defeat.  (See  Britain,  §  2). 
Boccaccio,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  9. 
Boeo'tia  (Boiotid),  the  country  adjoining 
Attica  on  the  NW  (see  PI.  8).  It  was  occu- 
pied in  the  Migrations  (q.v.)  by  Aeolians 
from  Epirus,  who  mingled  with  such  of  the 
older  inhabitants  as  remained ;  but  some  of 
these,  Cadmeians  (see  Cadmus)  of  Thebes, 
Minyans  (q.v.)  of  Orchomenus,  &c.,  mi- 
grated to  Ionian  settlements  overseas. 
The  languages  of  the  invaders  and  the 
older  population  coalesced  in  a  special 
Boeotian  dialect  of  Greek.  The  cities  of 
the  new  Boeotia  showed  a  high  degree  of 
the  usual  Greek  spirit  of  independence, 
and  although  Thebes  was  foremost  among 
them,  she  was  unable  to  impose  her  rule 
upon  them.  A  Boeotian  Confederacy  was 
formed,  from  which  Orchomenus  held 
aloof  until  about  600  B.C.  The  organiza- 
tion of  the  Confederacy  was  peculiar.  Each 
of  the  cities  was  governed  by  four  councils 
(boulai),  membership  of  which  depended 
on  property  qualification.  Each  council  sat 
for  three  months  in  the  year,  dealing  with 
the  preliminary  consideration  of  business, 
but  decisions  were  taken  by  the  four  coun- 
cils sitting  jointly.  Above  these  municipal 
bodies  was  the  federal  government.  The 
eleven  districts  of  Boeotia  each  named  one 
Boeotarch  and  sixty  councillors.  Executive 
power  rested  with  the  Boeotarchs  under 
the  control  of  the  660  councillors.  Each 
district  was  required  to  furnish  an  equal 
contingent  to  the  army.  But  some  of  the 
cities  were  unwilling  members,  in  particu- 
lar Plataea,  which  entered  into  relations 
with  Athens  to  protect  her  independence. 
Boeotia  played  an  equivocal  part,  if  she 
was  not  actively  disloyal  to  the  cause  of 
Greece,  in  the  Persian  Wars.  She  was 
subdued  (with  the  exception  of  Thebes) 
by  Athens  in  457  as  a  result  of  the 
victory  of  Oenophyta,  and  was  held  in 
subjection  until  447.  The  Boeotian  Con- 
federacy assumed  its  greatest  importance 
in  the  4th  c.,  when,  under  the  leadership 
of  Pelopidas  and  Epaminondas,  Thebes 
(q.v.)  reduced  Sparta  from  her  position  of 
leadership  in  Greece. 

Boeotia  was  a  rich  centre  of  early 
legend,  as  shown  by  the  Hesiodic  poems, 
and  the  many  religious  and  oracular  sites. 
The  origin  of  writing  was  associated  with 
the  legend  of  Cadmus  (q.v.).  Boeotia 
became  proverbial  for  the  stupidity  of  its 
Inhabitants,  though  it  was  the  birthplace 
of  Pindar,  of  the  poetess  Corinna,  and  of 
Plutarch  (qq.v.). 


(c.  A.D.  480-524),  belonged  to  the  gens  of 
the  Anicii,  of  which  many  members  had 
held  high  office  under  the  empire  in  the 
4th  and  5th  cc.  He  entered  the  service  of 
Theodoric  and  became  consul  in  510,  but 
having  undertaken  the  defence  of  a  sena- 
tor who  was  accused  of  secret  correspon- 
dence with  the  Emperor  of  the  East,  he 
was  charged  with  high  treason,  imprisoned, 
and  died  under  torture. 

Boethius  was  a  Christian  and  has  left 
several  treatises  on  Christian  doctrine 
('De  Trinitate',  'Contra  Eutychen  et 
Nestorium',  &c.).  He  also  undertook, 
after  learning  Greek  at  Athens,  the  ardu- 
ous task  of  translating  the  whole  of  Plato 
and  Aristotle,  commenting  on  them,  and 
showing  their  essential  agreement  in  philo- 
sophical doctrine.  This  task  he  was  unable 
to  accomplish,  but  he  translated  the 
logical  treatises  of  Aristotle,  and  also 
translated  and  commented  on  some  of  the 
logical  treatises  of  Porphyry.  Incidentally, 
by  his  discussion,  in  his  commentary  on 
Porphyry,  of  the  question  whether  genera 
and  species  have  real  existence  apart  from 
the  sensible  objects  composing  them,  ho 
initiated  the  great  dispute  which  was  to 
separate  Nominalists  and  Realists  among 
the  Schoolmen. 

But  the  most  famous  work  of  Boethius 
was  the  'Consolatio  Philosophiae '  which 
he  wrote  in  prison.  It  consists  of  five  books 
in  prose  interspersed  with  verso  (there  are 
39  short  poems,  of  great  beauty,  in  13 
different,  metres).  It  opens  with  some 
melancholy  lines  'dictated  by  the  afflicted 
Muses'.  The  Muses  are  ousted  by  Philo- 
sophy, who  comes  to  console  the  prisoner. 
She  reminds  him  of  the  sufferings  of  other 
thinkers  such  as  Socrates,  and  invites  him 
to  lay  bare  his  troubles.  Boo  thins  sets 
forth  the  ingratitude  with  which  his 
integrity  has  been  met,  and  laments  the 
triumph  of  injustice.  Philosophy  reminds 
him  of  the  caprices  of  Fortune,  and  of  the 
vanity  of  those  things,  riches,  honours, 
power,  which  the  world  esteems  good. 
The  only  real  good  is  God.  But  how,  asks 
Boethius,  under  a  beneficent  God  can  evil 
exist  or  pass  unpunished  (Bk.  IV)  1  Philo- 
sophy in  reply  enters  upon  the  mystery 
of  good  and  evil.  The  gist  of  her  exposi- 
tion is  that  evil  is  in  fact  nothing,  and  that 
evil  men  in  the  true  sense  are  not ;  and  if 
they  can  persecute  the  good  and  go  un- 
punished, they  suffer  all  the  more  for  their 
wickedness.  Philosophy  passes  to  the 
question  of  the  true  nature  of  Providence 
and  Chance,  and  the  reconciliation  of  free 
will  with  the  foreknowledge  possessed  by 

The  'Consolation*  is  written  from  a 
philosophic,  not  a  Christian,  standpoint, 




and  Christ  is  not  mentioned  in  it.  But  the 
wording  shows  the  Christian  influence. 
The  work  exercised  immense  influence  in 
the  succeeding  ages.  That  it  was  very 
widely  read  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  we 
possess  some  four  hundred  manuscripts  of 
it.  It  was  translated,  among  others,  by 
King  Alfred,  by  Chaucer,  and  by  Queen 
Elizabeth.  It  is  frequently  quoted  by 
Dante,  whose  famous  lines,  'Nessun  mag- 
gior  dolore.  .  .  .'  (Inf.  v.  121)  were  sug- 
gested by  Boethius,  n.  iv.  4  'in  omni 
adversitate  fortunae  infelicissimum .  .  .  '. 

Boe'thus,  sec  Toreutic  Art. 

Bona  Dea,  in  Roman  religion,  a  goddess 
of  unknown  name,  probably  an  earth  - 
spirit  protective  of  women ;  she  was  some- 
times identified  with  Maia,  Fauna,  or 
Ops.  Rites  in  her  honour  were  celebrated 
annually  in  December  in  the  house  of  a 
magistrate  with  imperium  (i.e.  a  consul,  or 
sometimes  a  praetor),  and  were  attended 
only  by  women;  it  was  these  rites  which 
Clodius  (q.v.)  profaned  by  his  presence. 

Books,  ANCIENT. 

§  1.  The  earliest  texts 
There  is  evidence  that  the  art  of  writing 
goes  back,  in  Egypt  to  the  third  millen- 
nium B.C.,  in  Mesopotamia  even  earlier, 
in  the  Hittite  Empire  to  the  second  mil- 
lennium, and  in  Crete  at  least  to  2000  B.C. 
There  need,  therefore,  be  no  hesitation  in 
admitting  the  possibility  that  Homer 
(q.v.)  wrote  down  his  poems,  for  his  own 
convenience  if  not  to  bo  read  by  others. 
In  the  7th  and  6th  c.  a  further  stage  must 
have  been  reached,  for  it  would  seem  that 
poems  such  as  those  of  Archilochus  and 
Sappho  must  have  passed  from  hand  to 
hand  in  manuscript.  Later,  when  tragedies 
were  performed,  copies  must  have  been 
available  for  the  actors  to  learn  their 
parts.  In  Plato  and  Xenophon  we  have 
references  to  the  actual  reading  of  the 
works  of  philosophers  and  evidence  that 
books  were  not  expensive. 

§  2.  The  papyrus  roll 
The  chief  materials  used  for  writing  in 
the  earliest  times — apart  from  inscriptions 
on  stone  or  metal — were  clay  tablets 
in  Mesopotamia,  Syria,  and  Crete,  and 
papyrus  in  Egypt.  In  Greece  the  material 
used  at  least  from  the  6th  c.  appears  to 
have  been  papyrus  (also  known  as  bublos, 
whence  biblion,  a  book).  According  to  the 
descriptions  given  by  Theophrastus  (H.P. 
iv.  8.  3)  and  Pliny  (N.H.  xiii.  11-12),  the 
triangular  stem  of  the  papyrus,  which 
grew,  principally  in  the  Nile,  to  the  height 
of  15  feet  and  the  thickness  of  a  man's 
wrist,  was  sliced  length-wise  into  thin 

strips.  These  were  placed  in  two  layers, 
so  that  the  fibres  in  one  layer  were  at  right 
angles  to  those  in  the  other.  The  layers 
were  moistened  with  water  and  glue  and 
pressed  together,  then  dried  and  polished. 
The  sheets  thus  produced,  with  a  maxi- 
mum height  of  about  15  inches  and  maxi- 
mum breadth  of  about  9  inches,  were 
glued  together  side  by  side  so  as  to  form 
a  continuous  roll  (generally  20-30  ft.  long 
in  Greek  rolls).  They  were  called  kollemata, 
and  the  first  sheet  prdtokollon  (on  which 
among  the  Romans  was  inscribed  the  date 
and  place  where  the  roll  was  made),  a 
word  which  has  survived  hi  our  '  protocol*. 
On  this  roll,  in  successive  columns  across 
the  direction  of  its  length,  the  manuscript 
was  written  with  a  reed  pen.  There  was 
a  margin  between  the  columns,  and  a 
broader  margin  above  and  below.  The 
width  of  the  column  of  writing  (governed 
in  the  case  of  poetry  by  the  length  of  the 
line  of  verse)  varied  generally  from  2  to 
5  inches.  There  was  no  division  or  space 
between  the  words,  and  little  to  help  the 
reader  in  the  way  of  signs  or  punctuation. 
A  short  stroke  (paragraphos)  under  the 
line  often  indicated  the  point  whore  there 
was  a  pause  in  the  sense,  or  a  change  of 
speaker  in  dramatic  texts  (but  the  name 
of  the  speaker  was  hardly  ever  given). 
Titles  of  books,  if  given  at  all,  appeared  at 
the  end,  and  might  be  added  on  a  label 
(sillubos)  of  parchment  projecting  from 
the  end  of  the  roll.  A  roller  (omphalos, 
umbilicus)  might  bo  attached  to  the  end 
of  the  papyrus,  ornamented  with  project- 
ing knobs  (cornua).  The  writing  on  a  roll 
was  generally  on  one  side  only,  the  recto, 
on  which  the  fibres  ran  horizontally ;  if  on 
both,  the  roll  was  known  as  an  opistho- 
graph.  An  ordinary  roll  would  contain  a 
book  of  Thucydides  or  two  or  three  books 
of  the  ' Iliad*.  The  rolls  comprising  a  long 
work  or  the  complete  works  of  an  author 
might  bo  kept  together  in  a  cupboard 
(L.  armdrium)  or  bucket  (L.  capsa).  A 
reader  would  unfold  the  roll  with  his  right 
hand,  and  roll  it  up,  as  he  proceeded,  with 
his  left.  Obviously  this  form  of  book  was 
extremely  inconvenient.  It  was  impossible 
to  index  and  difficult  to  consult;  it  lent 
itself  to  errors  in  copying,  especially  by 
uneducated  scribes,  and  the  text  fre- 
quently became  corrupted.  ^ 

§  3.  Development  of  book  production 
It  appears  that  at  the  end  oL4me  5th  c, 
and  hi  the  early  4th  o.  boojis  existed  a) 
Athens  in  considerable  Mfmbers,  and^i 
trade  in  books,  with  it^fentre  at  A^lfens, 
began;  but  the  practice  of  reeling  (as 
distinct  from  oral  instanictiorfT  did  not 
become  firmly  efitaWUMd  jf&il  the  time 




of  Aristotle.  It  was  he  who  formed  the 
first  large  collection  of  manuscripts.  (To 
this  period  belongs  one  of  the  earliest  of 
illustrated  books,  a  work  on  *  Dissections' 
with  diagrams,  to  which  Aristotle  makes 
frequent  reference  in  his  treatises  on 
zoology.)  With  the  organization  of  the 
production  of  papyrus  and  later  of  vellum 
(see  below,  §  5)  by  the  Hellenistic  kings, 
and  the  employment  of  educated  slaves  as 
copyists,  the  output  of  books  greatly  in- 
creased in  the  3rd  and  subsequent  cen- 
turies. The  price  of  the  roll  of  papyrus  in 
Greece  from  408  to  about  333  appears  to 
have  been  about  two  drachmas.  In  296 
the  price  had  fallen  to  about  two  obols, 
presumably  in  consequence  of  the  throw- 
ing open  of  the  Egyptian  market  by  Alex- 
ander's conquest.  But  from  279  the  price 
had  risen  again  to  two  drachmas.  This 
rise  may  be  attributed  to  the  organization 
by  the  Ptolemies  (q.v.)  of  their  monopoly 
of  papyrus. 

The  type  of  book  desciibcd  above  was 
introduced  at  Rome  with  Greek  literature 
in  the  3rd  and  2nd  cc.  B.C.  As  literature 
becomes  more  established  there  in  the  1st 
c.  B.C.  and  the  1st  c.  A.D.,  references  to 
books  and  their  appearance  occur  more 
frequently,  particularly  in  Catullus  and 
Martial  (the  first  book  of  Martial's  epi- 
grams sold  for  live  denarii  a  copy;  the 
thirteenth  for  one  denarius).  We  know 
that  Atticus  (q.v.),  who  had  copyists  and 
craftsmen  among  his  slaves,  acted  as  pub- 
lisher to  Cicero.  The  Sosii  are  mentioned 
by  Horace  (Ep.  i.  xx.  2)  as  booksellers. 
An  early  illustrated  Roman  book  was  the 
*  Hebdomadcs '  or  *  Imaginum  libri  XV  *  of 
M.  Terentius  Varro  (q.v.),  a  collection 
of  portraits  of  celebrated  Greeks  and 
Romans,  with  an  epigram  attached  to 
each.  Martial  (xiv.  186)  refers  to  a  copy 
of  Virgil  containing  a  portrait  of  the  poet 
at  the  beginning. 

§  4.  The  codex 

The  next  stage  in  the  evolution  of  the 
book  was  the  gradual  substitution  of  the 
codex,  or  book  made  up  of  quires  of  folded 
sheets,  for  the  roll,  and  of  vclluin  for 
papyrus.  Discoveries  in  Egypt  tend  to 
show  that  the  earliest  books  in  codex  form 
were  made  of  sheets  of  papyrus,  that  the 
papyrus  codex  was  first  used  for  Christian 
as  distinct  from  pagan  manuscripts  (the 
Bible  could  only  be  consulted  conveniently 
in  this  form),  and  that  it  was  thereafter 
used  principally  for  manuscripts  of  this 
class.  The  codex  took  the  form  either  of 
a  large  number  of  quires  each  consisting 
of  a  single  sheet  folded  once  and  sewn 
together,  or  of  a  single  quire  of  as  many  as 
fifty  sheets  folded  once,  or  of  a  number  of 

quires  each  of  several  sheets.  This  last 
form  ultimately  prevailed.  The  codex  ap- 
pears to  have  come  into  use  in  the  2nd  c. 
A.D.  The  primitive  codex  was  of  various 
sizes,  generally  about  11  x  7  inches  or 
12  x  8.  The  manuscript  was  generally 
written  in  one  column  on  a  page,  some- 
times in  two.  The  chief  advantages  of  the 
codex  over  the  roll  was  that  a  far  greater 
amount  of  manuscript  could  be  contained 
in  a  book  of  codex  form,  and  that  the 
latter  was  much  easier  than  the  roll  to 
handle.  Mention  should  hero  be  made  of 
the  note-books  (tabellac)  in  use  at  Rome, 
consisting  of  sheets  of  wood  or  other 
material,  coated  with  wax,  or  whitened, 
which  were  fastened  together  and  written 
on  with  a  stilus,  the  coating  being  easily 
renewed.  These  may  have  suggested  the 
codex  form  of  book ;  a  folded  set  of  tablets 
was  called  a  caudex  or  codex.  Tho  British 
Museum  possesses  parts  of  a  set  of  tablets 
of  this  description;  also  stili,  reed  and 
bronze  pens  (with  split  nibs),  and  Roman 

§  5.  Vellum 

Vellum  is  a  material  prepared  from 
skins,  especially  of  calves,  lambs,  and 
kids.  According  to  Pliny,  its  discovery 
was  due  to  the  rivalry  of  Ptolemy  (prob- 
ably Epiphanes)  with  Eumencs  (probably 
Eumenes  11)  of  Pergamum  (q.v.)  over 
their  libraries,  which  led  Ptolemy  to  pro- 
hibit the  export  of  papyrus  from  Egypt. 
This  gave  rise  to  the  employment  of  vel- 
lum or  parchment  (the  word  'parchment* 
is  derived  from  Pergamum)  for  the  manu- 
facture of  books  at  Pergamum.  But  there 
is  evidence  that  Eumenes  did  not  discover 
vellum,  but  only  extended  its  use. 

Vellum  did  not  come  into  general  use  for 
book  production  till  much  later,  though 
it  had  a  marked  advantage  over  papyrus 
hi  its  greater  durability ;  moreover  it  was 
better  suited  than  papyrus  for  writing  on 
both  sides.  It  was  not  until  the  4th  c. 
A.D.  that  it  began  to  take  the  place  of 
papyrus  in  the  manufacture  of  the  best 
books,  and  the  works  considered  worth 
preserving  were  gradually  transferred  from 
papyrus  roll  to  vellum  codex.  It  is  in  this 
century  that  the  great  vellum  codices  of 
the  Greek  Bible  (the  Vaticanus  and  the 
Sinai ticus)  were  prepared ;  and  the  earliest 
extant  vellum  manuscripts  of  pagan  works 
date  probably  from  the  same  century.  For 
sumptuous  books  the  vellum  was  some- 
times stained  purple.  But  the  use  of 
papyrus  did  not  cease  then,  and  papyrus 
manuscripts  have  been  found  of  the  4th, 
5th,  and  6th  cc.  The  roll  form  was  retained 
for  public  documents  through  the  Middle 
Ages  to  our  own  times.  Tho  use  of  paper 




was  introduced  from  China  by  the  Arabs 
in  the  8th  c.,  but  was  not  generalized  till 
much  later.  See  F.  W.  Hall,  'Companion 
to  Classical  Texts',  Oxford,  1913,  and 
F.  G.  Kenyon,  *  Books  and  Readers  in 
Ancient  Greece  and  Rome',  Oxford,  1932, 
on  which  the  above  article  is  mainly  based. 

Boo'tes,  see  Arcturus. 

Bo'reas,  (Boreas),  the  north  wind,  L. 
Aquilo.  In  Greek  mythology,  he  was  the 
husband  of  Oreithyla,  daughter  of  Erech- 
theus,  and  thus  specially  connected  with 
the  Athenians  (see  under  Winds) ;  by  her 
he  was  father  of  Zotes  and  Calais,  who 
figure  among  the  Argonauts. 

Bo'sporus  (Gk.  Bosporos),  'ox-ford',  a 
name  applied  especially  to  (a)  the  Thracian 
Bosporus  (now  generally  known  as  the 
Bosphorus),  tho  channel  connecting  the 
Sea  of  Marmora  with  the  Black  Sea; 
tho  name  was  sometimes  associated  with 
the  myth  of  lo  (q.v.);  (b)  tho  Cimmerian 
Bosporus,  connecting  the  Black  Sea  with 
the  Sea  of  Azov. 

Bou'dicca,  in  Anglicized  form  Boadicca 
(q.v.,  and  see  Britain,  §  2). 
Bou'le,  the  Council  or  Senate  in  Greek 
city-states.  It  existed  at  Athens  (q.v., 
§  2)  from  primitive  times  and  was  reor- 
ganized by  Solon  and  Cloisthenes  (qq.v.). 
At  Sparta  (q.v.)  it  was  known  as  tho 
Oerousia.  Tho  Boule  at  Athens  had  general 
charge  of  foreign  policy  (subject  to  refer- 
ence to  tho  Ecclcsia  in  grave  cases),  exer- 
cised a  general  supervision  over  tho 
administration,  notably  tho  finances,  pre- 
pared legislation  for  the  Ecclesia,  and 
had  certain  limited  judicial  functions.  It 
tried  officials  charged  with  misconduct, 
and  occasionally  persons  charged  with 
offences  against  the  safety  or  interests  of 
the  State.  For  tho  Prytany  or  executive 
committee  of  the  Boule,  see  Clcisthencs. 

Boustrophe'don,  see  Epigraphy,  §  2. 

Bra'nchidae,  a  family  that  had  charge  of 
the  temple  of  Apollo  near  Miletus.  They 
were  accused  of  betraying  the  treasure  of 
the  temple  to  Xerxes,  and  their  lives  were 
threatened  by  the  Milesians.  Xerxes  trans- 
ported them  to  Sogdiana,  where  they  were 
safe  from  pursuit.  Many  generations  later 
Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.)  came  upon 
their  town  when  pursuing  Bessus.  With 
singular  cruelty  Alexander  caused  their 
town  to  be  demolished  and  the  inhabitants 
to  be  massacred,  in  punishment  for  their 
ancestors'  crime. 

Bra'sidas  (Brasidas),  a  Spartan  general 
in  the  Peloponnesian  War,  an  energetic 
and  successful  commander.  His  principal 
achievement  was  the  capture  of  Amphi- 

polis  (424  B.C.).  See  under  Thucydides. 
He  was  one  of  tho  most  zealous  supporters 
of  tho  war,  and  his  death  in  the  defence  of 
Amphipolis  (422)  against  Cleon  (q.v.),  and 
the  death  of  Cleon  in  the  same  engagement, 
rendered  possible  tho  Peace  of  Niciae. 

Brauro'nia,  see  Artemis.  Also  the  name 
of  a  festival  held  at  Brauron  in  Attica  in 
honour  of  Artemis. 

Bre'nnus  (1)  the  leader  of  the  Gauls  who 
defeated  the  Romans  at  tho  A  Ilia  and 
occupied  Rome  in  390  B.C.,  but  failed  to 
capture  the  Capitol.  For  tho  legend  of  the 
Capitol  geese,  see  Manlius.  Legend  also 
relates  that  when  the  gold  which  the 
Gauls  accepted  as  the  ransom  of  Rome 
was  being  weighed,  and  the  Romans 
complained  of  false  weights,  ho  threw  his 
sword  into  the  scales,  to  add  even  more  to 
the  quantity,  exclaiming  '  Vae  victis '. 

(2)  Tho  leader  of  the  Gauls  or  Galatians 
who  in  280-279  B.C.  invaded  Pae6nia  and 
Macedonia  and  thence  Greece  (see  Mace- 
donia, §  3).  He  was  opposed  by  a  force  of 
Athenians  and  others  at  Thermopylae  and 
defeated  at  Delphi.  Ho  died  of  wounds  in 
278,  and  the  Gauls  retreated  with  great 

Bria'reos  (L.  Briareus),  see  Giants 

Brise'is,  see  Iliad. 
Britain  (Britannia). 
§  1.  Britain  before  the  Roman  conquest 

Tho  ancients  had  some  knowledge  of 
Britain  from  tho  time  of  Alexander  tho 
Great,  when  it  was  visited  and  described 
by  Pytheas  (q.v.),  but  the  Romans  first 
became  interested  in  it  owing  to  the  con- 
quests of  Julius  Caesar.  Early  geographers 
called  tho  British  Isles  tho  Protanic  Isles, 
from  a  Celtic  name  which  survives  in  tho 
old  Welsh  'Priten*  and  tho  Irish  'Crui- 
thin',  and  which  means  'painted*  or 
'  tattooed ' ;  translated  into  Latin  it  became 
Picti,  the  Picts.  In  the  time  of  Julius 
Caesar  tho  Celtic  tongue  was  spoken  over 
the  greater  part,  if  not  the  whole,  of 
Britain;  but  the  inhabitants  of  different 
regions  had  not  reached  tho  same  stage  of 
civilization.  Archaeological  evidence  shows 
that  from  perhaps  as  early  as  the  6th  o. 
B.C.  successive  invasions  of  people  of  one 
or  other  type  of  Iron  Age  civilization  had 
penetrated  to  various  parts  of  tho  island, 
where  in  general  a  Late  Bronze  Age  cul- 
ture still  prevailed.  Julius  Caesar  found 
Bast  Kent  and  parts  of  Herts  and  Essex 
occupied  by  vigorous  Belgic  settlers,  who 
had  established  themselves  only  about  a 
generation  earlier.  They  had  brought  with 
them  the  use  of  coinage  (see  below,  §  3) 




and  of  the  heavy  wheeled  plough,  suited 
for  the  cultivation  of  the  stronger  soils. 
Beyond  this  Belgic  area  lay  a  more  back- 
ward zone,  combining  elements  of  Bronze 
and  Iron  Age  civilizations.  Its  inhabitants 
were  primitive  agriculturists,  living  in  hut 
villages.  The  Trinovantes,  Iceni,  and 
Kegni  (see  PL  12)  were  its  most  promi- 
nent tribes.  To  the  west  of  these,  in  the 
Cotswolds,  Somerset,  and  Dorset,  lived  a 
wealthier  and  more  advanced  population, 
superior  to  the  Belgae  in  artistic  culture, 
though  their  inferiors  in  agricultural  skill. 
To  the  NE.,  in  Lincolnshire  and  York- 
shire, a  warrior  race  of  a  similar  civiliza- 
tion were  establishing  their  dominion  over 
a  Bronze  Age  population  and  founding  the 
kingdom  of  the  Brigantes.  A  sketch  of  the 
state  of  Britain  at  this  time  is  contained 
in  R.  G.  Collingwood,  'Roman  Britain* 
(Oxford,  1936),  on  which  the  present 
article  is  based. 

It  is  probable  that  Caesar  intended  to 
conquer  the  island.  Britain,  to  which  the 
power  of  certain  Gaulish  chiefs  extended, 
was  a  refuge  for  disaffected  Gauls  and  a 
centre  of  fanatical  Druidism  (see  under 
Gaul,  §  2).  His  first  expedition,  in  55  B.C., 
was  in  the  nature  of  a  reconnaissance,  and 
his  ships  suffered  severely  from  a  storm 
when  at  anchor  or  beached  at  some  point 
NE.  of  Dover.  The  invasion  of  the  follow- 
ing year  was  a  more  serious  affair.  A 
fleet  of  28  warships  and  540  transports 
conveyed  the  Roman  force  (including  five 
legions)  to  a  point  between  Dover  and 
Sandwich.  In  the  operations  that  fol- 
lowed, Caesar  crossed  the  Thames  to 
attack  the  Belgic  chief  Cassivellaunus 
(who  had  assumed  command  of  the  British 
forces),  captured  his  principal  stronghold 
at  Wheathampstead,  and  forced  him  to 
make  terms.  Trouble  in  Gaul  obliged 
Caesar  to  forgo  further  operations,  and 
he  returned  across  the  Channel.  His  fleet 
had  again  suffered  heavy  losses  from  a  gale. 

§  2*  The  conquest  and  occupation  of  Britain 

During  the  period  which  followed 
Caesar's  invasion  a  second  migration  of 
Belgic  tribes  to  Britain  took  place.  It  was 
led  by  Commius,  a  Gaulish  chief  who  had 
served  Caesar  during  his  invasion,  but  had 
since  supported  the  insurrection  of  Ver- 
cingetorix.  His  followers  landed  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Southampton  and  spread 
over  central  southern  England.  The  ener- 
getic king  Cunobelinus  (Cymbeline),  who 
had  inherited  the  realm  of  Cassivellaunus 
and  ruled  c.  A.D.  5-40,  extended  his 
dominions  over  Herts.,  Kent,  Essex,  Beds., 
Bucks.,  and  part  of  Surrey,  and  became 
the  most  important  ruler  in  south-eastern 
England.  His  capital  was  Camulodunum 

(Colchester).  No  further  attempt  to  con- 
quer Britain  was  made  by  the  Romans 
until  the  reign  of  Claudius,  though  Augus- 
tus was  thought  by  his  contemporaries  to 
have  intended  it  and  Gams  (Caligula) 
planned  an  invasion.  In  A.D.  43  a  force 
consisting  of  four  legions  (the  Second, 
Ninth,  Fourteenth,  and  Twentieth)  and 
auxiliaries,  under  Aulus  Plautius,  landed 
at  Rutupiae  (Richborough)  and  addressed 
itself  to  the  subdual  of  the  realm  of 
Cunobelinus,  which  had  lately  passed  to 
his  sons.  The  Romans  won  a  decisive 
victory  on  the  Medway.  Claudius  himself 
subsequently  arrived  with  reinforcements, 
advanced  to  Colchester,  and  received  the 
submission  of  many  tribes.  Caratacus,  the 
more  energetic  of  the  sons  of  Cunobelinus, 
escaped  to  foment  resistance  to  Rome 
among  the  Silurcs  of  Wales.  The  territory 
of  Cunobelinus  was  made  a  Roman  pro- 
vince, with  Colchester  as  its  capital.  At 
least  three  client  kingdoms,  of  the  Iceni  to 
the  north  of  the  province,  of  the  Brigantes 
further  north,  and  of  the  Rcgni  in  W. 
Sussex,  were  established.  Plautius  was 
left  as  governor,  with  orders  to  subdue  tho 
rest  of  the  country.  This  ho  set  about 
doing  by  means  of  three  columns  moving 
respectively  N.,  NW.,  and  W.,  with  their 
base  and  supply  depot  at  London.  P. 
Ostorius  Scapula,  the  successor  of  Plautius 
in  47,  drew  a  frontier  line  across  the  coun- 
try, from  Scaton  in  Devonshire,  through 
Bath,  Cirencester,  High  Cross  (where  it 
met  Walling  Street),  Leicester,  Newark, 
and  Lincoln.  This  line  was  tho  road  known 
as  tho  Fosse,  and  it  was  fortified  and 
patrolled  to  check  raids  from  beyond. 
Ostorius  then  established  a  fortress  prob- 
ably at  Gloucester  to  control  concentra- 
tions of  tho  Silures;  also  a  colonm  of 
veterans  at  Colchester.  In  51  he  advanced 
into  central  Wales  against  Caratacus  and 
defeated  him.  Caratacus  fled  to  Carti- 
mandua,  queen  of  the  Brigantes;  but 
Cartimandna  had  submitted  to  Rome  and 
surrendered  him  to  the  victors,  who  kept 
him  in  honourable  captivity.  (Caratacus 
figures  as  Caratach  in  Beaumont  and 
Fletcher's  'Bonduca'.)  The  Silures, 
though  defeated,  were  not  reduced,  and 
although  Cartimandua  had  made  her 
submission,  there  was  a  strong  anti- 
Roman  faction  among  her  subjects. 

In  59  C.  Siletonius  Paulinus,  a  dis- 
tinguished military  commander,  became 
governor  of  Britain.  He  penetrated  into 
N.  Wales  and  reached  Anglesey  (61), 
where  he  was  confronted  by  a  body  of 
Druids  and  their  fanatical  supporters, 
whom  he  put  to  the  sword.  But  Paulinus 
was  now  recalled  by  grave  news.  On  the 
death  of  Prasutagus,  king  of  the  Iceni, 




Nero  decided  to  abolish  his  client  kingdom 
and  to  incorporate  the  territory  in  the 
I  toman  province.  The  measure  was  car- 
ried out  by  the  emperor's  procurator  with 
great  cruelty,  and  the  late  king's  widow, 
Boudicca  (Boadlcea),  and  her  daughters 
were  subjected  to  gross  outrage.  A  revolt 
of  the  Iceni  was  lod  by  Boudicca  and 
spread  to  the  Trinovantes.  Colchester  was 
destroyed.  The  Ninth  Legion  under  Q. 
Petillius  Cerialis  came  to  tho  rescue,  but 
was  almost  annihilated.  London  and 
Verulam  were  burnt  and  their  inhabitants 
massacred.  It  is  said  that  70,000  perished. 
Suetonius  had  hurried  back  from  Wales 
with  his  cavalry,  but  had  been  unable  to 
save  the  cities.  He  rejoined  his  infantry 
in  the  midlands,  and  with  10,000  men  met 
the  far  more  numerous  but  unwieldy  force 
of  Boudicca  and  utterly  destroyed  it.  The 
queen  took  poison.  Ruthless  vengeance 
on  the  British  followed,  until  tho  new 
imperial  procurator,  Julius  Classicianus, 
appealed  to  Nero  to  replace  Suetonius  by 
a  more  humane  governor  and  to  adopt  a 
policy  of  conciliation;  and  this  was  done. 
The  tomb  of  Classicianus,  this  benefactor 
of  the  British,  was  found  in  London  and  is 
in  the  British  Museum. 

In  71  Q.  Petillius  Cerialis,  tho  military 
commander  above  mentioned,  was  made 
governor  of  Britain.  He  had  fought  with 
distinction,  not  only  against  Boudicca  but 
also  in  quelling  the  rebellion  of  Civilis  in 
Gaul.  He  conquered  the  greater  part  of 
the  Brigantian  territory  and  established 
the  Ninth  Legion  at  Eburacum  (York), 
which  became  the  chief  Roman  military 
centre  in  northern  England.  His  successor 
in  74,  Sextus  Julius  Frontinus  (q.v.),  sub- 
dued the  Silures  and  built  a  new  fortress 
at  Caerleon-on-Usk.  Cn.  Julius  Agricola 
(q.v.),  the  father-in-law  of  Tacitus,  who 
succeeded  him  in  78,  completed  his  work 
in  Wales,  built  a  fortress  at  Deva  (Chester), 
overran  the  whole  of  Brigantia,  and  in- 
vaded the  lowlands  of  Scotland,  reaching 
the  line  of  the  Forth  and  the  Clyde  in  81. 
In  83  ho  moved  farther  north  and  over- 
came in  84  the  assembled  Caledonian  forces 
at  the  unidentified  site  of  Mount  Graupius, 
probably  near  Forfar  or  Brechin.  But  the 
military  efforts  of  Rome  were  required 
on  the  Rhine  and  Danube,  Agricola  was 
recalled  by  Domitian,  and  at  or  soon  after 
the  end  of  the  1st  c.  Scotland  was  aban- 

Under  Trajan  it  appears  that  the 
frontier  was  drawn  on  a  line  across  Britain 
between  the  Solway  and  the  Tyne.  This 
policy  took  its  definite  form  under 
Hadrian.  The  frontier  or  limes,  as  fully 
developed  under  this  emperor,  consisted 
of  a  military  road  defended  by  a  rampart 

and  30-ft.  ditch,  with  seventeen  forts  at 
intervals  along  it,  and  mile-castles  (as  they 
are  now  called)  and  signal  towers  between 
the  forts.  The  rampart,  73  miles  long,  was 
formed  by  a  stone  wall  eight  to  ten  feet 
thick  and  twenty  feet  high.  This  gigantic 
work  was  built  by  legionaries,  being  par- 
celled out  in  lengths  of  31  to  50  yards  to 
individual  'centuries',  as  we  learn  from 
inscriptions  on  the  Wall.  Three  legions 
were  employed  on  it.  Part  of  tho  western 
end  was  built  by  men  of  tho  fleet.  Tho 
work  was  designed  as  an  obstacle  to 
raiders  from  tho  north,  rather  than  as  an 
actual  fortification  to  resist  attack.  It  was 
garrisoned  by  auxiliary  regiments  in  the 
forts  and  a  patrolling  force  in  addition. 
Altogether,  including  its  supporting  sta- 
tions, it  absorbed  two -thirds  of  the  auxili- 
ary troops  in  Britain. 

In  140-2,  under  Antoninus  Pius,  the 
governor,  Q.  Lollius  Urbicus,  advanced 
once  more  to  the  line  of  the  Forth  and 
Clyde  and  built  across  the  peninsula  a 
wall  and  ditch,  37  miles  long,  of  much  less 
elaborate  construction.  The  wall  was  of 
turf  and  clay,  with  forts  two  miles  apart, 
but  without  intermediate  towers.  To- 
gether with  a  transplantation  of  natives, 
it  formed  part  of  a  scheme  for  holding  the 
Lowlands  in  subjection.  About  the  year 
180,  under  the  emperor  Commodus,  tribes 
from  the  north  swept  over  it  and  destroyed 
a  Roman  force.  The  rising  was  suppressed 
in  184,  but  before  the  end  of  the  century 
the  Antonine  Wall,  having  proved  useless, 
was  abandoned.  In  the  last  years  of  the 
century  tho  governor,  Clodius  Albinus, 
declared  himself  emperor,  and,  taking 
troops  from  Britain,  crossed  to  Gaul, 
where  he  was  defeated  by  Septimius 
Severus  in  197  and  committed  suicide. 
His  withdrawal  of  troops  from  Hadrian's 
Wall  gave  the  barbarian  tribes  their  op- 
portunity: great  stretches  of  the  Wall  were 
systematically  wrecked  by  them,  and  the 
destruction  of  Roman  fortresses  extended 
to  York  and  Chester.  The  Wall  and  for- 
tresses were  repaired  by  Severus,  a  lengthy 
process  which  lasted  from  197  to  208 ;  and 
Severus  then  in  person  conducted  a  puni- 
tive expedition  into  Scotland,  almost 
reaching,  it  is  said,  its  northern  extremity. 
He  died  at  York,  worn  out  with  his  labours, 
in  211.  For  the  greater  part  of  a  century 
after  this  Roman  Britain  enjoyed  security 
and  nothing  of  moment  occurred. 

Early  in  the  reign  of  Diocletian  (284- 
305)  Saxon  and  Frankish  pirates  became 
troublesome  in  the  Channel  Seas.  Carau- 
sius,  a  native  of  the  Low  Countries,  was 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  fleet, 
the  Classis  Britonnica,  which  had  been 
maintained  in  the  Channel  since  the  1st  o. 




He  dealt  successfully  with  the  pirates,  but 
improperly  retained  the  booty.  His  arrest 
and  execution  were  ordered.  Thereupon 
he  crossed  to  Britain  and  declared  himself 
emperor,  with  Britain  and  part  of  Gaul 
as  an  independent  empire  (286  or  287). 
Maximian,  the  colleague  of  Diocletian, 
attacked  him,  but  was  defeated  at  sea,  and 
Carausius  was  recognized  as  one  of  the 
emperors.  His  government  of  Britain  was 
efficient  and  successful.  But  his  recogni- 
tion had  been  a  measure  dictated  only  by 
expediency.  In  296  Constantius,  who 
had  been  appointed  Caesar  by  Diocletian, 
moved  against  Allectus,  the  murderer 
and  successor  of  Carausius,  defeated,  and 
slew  him.  Constantius  repaired  Hadrian's 
Wall,  which  the  northern  tribes  had  taken 
advantage  of  this  struggle  again  partially 
to  destroy.  He  also  erected  forts  on  the 
'Saxon  Shore*  (from  the  Wash  to  Ports- 
mouth) as  a  protection  against  raiders, 
and  also  on  the  west  coast  (against  in- 
cursions of  the  Scots  of  Ireland).  In  the 
course  of  a  successful  punitive  war  against 
the  tribes  of  Scotland,  Constantius  died 
at  York  in  306  and  was  succeeded  as 
Caesar  by  his  eon  Constantino  (q.v.),  who 
was  with  him  in  Britain.  From  the  time 
of  the  reign  of  Constans,  who  succeeded 
Constantino  in  337,  trouble  with  Picts, 
Scots,  Saxons,  and  Franks  became  in- 
creasingly serious.  In  368  Britain  was 
attacked  on  three  sides  (the  Wall,  the 
W.  coast,  and  the  SE.),  and  the  country 
was  overrun  by  barbarians.  The  emperor, 
Valentinian,  sent  a  strong  force  to  Britain 
under  Theodosius,  a  Spaniard  and  a  cap- 
able military  commander.  Theodosius 
drove  out  the  invaders  and  once  more 
repaired  the  Wall.  It  was  under  his 
administration  that  the  name  of  Augusta 
was  given  to  London;  but  this  official 
name  never  became  current  among  the 
people.  In  383,  when  Gratian  had  suc- 
ceeded his  father  Valentinian,  Magnus 
Maximus,  a  Spaniard  holding  high  com- 
mand in  Britain,  claimed  the  empire  of 
the  west,  and  crossed  to  Gaul,  taking 
with  him  the  best  troops  from  Britain. 
Hadrian's  Wall  now  finally  succumbed  to 
the  northern  tribes  and  was  never  restored. 
Its  remains  to-day  are  an  impressive  wit- 
ness to  the  thoroughness  and  resolution  of 
the  Romans.  In  395  the  emperor  Theo- 
dosius, eon  of  the  Theodosius  above  re- 
ferred to,  declared  his  son  Honorius  em- 
peror of  the  west,  and  left  his  general, 
Stilicho,  as  regent  of  Britain.  If  we  may 
trust  the  laudatory  poems  of  Claudian, 
Stilicho  had  by  the  end  of  the  century 
freed  Britain  from  the  invasions  of  Picts, 
Scots,  and  Saxons ;  but  it  is  probable  that 
the  Roman  hold  of  the  country  north  of 

the  Vale  of  York  was  never  recovered.  In 
401  or  402  Stilicho  withdrew  troops  from 
Britain  for  the  Gothic  war.  The  remaining 
garrison  was  inadequate,  but  Rome  itself 
was  in  danger  from  Alaric,  and  Honorius 
was  unable  to  send  help ;  he  left  the  tribal 
authorities  to  do  the  best  they  could  for 
themselves  against  invaders.  The  rest  of 
the  story  is  obscure.  There  may  have  been 
a  temporary  re-occupation  by  Rome,  but 
Roman  government  appears  in  any  case 
to  have  come  to  an  end  before  429.  The 
traces  of  it  are  chiefly  seen  to-day  in 
Hadrian's  Wall,  the  Roman  roads,  and  the 
cities  that  the  Romans  founded. 

§  3.  Britain  under  the  Romans 

One  of  the  most  prominent  features  of 
the  Roman  occupation  is  that  under  it 
properly  planned  cities,  an  essential  ele- 
ment of  Roman  civilization,  were  built  in 
a  country  whore  previously  there  had  been 
nothing  better  than  shapeless  clusters  of 
huts.  The  process  was  a  gradual  one,  but 
by  the  end  of  the  1st  c.  there  were  a 
number  of  such  cities,  tribal  capitals  such 
as  Venta  Belgarum  (Winchester),  Novio- 
magus  (Chichestcr),  Corimum  (Cirences- 
tor),  Durnovaria  (Dorchester),  or  coloniae 
such  as  Camulodunum  (Colchester), 
Glevum  (Gloucester),  Lindum  (Lincoln), 
and  Eburacum  (York).  According  to  their 
general  plan,  these  cities  had  their  streets 
laid  out  at  right  angles,  a  forum  (q.v.)  in 
the  centre,  a  basilica  or  town  hall,  and 
public  jaths.  The  cities  were  (then  or 
later)  surrounded  with  walls,  and  an 
amphitheatre  outside  the  walls  provided 
for  the  amusement  of  the  citizens.  Aquae 
Sulis  (Bath)  was  a  luxurious  health-resort, 
and  Londinium,  which  became  the  capital 
at  an  unknown  date  before  the  time  of  the 
Antonines,  was  from  the  first  important 
as  a  commercial  centre  and  military 

The  occupation  of  the  bulk  of  the  people 
was  agriculture.  Those  engaged  in  it  lived 
in  villages  or  villas.  The  latter  were  iso- 
lated farm-houses,  romanized  in  architec- 
ture and  arrangements.  They  were  occu- 
pied by  wealthy  landowners  or  well-to-do 
farmers,  and  they  included  quarters  for  the 
labourers  of  the  farm.  They  appear  to 
have  flourished  and  increased  in  numbers 
till  the  middle  of  the  4th  c.,  when  their 
defenceless  condition  exposed  them  to  the 
inroads  of  the  barbarians.  Traces  of  some 
500  of  them  have  been  found. 

While  the  delicate  Celtic  art  of  the  pre- 
Roman  period  was  ousted  by  the  coarser 
art  of  the  Roman  empire,  industry  de- 
veloped under  the  occupation,  and  pro- 
duced to  an  increasing  extent  pottery, 
ironmongery,  and  in  general  everything 




needed  for  everyday  romanized  life. 
Mineral  deposits,  especially  lead  and  iron, 
were  actively  worked.  The  production  of 
woollen  cloth  was  developed.  By  the  end 
of  the  2nd  c.  little  was  imported  except 
wine  and  oil.  Exports  included  cattle, 
iron,  hides,  and  slaves.  Whether  there  was 
a  surplus  of  wheat  for  export  is  uncertain. 

Roman  roads  in  Britain  were  at  first 
built  for  military  purposes  during  the  con- 
quest. The  system  (so  far  as  it  has  been 
traced)  ultimately  extended  to  some  5,000 
miles  of  metalled  roads.  It  radiated  from 
London  and  was  apparently  designed  to 
meet  military  and  official  requirements, 
that  is  rapid  communication  between 
fortresses,  coloniae,  and  tribal  capitals.  It 
was  supplemented  by  roads  of  less  solid 
construction  to  meet  the  needs  of  local 
traffic.  See  also  Roads. 

Coinage  had  been  introduced  by  Belgic 
immigrants.  After  their  settlement  coins 
began  to  bo  struck  in  the  island.  The  coins 
were  imitations  of  those  of  Belgic  tribes 
of  northern  Gaul,  which  in  turn  were 
debased  imitations  of  the  gold  stater  of 
Philip  II  of  Macedon.  By  the  time  of 
Cunobelinus  a  tendency  had  set  in  to 
imitate  contemporary  Roman  models ;  and 
this  became  the  prevailing  stylo  of  coinage 
in  SE.  Britain  before  the  Roman  con- 
quest. Subsequently  Roman  coins  were 
introduced,  and  also  imitated.  In  the  late 
3rd  c.,  when  the  coinage  of  the  empire  was 
in  disorder,  Carausius,  and  later  Constan- 
tino I,  opened  an  official  mint  in  Britain. 

The  Roman  occupation  did  not  deeply 
affect  religion  in  Britain.  The  conquest 
put  an  end  to  the  Druids  (see  under 
Gaul,  §2),  whose  fanatical  nationalistic 
organization  was  a  source  of  danger  to  the 
Romans.  But  the  remaining  religious 
system  of  the  Britons,  an  easy  poly- 
theism, consisting  generally  of  local  cults, 
met  with  no  hostility  from  the  conquerors, 
who  required  in  addition  only  official 
participation  in  the  imperial  cult.  Indeed 
this  polytheism  harmonized  and  to  some 
extent  blended  with  that  of  the  Romans ; 
and  there  was  some  identification  of 
Roman  gods  (especially  Mars)  with  Celtic 
deities.  Gradually  the  latter  became  pre- 
dominant in  Roman  Britain.  Eastern 
religions,  such  as  the  worship  of  Mithras 
(who  had  his  temples  on  the  Wall),  Isis, 
and  Serapis,  were  introduced,  but  their 
devotees  belonged  principally  to  the  army. 
The  date  of  the  introduction  of  Christian- 
ity in  the  island  is  uncertain;  it  may  be 
placed  with  probability  in  the  2nd  c.,  and 
it  became  prominent  early  in  the  4th  c., 
when  Alban  of  Verulam  suffered  martyr- 
dom, and  British  bishops  attended  the 
Council  of  Axles. 


There  is  a  vivid  reconstruction  of  life  in 
Britain  towards  the  end  of  the  Roman 
occupation  in  some  of  the  chapters  of 
Kipling's  'Puck  of  Pook's  Hill'. 

Britoma'rtis  (said  by  the  epitomizer 
Sollnus  to  bo  a  Cretan  word,  meaning 
'sweet  maid'),  a  Cretan  goddess,  probably 
of  fertility,  sometimes  identified  with  the 
Greek  Artemis  (q.v.).  Like  her  she  bore 
the  name  Dictynna  (perhaps  from  OIKTVOV, 
a  fishing  net),  a  title  explained  by  the 
legend  that  Minos  (q.v.)  loved  her,  and 
that  running  away  from  him  she  leapt 
over  a  clifl?  into  the  sea,  was  caught  in 
fishermen's  nets,  and  rescued  by  Artemis. 
According  to  another  story  she  fled  to 
Acgina,  where,  still  pursued  by  Minos,  sho 
escaped  under  the  protection  of  Artemis, 
and  came  to  bo  worshipped  under  tho 
name  of  Apliaia,  the  patron  goddess  of  tho 
island.  Dictynna  may  be  from  Dicte  (q.v.) 

Bro'mius  (Bromios),  a  name  of  Bacchus 
(see  Dionysus),  signifying  '  noisy  *, '  boister- 
ous ',  from  pptptiv,  to  roar. 

Bro'ntes,  see  Cyclopes. 

Brundi'sium  or  BRUNDU'SIUM,  a  harbour 
on  the  Adriatic  coast  of  Italy  (tho  modern 
Brindisi),  of  importance  as  the  starting- 
point  for  tho  crossing  to  Greece,  Epirus,. 
and  other  eastern  countries.  The  Via 
Appia  (q.v.)  connected  it  with  Rome.  The 
Via  Egnatia,  starting  from  Dyrrhachium 
on  the  opposite  coast  of  the  Adriatic,  led 
to  Byzantium.  It  was  from  Bnmdisium 
that  Cicero  and  Ovid  set  out  on  their 
respective  exiles,  and  it  is  a  journey  to 
Brundisium  that  Horace  describes  in 
Satire  I.  v.  Lucan  in  the  'Pharsalia* 
(q.v.)  relates  Pompey's  departure  from 
the  same  port,  and  Tacitus  (Ann.  iii.  1), 
the  arrival  there  of  Agrippina  bringing 
homo  the  ashes  of  Germanicus. 

Bru'tus,  or  De  Claris  Ordtoribus,  a 
treatise  by  Cicero  on  eminent  orators, 
written  about  45  B.C. 

It  purports  to  record  a  recent  conversa- 
tion between  Cicero,  M.  Junius  Brutus,, 
and  Atticus  (qq.v.),  in  which  Cicero,  after 
a  short  discourse  on  Greek  eloquence, 
reviews  the  long  series  of  Roman  orators 
from  Brutus  the  liberator,  but  more  par- 
ticularly from  Cethegus,  consul  in  204  B.C., 
'the  marrow  of  persuasion*  according  to 
Ennius,  to  his  own  times,  giving  a  brief 
notice  of  each.  A  few  of  the  most  eminent 
orators,  especially  Crassus,  ADtonius,  Q. 
Scaevola,  and  Hortensius  (qq.v,),  are  dis- 
cussed at  greater  length ;  and  Cicero  adds 
some  interesting  information  about  him- 
self, his  early  life  and  training  as  an  orator, 
and  gradual  rise  to  tho  highest  position. 





Bru'tus,  Ltfcius  JttNius,  according  to 
Roman  tradition,  the  nephew  of  Tar- 
quinius  Superbus,  king  of  Rome  (see 
.Rome,  §  2).  He  assumed  the  disguise  of 
idiocy  to  escape  the  fate  of  his  brother, 
who  had  been  put  to  death  by  their  uncle. 
On  the  occasion  of  the  outrage  on  Lucretia 
(q.v.),  he  led  the  rising  against  the  Tar- 
quins  and  liberated  the  city.  He  was  one 
of  the  first  two  Roman  consuls.  Ho  is  said 
to  have  put  to  death  his  own  sons,  who 
attempted  to  restore  the  Tarquins. 

Bru'tus,  MARCUS  JtfNius  (78?-42  B.C.), 
son  of  a  half-sister  of  Cato  of  Utica  (q.v.), 
an  ardent  supporter  of  republican  prin- 
ciples, and  an  idealist  rather  than  a 
practical  statesman.  He  married  Porcia, 
daughter  of  Cato.  In  the  Civil  War  of  49 
ho  joined  the  Pompeians,  but  was  par- 
doned after  Pharsalus  by  Caesar,  who 
made  him  governor  of  Cisalpine  Gaul  in 
46  and  praetor  in  44.  Nevertheless,  from 
honest  and  unselfish  conviction,  Brutus 
joined  the  conspiracy  for  the  assassination 
of  Caesar.  It  is  related  that  Caesar  gave 
up  the  struggle  against  his  murderers 
when  he  saw  Brutus  among  them,  ex- 
claiming Vat  au,  TCKVOV  !'  or '  Et  tu,  Brute  I ' 
After  the  assassination  Brutus  went  to 
the  East,  seized  Macedonia,  and  with 
Cassius  prepared  to  resist  the  triumvirs. 
Antony  and  Octavian  marched  against 
them  and  confronted  them  at  Philippi 
(q.v.).  Cassius  took  his  own  life  after  the 
first  (inconclusive)  engagement;  Brutus 
killed  himself  after  his  defeat  a  fortnight 
later  in  the  second  engagement  (42).  The 
tragedy  of  Brutus  is  vividly  depicted  in 
Shakespeare's  'Julius  Caesar*. 

Another  side  of  Brutus's  character, 
known  to  us  from  Cicero's  correspondence, 
Is  brought  out  in  his  financial  dealings 
with  the  people  of  Salamis  in  Cyprus.  He 
lent  money  to  the  town  at  48  per  cent, 
interest,  and  was  prepared  to  go  to  any 
length  to  recover  the  debt.  On  one 
occasion  his  agents  shut  several  prominent 
Salaminians  in  the  senate-house  and  kept 
them  there  without  food,  until  some  died. 
When  Cicero,  as  governor  of  Cilicia,  re- 
fused material  aid  for  the  recovery  of  the 
debt,  Brutus  was  much  aggrieved. 

Buce'phalus  (Boukephalos),  the  horse  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  Plutarch  relates 
that  when  first  offered  to  Philip  of  Mace- 
don  for  sale,  it  was  found  so  wild  and  un- 
manageable that  Philip  ordered  it  to  be 
sent  back.  But  Alexander,  observing  that 
it  shied  at  its  own  shadow,  turned  its  head 
to  the  sun,  then  caressed  and  soothed 
it,  and  finally  mounted  and  mastered  it. 
When  he  dismounted  his  father  said,  kiss- 
Ing  him,  '  O  son,  them  must  needs  have  a 

realm  that  is  meet  for  thee,  for  Macedon 
will  not  hold  thee'.  Bucephalus  carried 
Alexander  in  his  eastern  campaigns  and 
a  strong  mutual  affection  grew  up  between 
horse  and  rider.  Bucephalus  died  in  India, 
when  thirty  years  old,  and  Alexander 
founded  the  city  of  Bucephala  in  northern 
India  in  his  horse's  honour. 

Bucolic  or  PASTORAL  poetry,  that  is  to 
say  poetry  concerned  with  the  life  and 
loves  of  herdsmen,  had  its  origin  in  Sicily, 
whore  it  was  a  national  type  of  song, 
and  was  said  to  have  been  created  by 
the  legendary  Daphnis  (q.v.).  It  was 
developed  by  Theocritus  (q.v.),  and  prac- 
tised after  him  by  Bion  and  Moschus,  and 
later  by  Virgil  (qq.v.). 

Budaeus,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  10. 
Bulla,  see  Clothing,  §  6. 

Burial  and  Cremation.  The  method  of 
disposal  of  the  dead  varied  among  tho 
Greeks  at  different  times.  In  the  pre- 
historic age  known  as  Mycenaean,  it  was 
the  custom  to  bury  the  bodies.  In  the 
Homeric  poems,  the  bodies  are  burnt  on 
a  pyre.  In  historical  times  it  appears  that 
both  methods  were  practised.  There  are 
references  to  burial  in  the  Greek  dramatic 
poets.  On  the  other  hand  urns  survive 
containing  the  calcined  remains  of  the 
dead.  It  was  customary  to  place  a  coin 
in  tho  dead  person's  mouth  as  a  fee  to 
Charon  for  his  service  as  ferryman.  Greek 
tombs  v»  ore  usually  placed  on  the  sides  of 
roads  leading  from  the  city.  The  funeral 
monument  was  usually  a  slab  (stele)  or 
column,  or  simply  a  mound,  with  an 
inscription  for  identifying  the  dead.  At 
a  later  period  it  became  the  custom  to  add 
laudatory  verses. 

At  Rome  also  both  methods  of  disposal 
were  practised,  as  appears  from  the  Twelve 
Tables  (q.v.);  but  cremation  gradually 
became  prevalent  (except  notably  with 
tho  Cornelian  gens,  which  adhered  to 
burial).  The  ashes  of  the  more  wealthy 
were  generally  placed  in  an  urn  under- 
neath a  monument  by  the  side  of  one  of 
the  great  roads  leading  from  Rome.  Urns 
of  the  poorer  classes  were  placed  in  a 
joint  tomb,  called  columbdrium,  contain- 
ing numerous  niches. 

Bury,  J.  B.,  see  Historians  (Modern). 

Busi'ris  (Bcrusiris),  according  to  Greek 
mythology  a  son  of  Poseidon  and  king  of 
Egypt.  To  avert  drought  it  was  his  cus- 
tom, on  the  advice  of  a  seer  (by  name 
Phrasios  or  Thrasios),  to  sacrifice  strangers 
to  Zeus.  The  seer  was  his  first  victim. 
When  Heracles  came  to  Egypt  hi  his 
quest  for  the  apples  of  the  Hesperides,  he 

Byzantine  Age  of  Greek  Literature      83 


allowed  himself  to  be  led  to  the  altar,  but 
then  broke  loose  and  slew  Busiris  and  his 
following.  See  also  Isocrates. 

Byzantine  Age  of  Greek  Literature,  a 

term  applied  to  the  period  from  the  closing 
of  the  Athenian  schools  by  Justinian  in 
A.D.  529  to  the  fall  of  Constantinople  in 
1453.  (Sometimes,  but  less  conveniently, 
it  is  reckoned  as  beginning  in  A.D.  330,  the 
date  of  the  founding  of  Constantinople.) 
The  period  produced  few  Greek  writers 
of  importance.  Greek  literature  had  come 
under  various  foreign  influences,  Roman, 
Eastern,  Christian,  and  had  lost  much  of 
its  original  distinctive  character.  Never- 
theless the  age  rendered  an  important  ser- 
vice in  the  preservation  and  transmission 
of  classical  works.  Its  writers,  apart  from 
theologians,  were  much  occupied  with 
lexicons  and  literary  commentaries,  and 
with  the  explanation  and  emendation  of 
old  texts.  History  continued  to  be  written 
(see  Anna  Comnena);  also  legal  commen- 
taries. There  was  much  copying  of  old 
MSS.  The  preservation  of  so  much  of  the 
old  Greek  writers  as  we  possess  is  due 
to  the  enlightenment  of  such  eminent 
ecclesiastics  as  PHOTIUS  (patriarch  857- 
886),  an  industrious  lexicographer  and 
good  literary  critic,  and  his  pupil  ARETIIAS 
(archbishop  of  Cacsarea  c.  907—32),  whose 
copy  of  Plato,  discovered  in  a  neglected 
heap  of  volumes  on  the  floor  of  the  library 
at  Patmos,  is  now  in  the  Bodleian.  See 
also  Procopius,  Suidas,  Texts  and  Studies, 
§  4  (for  Tzetzes  and  Eustathius),  and 

Byza'ntium  (Buzantion),  a  city  on  the 
European  shore  at  the  mouth  of  the  Thra- 
cian  Bosporus  (q.v.),  the  site  of  the  future 
Constantinople,  a  position  of  great  im- 
portance as  commanding  tho  entrance 
to  the  Euxine.  It  was  first  established 
by  Megarian  colonists  (c.  657  B.C.).  It 
stood  opposite  to  Chalcedon,  which,  it  is 
said,  was  founded  first,  and  tho  choice 
of  the  western  position  was  due  to  tho 
Delphic  oracle,  which  bade  the  Megarians 
place  the  new  city  opposite  the  '  city  of  the 
blind  men',  owing  to  the  superior  advan- 
tages of  the  European  shore.  With  the 
spread  of  tho  Persian  empire  in  the  6th  c. 
B.C.  it  came  under  tho  Persian  yoke,  then 
alternately  under  Spartan  and  Athenian 
dominion  in  the  5th  and  4th  cc.,  and,  after 
revolting  from  the  second  Athenian  League 
in  357,  enjoyed  a  position  of  independence 
in  the  second  half  of  tho  4th  and  hi  the 
3rd  c.  and  became  a  federate  ally  of  Rome 
at  the  time  of  the  Third  Macedonian  War. 
It  suffered  severely  from  its  barbarian 
neighbours  (Thracians,  in  the  mid  3rd  c., 
and  Celts,  who  were  particularly  aggres- 

sive), and  paid  them  huge  sums  in  black- 
mail,  recompensing  itself  from  tolls  of  the 
straits,  which  involved  it  in  a  war  with 
Rhodes.  It  subsequently  passed  into  the 
Roman  empire,  and  was  chosen  by  Con- 
stantino (q.v.)  for  his  new  capital  (A.D.  330). 


Cabi'ri  (Kabeiroi),  gods  of  fertility,  wor- 
shipped in  Asia  Minor,  and  especially  at 
Samothrace;  also  in  parts  of  northern 
Greece  and  in  Boeotia.  They  were  also 
regarded  as  protectors  from  dangers, 
especially  those  of  the  sea. 

Ga'cus,  in  Roman  legend,  a  monster  or 
brigand  who  lived  in  a  cave  on  tho  Aven- 
tine  (see  Rome,  §  1).  As  Hercules  was 
driving  home  the  cattle  of  Geryon  (see 
Heracles),  he  rested  at  tho  site  of  the 
future  Rome.  Cacus  stole  some  of  the 
cattle  and  drew  them  into  his  cave,  tail 
foremost  so  as  to  escape  discovery.  Her- 
cules departed  without  perceiving  the 
theft ;  but  the  lowing  of  his  other  oxen  was 
answered  by  those  in  the  cave.  Hercules 
then  attacked  Cacus,  slew  him,  and  re- 
covered his  cattle.  Cacus  was  probably  an 
ancient  Roman  deity,  perhaps  a  fire-god. 

Cadme'a  (Kadmeid),  the  citadel  of 
Thebes,  named  after  Cadmus  (q.v.).  It 
was  treacherously  seized  by  Phoebidas  tho 
Spartan  c.  382  B.C.  (see  Sparta,  §  4)  and  re- 
covered by  the  bold  stroke  of  Pelopidas 
(q.v.)  with  Athenian  support. 

Ca'dmus  (Kadmos),  (1)  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, son  of  Agenor  (king  of  Tyre), 
brother  of  Europa  and  uncle  of  Minos 
(qq.v.),  and  consequently  connected  by 
legend  with  Phoenicia  and  Crete.  When 
Zeus  carried  off  Europa,  Agenor  sent 
Cadmus  to  seek  her.  By  the  advice  of  the 
Delphic  oracle  Cadmus  alter  a  time 
abandoned  the  search;  he  was  told  to 
follow  a  cow  which  he  should  meet  and 
found  a  city  where  it  first  lay  down.  The 
cow  led  him  to  the  site  of  Thebes,  where 
Cadmus  founded  tho  Cadmea,  the  citadel  of 
the  future  city.  Here  he  sent  his  com- 
panions to  fetch  water  from  a  spring  for 
sacrifice;  a  dragon  guarding  the  spring 
killed  the  companions  and  was  then 
destroyed  by  Cadmus.  By  Athene's  in- 
struction, he  sowed  tho  dragon's  teeth, 
and  from  them  armed  warriors  sprang 
up.  These  he  set  fighting  by  throwing  a 
stone  among  them,  and  they  killed  each 
other  until  only  five  survived  (perhaps 
the  origin  of  the  proverbial  'Cadmean 
Victory',  Hdt.  1.  166).  These  five,  the 
Sparti  (Spartoi,  'sown  men1),  helped  to 
build  the  Cadmea  and  were  the  ancestors 

Gaecilius  Statius 


of  the  noble  families  of  Thebes.  Cadmus 
married  Hannonia,  daughter  of  Ares  and 
Aphrodite,  and  gave  her  as  wedding 
present  a  necklace,  the  work  of  Hephae- 
stus, a  beautiful  but  unlucky  jewel,  which 
subsequently  proved  the  source  of  many 
misfortunes  (see  Amphiaraus,  Alcmaeon). 
Their  daughters  were  Ino,  Semele  (qq.v.), 
Autonou  (who  married  Aristaeus  and 
became  mother  of  Actaeon,  qq.v.)  and 
Agave,  the  mother  of  Pentheus  (see 
Bacchae).  Cadmus  and  Harmonia  after 
a  time  retired  to  Illyria,  and  there  wore 
turned  into  serpents  and  carried  to  Ely- 
sium. Cadmus  is  said  to  have  civilized  the 
Boeotians  and  to  have  taught  them  the  use 
of  letters.  Here  the~myth  is  a  reflection  of 
historical  fact,  for  the  Greek  alphabet  is 
largely  derived  from  Phoenician  script. 

(2)   Cadmus  of  Miletus,  see  Logogra- 
phi  (1). 

Caeci'lius  Sta'tius  (c.  219-*.  166  B.C.), 
a  Gaul  from  northern  Italy,  brought  to 
Rome  as  a  slave  and  subsequently  manu- 
mitted. Ho  was  a  friend  of  Ennius  and 
the  chief  comic  dramatist  of  his  day; 
indeed  he  was  ranked  first  of  all  Roman 
comic  writers  by  Sedigitus  (see  Comedy, 
§  5).  He  came  in  point  of  time  and  also, 
it  would  seem  from  the  little  we  know  of 
it,  in  the  qualities  of  his  work,  between 
Plautus  and  Terence.  Many  of  his  titles 
are  identical  with  titles  of  Mcnander's 
plays.  Gellius  (N.A.  n.  xxiii)  has  an 
elaborate  comparison  between  passages 
in  a  play  of  Menandcr  and  in  its  adapta- 
tion by  Caocilius.  For  the  anecdote  about 
Caecilius  and  Terence,  see  Terence. 

Cae'lius  Ru'fus,  MARCUS,  son  of  a  banker 
at  Puteoli,  was  a  pupil  and  friend  of  Cicero, 
whose  correspondence  contains  a  number 
of  letters  from  the  young  man.  He  was 
clever,  vivacious,  unprincipled,  and  un- 
stable. He  joined  Catiline  for  a  time, 
supplanted  Catullus  as  lover  of  Clodia, 
was  accused  by  her  of  an  attempt  to 
poison  her,  and  was  defended  by  Cicero. 
Ho  became  a  distinguished  orator  in  the 
courts,  and  in  the  Civil  War  joined  the 
cause  of  Caesar.  As  praetor  in  48  B.C. 
he  advanced  subversive  proposals  for  the 
abolition  of  debt  and  rent,  and  headed 
with  Milo  (q.v.)  a  rising  against  Caesar  in 
S.  Italy.  This  was  suppressed  and  Caelius 
was  killed. 

Cae'sar,  Gilus  JCLIUS,  was  born  prob- 
ably in  102  B.C.  (Mornmsen's  date;  the 
traditional  date  is  100),  and  was  assassin- 
ated on  the  15th  March  44  B.C.  He  was, 
with  the  possible  exception  of  Lucretius 
and  one  or  two  others  (see  Birthplaces), 
the  only  great  classical  writer  actually 
born  m  Rome.  He  belonged  to  a  family 

claiming  royal  descent,  but  his  sympathies 
were  not  with  the  aristocratic  party.  He 
was  nephew  (by  the  marriage  of  his  aunt) 
of  Marius,  and  husband  of  Cornelia, 
China's  daughter,  whom  he  refused  to 
divorce  at  Sulla's  bidding,  a  refusal  that 
nearly  cost  him  his  head.  He  fled  to 
Bithynia,  and  either  then  or  on  a  sub- 
sequent voyage  to  Rhodes  to  study 
rhetoric,  is  said  to  have  been  taken  by 
pirates,  who  were  amused  by  his  confident 
bearing  and  his  threat  to  have  them  cruci- 
fied. Having  regained  his  liberty,  he 
manned  some  ships,  captured  the  pirates, 
recovered  his  ransom,  and  carried  out  his 
threat.  In  the  second  Mithridatic  War 
(83-81)  he  first  distinguished  himself  as 
a  soldier  at  the  siege  of  Mityleno.  In  80 
he  became  prominent  among  those  who 
opposed  the  Sullan  settlement.  But  it 
was  not  till  68  that  be  became  quaestor 
in  Spain.  Ho  was  aedile  hi  65  and  nearly 
ruined  himself  by  tho  gladiatorial  shows 
and  public  buildings  with  which  ho  en- 
deavoured to  secure  popularity.  He  sup- 
ported Catiline's  candidature  for  tho 
consulship  and  was  suspected  of  being 
privy  to  his  conspiracy.  In  63  he  was 
elected  praetor  for  the  year  62,  and,  to  the 
disgust  of  the  aristocrats,  pontifex  maxi- 
mus  (q.v.)  as  well.  His  propraetorship  in 
Spain  was  highly  successful  and  incident- 
ally enabled  him  to  clear  off  his  debts. 
Returning  to  Rome  in  60  he  made  a  com- 
pact with  Pompey  and  Crassus  (the  *  first 
triumvirate')  by  which  Caesar  was  to  be 
consul  in  59  and  the  requirements  of  the 
other  two  were  satisfied ;  Pompey  married 
Caesar's  daughter,  Julia.  From  58  to  49 
Caesar  was  proconsul  in  Gaul  and  Illyri- 
cum,  conducting  the  wonderful  series  of 
campaigns  described  in  his  Commentaries 
(q.v.),  by  which  he  not  only  carried  the 
Roman  dominion  to  the  Atlantic  and  the 
English  Channel,  but  established  his  own 
reputation  as  a  great  general  and  attached 
to  himself  a  devoted  army.  The  compact 
with  Pompey  and  Crassus  had  been  re- 
newed at  Luca  in  56;  but  tho  death  of 
Crassus  in  53  and  the  estrangement  of 
Pompey  from  Caesar  following  the  death 
of  Julia  in  54  put  an  end  to  the  league. 
The  opposition  of  Pompey  and  the  Senate 
to  Caesar's  plans  for  retaining:  office,  and 
the  intention  of  his  enemies  to  prosecute 
him  as  soon  as  he  relinquished  it,  brought 
matters  to  a  head.  Early  in  49,  Caesar  at 
the  head  of  the  13th  Legion  crossed  tho 
Rubicon  into  Italy  to  enforce  his  demands, 
and  launched  tho  first  Civil  War.  His 
success  was  rapid.  Pompey  was  out- 
manoeuvred and  driven  from  Italy,  and 
Caesar  became  master  of  Rome  almost 
without  a  blow.  He  showed  a  politic 




clemency  to  the  defeated,  in  strong  con- 
trast with  the  action  of  earlier  Roman 
leaders.  In  the  same  year  (49),  by  a 
brief  and  brilliant  campaign  he  forced 
the  surrender  of  the  Pompeian  army  in 
Spain,  where  it  held  a  strong  position 
at  Ilerda.  In  48  Caesar  followed  Pompey 
to  jEplrus,  finally  defeated  him  at  Phar- 
salus,  and  pursued  him  to  Egypt,  to  find 
he  had  been  murdered.  After  some  months 
of  dalliance  with  Cleopatra  (q.v.)»  Caesar 
passed  to  Syria  and  Asia  Minor,  where  his 
easy  defeat  of  Pharnaces  at  Zela  in  47  was 
the  occasion  of  his  well-known  message  to 
Rome  *Veni,  vidi,  vici*.  After  a  brief  stay 
in  Rome  he  was  called  upon  to  face  Cato 
and  the  other  members  of  the  senatorial 
party  supported  by  Juba  in  Africa. 
These  he  defeated  with  great  slaughter  at 
Thapsus  in  46.  His  last  campaign  was  in 
Spain,  against  the  sons  of  Pompey  and  the 
survivors  of  Thapsus ;  it  was  closed  by  the 
victory  of  Munda  (45).  Less  than  a  year 
later,  in  the  midst  of  uncompleted  schemes 
for  the  reorganization  of  Rome  and  the 
empire,  ho  was  assassinated  by  a  band  of 
those  whom  his  measures  had  offended, 
led  by  M.  Brutus  and  C.  Cassius  whom 
ho  had  pardoned  after  Pharsalus.  His 
amazing  energy  had  already  done  much, 
in  the  brief  intervals  of  his  campaigns,  to 
found  a  new  regime.  Pharsahis  had  made 
him  an  autocrat  and  ho  had  used  his 
power  to  re-establish  order,  to  restore  the 
economic  situation,  to  extend  the  fran- 
chise of  the  provincials,  to  regulate  taxa- 
tion, and  to  reform  tho  calendar.  He  had 
other  projects,  such  as  that  of  codifying 
the  law  and  establishing  a  public  library. 
His  measures  showed  breadth  of  view 
and  were  conceived  on  a  popular  basis, 
but  were  carried  out  with  a  contempt  of 
republican  institutions  which  was  in  part 
the  cause  of  his  assassination.  But  Rome 
had  outgrown  her  ancient  constitution, 
and  his  murder  was  a  foolish  crime,  as 
Dante  judged  when  he  placed  Brutus  and 
Cassius  in  the  lowest  circle  of  tho  Inferno 

(Canto  xxxiv).  For  Caesar  combined  pre- 
eminently the  qualities  of  statesmanship 
and  generalship,  discernment,  determina- 
tion, promptitude,  and  clemency. 

His  'Commentaries'  (q.v.)  on  the  Gallic 
War  and  the  unfinished  three  books  on 
the  Civil  War  are  his  only  extant  works. 
The  former,  unadorned,  straightforward, 
and  detached,  are  at  once  military  narra- 
tives of  surpassing  interest  and  a  skilfully 
concealed  justification  of  the  author's 
actions.  They  were  probably  written  in 
the  winter  of  52-51.  They  contain  no 
argument  or  comment,  but  allow  events 
to  tell  their  own  tale  in  his  favour,  with 
perhaps  an  omission  here  and  there  where 
the  facts  would  serve  his  opponents.  The 

*  Civil  War*  is  rather  more  of  a  political 
pamphlet.    The  impassive  calm  and  re- 
straint of  the  narratives  are  occasionally 
relieved  with  a  human  touch  or  a  flash  of 
sardonic  humour. 

The  Eighth  Book  of  tho  Gallic  War  is 
a  continuation  by  A.  Hirtius.  Other  con- 
tinuations of  tho  story  of  his  wars  are  the 

*  Bcllum  Af ricum '  on  Caesar's  conflict  with 
Cato  and  Juba,  and  the  '  Bellum  Alexan- 
drinum'    and    'Bcllum  Ilispaniense'  on 
those  campaigns.  The  authorship  of  these 
is  uncertain. 

Caesar  found  time  for  some  minor  works 
which  have  not  survived:  a  treatise  on 
grammar  ('De  Analogia')  written  during 
a  journey  across  the  Alps ;  an  astronomi- 
cal work  ('Do  Astris');  and  two  books  of 
'Anticatones'  in  reply  to  Cicero's  panegy- 
ric of  Cato.  Caesar  was  an  orator  of  the 
severe  Attic  school,  simple  and  restrained 
in  style;  Cicero  in  his  'Brutus'  paid  a 
high  tribute  to  tho  elegance  and  dignity  of 
his  speeches.  Wo  have  lives  of  Caesar  by 
Plutarch  and  Suetonius.  According  to  the 
tradition  recorded  by  tho  latter  he  was 
tall,  pale,  with  black  keen  eyes  and  full 
lips,  and  scrupulous  about  his  appearance. 
He  had  by  Cleopatra  a  son,  Caesarion  (q.v.). 



MARIUS  =  Julia 

(1)  Cornelia,  dr. 
of  L.  Cornelius 




C.  Julius  Caesar 

-  M.  Atius  Balbua 

la  •»  C.  Octavius 
.  Octavius 
Fulius  Caesar 


=  C.  JULIUS  CAESAR  =  (2)  Pompela 
(3)  Calpurnia 

Julia  • 


(C.  , 



Julia  Major  =  (1)  L.  Pinarius 
(2)  Q.  Pedius 

ulia  «=  CN,  POMPEIUS 



Calendar  and  measure  of  time 

Caesa'rion  (Caeaarid  or  Caesaridn),  the 
son  of  Julius  Caesar  and  Cleopatra  (q.v.). 
He  was  put  to  death  by  order  of  Octavian. 

Cae'sius  Bassus,  a  friend  of  Persius, 
commended  by  Quintilian  as  a  lyrio  poet. 
His  works  are  lost. 

Caesu'ra,  see  Metre,  §  2. 
Ca'lceus,  see  Clothing,  §  5. 

Ca'lchas  (Kalch&s),  a  seer  who  accom- 
panied the  Greek  host  to  Troy.  See 
Iphigenia  and  Iliad. 

Calendar  and  measure  of  time. 
§  1.  The  Greek  Calendar 

The  Greek  civil  year  consisted  normally 
of  twelve  lunar  months,  alternately  of  30 
and  29  days,  making  up  a  total  of  354 
days.  In  certain  years,  on  the  basis  at 
first  of  a  cycle  of  eight  years,  later  of  a 
cycle  of  19  years  (the  cycle  devised  by  the 
astronomer  MetSn),  an  additional  month 
was  from  time  to  time  (not  according  to 
any  rigid  system)  intercalated,  to  main- 
tain correspondence  with  the  solar  year. 
At  Athens  during  the  5th  c.  two  distinct 
systems  of  dating  were  in  force  concur- 
rently: (1)  the  civil  year,  reckoned  by 
lunar  months,  beginning  normally  with 
the  first  new  moon  after  the  summer 
solstice,  but  occasionally  with  the  new 
moon  before  the  summer  solstice,  and 
occasionally  with  the  second  new  moon 
after  the  summer  solstice,  according  to 
the  effect  of  the  addition  or  non-addition 
of  intercalary  months.  It  is  found  to 
begin  as  early  as  June  20  and  as  late  as 
August  15  (Meritt,  'The  Athenian  Calen- 
dar', 1928).  The  names  of  the  months 
were  in  general  taken  from  those  of 
festivals  held  in  them,  the  derivations  of 
the  latter  being  in  some  cases  uncertain ; 
they  wore  as  follows : 
Hecatombaion  (in  which  the  hecatombs 

were  offered),  roughly  July. 
Metageitnidn,  roughly  August. 
Boedromion,  roughly  September. 
Pyanepsidn,  roughly  October. 
Maimacterion  (from  the  festival  of  Zeus 

Maimactes,  'the  boisterous'),  roughly 


Poseidedn,  roughly  December. 
Gam&ion  (the  time  of  weddings),  roughly 

Anthesterion     (from     the     'Festival     of 

Flowers'),  roughly  February. 
Elaph&boli&n  ('door-hunting',  the  month 

known  in   other  parts  of   Greece  as 

Artemision),  roughly  March. 
M&nychidn    (from    the    festival    of    the 

Munychian  Artemis),  roughly  April. 
Tharg&idn,  roughly  May. 
iScirophori&n,  roughly  June. 

The  intercalary  month  was  generally,  but 
not  always,  a  second  Poseideon.  The  civil 
year  was  named  for  chronological  pur- 
poses, at  Athens  after  the  chief  archon, 
at  Sparta  after  the  first  ephor.  (2)  The 
'Bouleutic*  year,  or  the  year  during 
which  the  Boulo  held  office.  This  year 
under  the  constitution  of  Cleisthenes 
(q.v.)  was  divided  into  ten  prytanies  of 
36  or  37  days  each,  so  that  over  a  period 
of  time  the  senatorial  years  averaged 
365 i  days.  This  year  began  about  a  week 
after  the  summer  solstice.  Most  of  the 
dates  found  in  inscriptions  of  the  5th  c. 
are  stated  according  to  this  calendar  by 
the  number  of  the  prytany,  the  year  being 
named  after  the  first  Secretary  of  the 
Boule  of  that  year. 

At  some  date  about  the  end  of  the  5th 
c.  the  'Bouleutic'  year  was  brought  into 
conformity  with  the  civil  year,  and  there- 
after the  year  is  named  for  all  purposes 
after  the  chief  archon.  The  historian 
Timaeus  (q.v.)  first  adopted  the  practice 
of  dating  events  with  reference  to  Olym- 
piads (see  Festivals,  §  1),  beginning  from 
776  B.C.  But  Olympiads  were  never  used 
for  ordinary  purposes. 

Practically  every  Greek  city  had  its 
own  calendar.  The  Macedonian  calendar 
is  also  of  importance,  as  it  came  to  be 
universally  used  in  the  East  (e.g.  by 
Josephus).  Years  were  generally  dated  in 
Greek  cities  after  magistrates  or  priests 
who  held  office.  In  Hellenistic  kingdoms 
regnal  years  (i.e.  the  first,  second,  third, 
&c.  year  of  such  a  king)  were  made  use 
of,  or  fixed  eras.  This  last  was  a  very 
important  innovation.  The  most  notable 
of  these  eras  is  the  Seleucid,  from  312  B.C., 
which  is  used,  e.g.,  in  Maccabees.  Many 
eastern  cities  also  adopted  fixed  eras, 
usually  dating  from  their  acquisition  of 

§  2.  Greek  seasons  and  divisions  of 
the  day 

Some  use  of  the  constellations  was  made 
for  reckoning  the  seasons.  Thus  the  sum- 
mer (depos)  was  sometimes  regarded  as 
the  six  months  from  the  morning  rising 
of  the  Pleiades  to  their  morning  setting 
(May-November) ;  and  the  morning  rising 
of  Arcturus  (September)  was  generally 
recognized  as  the  beginning  of  autumn 
(cf  tfpos  eis1  'ApKTOvpov,  Soph.  O.T.  1137). 
Sirius  (Seirios)  the  Dog-star,  setting  with 
the  sun  in  August,  marked  the  period  of 
the  greatest  heat. 

The  day  from  sunrise  to  sunset,  what- 
ever its  length,  was  divided  into  twelve 
equal  hours.  For  astronomical  purposes 
the  gnomon,  a  vertical  rod  on  a  horizontal 
plane,  was  borrowed  from  the  Chaldaeans, 

Calendar  and  measure  of  time 


Calendar  and  measure  of  time 

and  by  the  length  of  the  shadow  it  threw 
enabled  mid-day  and  the  various  hours  to 
be  determined,  as  also  the  solstices  and 
the  equinoxes.  But  this  was  not  in  general 
use.  The  astronomer  Moton  in  the  5th  c. 
was  the  first  to  erect  one  at  Athens  (on 
the  Pnyx).  An  instrument  of  immemorial 
antiquity  for  measuring  time,  the  clepsydra 
or  water-clock  (see  below,  §  4),  was  em- 
ployed in  Greece. 

§  3.  The  Roman  Calendar 
According  to  tradition,  the  year  under 
Iloinulus  included  ten  months,  containing 
a  number  of  days  variously  stated,  but 
most  commonly  as  304.  It  began  oil 
1  March.  It  is  thought  probable  that  this 
ten -month  calendar  omitted  the  period 
from  mid-winter  to  spring,  as  being  for  a 
primitive  agricultural  community  the  dead 
part  of  the  year,  when  there  was  nothing 
for  the  husbandman  to  do  but  rest  and 
therefore  no  occasion  for  a  calendar  to 
regulate  his  labours.  Numa  Pompilius  is 
said  to  have  added  the  months  of  January 
and  February,  making  a  year  of  twelve 
months  (four  of  31  days,  seven  of  29, 
February  of  28),  a  total  of  355  days;  and 
this  was  supplemented  by  intercalary 
periods  to  bring  it  into  accord  with  the 
solar  year.  Caesar,  on  the  advice  of  the 
mathematician  Sosigenes,  reformed  the 
calendar,  making  the  normal  year  con- 
sist of  365  days  (seven  months  of  31  days, 
four  of  30,  one  of  28,  as  in  the  modern 
calendar),  and  adding  an  intercalary  day 
every  fourth  year. 

In  the  Roman  months  (which  probably 
in  remote  antiquity  accorded  with  the 
period  of  the  moon)  the  first  day  was 
called  the  Kalends  (Kalendae),  a  name 
originally  indicating  the  day  of  the  new 
moon,  and  connected  with  the  verb  calo 
'to  proclaim',  since  on  this  day  the  priest 
would  proclaim  the  dates  for  the  various 
special  days  of  the  month.  The  fifteenth 
day  in  the  four  31 -day  months  of  the  old 
calendar  (March,  May,  July,  October)  and 
the  thirteenth  day  in  all  the  others  was 
called  the  Ides  (Idtis),  a  name  indicating 
originally  the  day  of  the  full  moon.  The 
eighth  (or  according  to  the  Roman  method 
of  inclusive  reckoning,  the  ninth)  day 
before  the  Ides,  that  is  to  say  the  seventh  or 
fifth  day  of  the  month,  was  called  the  Nones 
(Nonae).  The  days  in  between  were  denoted 
by  reckoning  backwards  from  the  Nones, 
Ides,  or  Kalends  that  next  succeeded. 
But  In  this  reckoning  the  first  and  last 
days  of  the  series  were  both  included: 
a.d.  (ante  diem)  V  Kal.  Jun.  (the  fifth,  or 
as  we  should  say  the  fourth,  day  before 
1  June)  was  the  designation  of  28  May. 
Days  were  marked  in  the  calendar  F,  C, 

or  N,  according  as  they  were  fasti,  days 
on  which  the  court  of  the  praetor  urbanus 
was  open  for  business  (fas  cat  jus  dicere) ; 
comitidlea,  days  on  which  meetings  of  the 
comitia  might  be  held  (if  they  were  in  fact 
held  the  praetor's  court  was  closed); 
nefasti,  days  on  which  neither  was  the 
court  open  nor  might  the  comitia  meet, 
probably  because  such  days  were  devoted 
to  purification  or  to  worship  of  the  dead 
and  the  powers  of  the  nether  world.  It 
appears  that  only  36  days  were  fasti  until 
Caesar  increased  their  number,  184  were 
comitiales  and  55  nefasti.  The  calendar 
further  contained  certain  days  marked 
N5,  probably  signifying  nefas  feriae  pub- 
licae,  i.e.  that  the  days  were  nefasti  on 
account  of  a  public  festival ;  EN,  for  dies 
endotercisus  or  inter  cisus,  days  that  were 
partly  fasti  partly  nefasti.  Three  ex- 
ceptional days  were  marked  to  indicate 
that  legal  business  could  bo  carried  on 
after  certain  religious  requirements  had 
been  disposed  of;  these  were  known  as 
dies  fissi.  See  also  Nundinae.  There  was 
a  tradition  that  the  calendar,  showing  the 
days  which  were  fasti,  was  first  published 
in  304  B.C.,  when  Cn.  Flavius,  a  clerk  of 
Appms  Claudius  the  censor  (q.v.),  posted 
it  up  in  the  Forum.  But  this  tradition 
was  questioned  by  Cicero  (ad  Att.  vi.  i.  8), 
who  pointed  out  that  the  XII  Tables 
already  showed  the  calendar,  with  court 
days  marked  for  general  information. 
Flavius  must  therefore  have  published  the 
calendar,  or  an  account  of  the  principles  on 
which  it  was  constructed,  in  book  form. 

The  years  were  denoted  by  the  namea 
of  the  consuls  holding  office  in  each,  an 
inconvenient  method  which  was  practic- 
ally useless  for  very  early  dates.  At  the 
end  of  the  republican  period  the  date  of 
the  founding  of  the  city  was  finally  estab- 
lished by  the  researches  of  Varro,  Nepos, 
and  Atticus  (qq.v),  on  the  basis  of  certain 
eclipses,  as  having  occurred  in  the  year 
corresponding  with  753  B.C.,  and  this  was 
adopted  as  a  point  of  departure  for  chrono- 
logy (A.U.C.,  ab  urbe  condita  or  anno  urbis 
conditae;  Livy's  work  was  called  *Ab 
urbe  condita'),  but  not  for  practical  pur- 
poses. Under  the  empire  the  consuls  con- 
tinued to  be  used  for  dating  side  by  side 
with  the  regnal  years  of  emperors  and 
many  local  eras.  The  method  of  reckoning 
by  indictions  dates  from  the  reign  of  Con- 
stantino and  continued  to  be  used  through 
the  Middle  Ages.  The  indiction  was  a  fiscal 
period  of  fifteen  years,  at  the  beginning 
of  which  the  Roman  emperor  fixed  the 
valuation  on  which  the  property -tax  was 
to  be  assessed  during  that  period.  It  was 
instituted  by  Constantino  in  A.D.  313  and 
reckoned  from  1  Sept.  312. 




§  4.  Roman  divisions  of  the  day 
In  the  early  republican  period  there 
were  no  means  of  reckoning  time  except 
by  sunrise,  sunset,  and  midday.  Midday 
was  announced  at  Rome  by  an  officer  of 
the  consuls,  when  he  first  spied  the  sun 
from  the  senate  house  appearing  between 
the  Rostra  and  the  Graccostasis  (a  plat- 
form raised  above  the  Comitium).  The 
first  sundial,  imported  from  Sicily,  was 
erected  at  Rome  in  263  B.C.  A  dial  cor- 
rected for  the  latitude  of  Rome  was 
substituted  in  164  B.C.  The  clepsydra  or 
water-clock,  which  was  in  use  in  Greece, 
was  introduced  by  Scipio  Nasica  in  158 
n.c.  It  is  described  by  Vitruvius  (q.v.) 
and  measured  time  by  the  flow  of  water 
through  a  small  aperture  into  a  cistern; 
the  water  as  it  rose  in  this  cistern  raised 
a  float  connected  by  a  rope  and  counter- 
poise with  a  drum,  which  in  turn  operated 
a  pointer.  Each  day  from  sunrise  to  sun- 
set, and  each  night  from  sunset  to  sunrise, 
was  divided  into  twelve  horae ;  these  horae 
consequently  varied  in  length  with  the 
season.  The  Romans  when  they  spoke  of 
'the  first  hour*  meant  as  a  rule  the  point 
of  time  when  the  first  hora  from  sunrise 
was  completed.  The  nights  were  further 
divided  into  four  vigiliae  or  watches,  a 
term  evidently  of  military  origin. 

Ca'liga,  see  Clothing,  §  5. 

Cali'gula,  Gilus  CAESAR,  Roman  em- 
peror A.D.  37-41,  son  of  Germanicus  and 
Agrippina  (see  Julio-Claudian  Family). 
His  true  name  was  Gaius  Caesar,  but, 
spending  his  childhood  in  the  Roman 
camp  and  wearing  the  soldiers'  boot 
(caligd),  he  received  from  the  soldiers  the 
nickname*  Caligula*.  See  Rome,  §  10.  The 
story  that  he  proposed  to  make  his  favour- 
ite horse,  'Incitatus',  consul,  besides  pro- 
viding it  with  a  retinue  of  slaves  and  a 
luxurious  stable,  is  in  Suetonius. 

Calli'crates  (Kallikrates),  see  Temples, 
§  1,  and  Parthenon. 

Calli'machus  (Kallimachos),  born  in 
Cyrene  about  310  B.C.,  a  learned  critic 
and  poet,  who,  if  he  was  never  head  of  the 
Alexandrian  Library  (as  some  think  that 
he  was),  was  evidently  connected  with  it 
and  was  an  industrious  bibliographer.  For 
his  chief  work  in  this  capacity  see  Texts 
and  Studies,  §2.  As  a  poet  ho  wrote  in  a 
variety  of  forms.  His  'Hymns'  in  hexa- 
meters and  elegiacs,  to  Zeus,  Apollo, 
Artemis,  &c.,  have  survived.  He  was 
especially  eminent  as  a  writer  of  epigrams 
(of  which  we  have  sixty-four),  some  of 
them  epitaphs,  others  expressions  of  per- 
sonal emotion  or  little  sketches  of  lover's 
troubles.  His  beautiful  epigram  (II)  on 

his  friend  Heraclitus  of  Halicarnassus  has 
been  made  familiar  to  us  by  William 
Cory's  translation  *They  told  me,  Hera- 
clitus, they  told  me  you  were  dead*. 
Catullus  translated  his  'Lock  of  Berenice* 
(q.v.),  and  Ovid  drew  on  him  in  his  'Ibis* 
and  'Fasti*.  Fragments  of  his  'Aitia* 
('origins'  of  local  religious  tradition,  in 
elegiacs)  and  his  'lamboi*  (in  which  he 
assumes  the  character  of  Hipponax  (q.v.), 
the  satirical  poet,  restored  to  life)  have 
been  discovered  in  papyri  at  Oxyrhynchus. 
We  also  have  part  of  his  '  Hecale ',  a  short 
epic  on  a  minor  incident  in  the  story  of 
Theseus  (q.v.).  There  was  a  vigorous 
literary  feud  between  Callimachus  and 
Apollonius  Rhodius  (q.v.).  In  contrast  to 
the  latter,  he  preferred  to  compose  short 
poems,  and  his  is  the  proverbial  saying, 
jue'ya  j9tj3Atov  /ueya  KO.KOV. 

Calli'nus  (Kalllnos)>  of  Ephesus,  an  early 
Greek  elegiac  poet,  of  uncertain  date,  per- 
haps of  the  7th  c.  B.C.  Only  a  few  frag- 
ments of  his  work  survive.  He  is  the  first 
poet  known  to  have  written  in  elegiacs. 

Calli'ope  (Kalttopc),  see  Muses.  Orpheus 
(q.v.)  was  said  to  be  her  son. 

Calli'rhoe  (Kallirhde),  see  Alcmaeon. 

Calli'sthenes  (Kallisthenes),  a  nephew 
and  pupil  of  Aristotle.  Ho  collaborated 
with  his  uncle  in  the  preparation  of  a 
complete  list  of  victors  at  the  Pythian 
games  from  the  earliest  times.  He  joined 
the  expedition  of  Alexander  the  Great- 
(q.v.,  §  6)  as  the  historian  of  his  cam- 
paigns, and  was  put  to  death  in  327  B.C. 
as  being  privy  to  a  plot  against  him.  To 
a  pseudo-Callisthenes  was  attributed  a 
fabulous  narrative  of  the  exploits  of 
Alexander  (see  the  article  under  the  lat- 
ter's  name,  §  10,  and  also  Julius  Valerius). 
Landor  has  an  'Imaginary  Conversation* 
between  Callisthenes  and  Aristotle. 

Calli'sto  (Kallisto),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  nymph  in  the  train  of  Artemis  (q.v.); 
she  was  loved  by  Zeus  and  became  mother 
of  Areas,  the  legendary  ancestor  of  the 
Arcadians.  Artemis  (or  Hera)  in  wrath 
changed  her  into  a  she-bear;  and  in  this 
form  she  wandered  about  until  her  son, 
now  grown  up,  met  her  when  out  hunt- 
ing and  would  have  killed  her  with  his 
spear.  But  Zeus  turned  both  into  con- 
stellations, Ursa  Major  (the  Great  Bear) 
and  Arctophylax  (see  Arcturus),  (H.  J. 
Rose,  'Handbook  of  Greek  Literature*, 
remarks  that  star-myths  such  as  this 
rarely  date  from  earlier  than  Alexan- 
drian times.) 

Calli'stratus  (Kallistratos),  an  eloquent 
Athenian  orator  and  able  statesman  of  the 

Calpurnius  Siculus 


Campus  Martlus 

4th  c.  B.C.,  the  organizer  of  the  second 
Athenian  Confederacy  (see  Athens,  §  6). 
He  came  into  popular  disfavour  when  the 
ThebanS  took  Oropus  from  Athens  in  366, 
and,  although  acquitted  in  this  matter, 
was  condemned  to  death  and  went  into 
exile  after  a  raid  by  Alexander  of  Phorao 
on  the  Piraeus  (3G2).  Some  years  later  ho 
returned  to  Athens,  but  the  anger  of  the 
Athenians  was  unabated,  and  ho  was  put 
to  death. 

Calpu'rnius  Si'culus,  TITUS,  a  Roman 
author  of  eclogues,  who  probably  flourished 
in  the  reign  of  Nero.  It  is  uncertain 
whether  the  name  'Siculus'  signifies  that 
he  was  a  Sicilian  or  was  given  because  he 
imitated  the  Sicilian  pastoral  of  Theo- 
critus. Of  the  eleven  eclogues  attributed 
to  him  in  the  surviving  manuscripts,  the 
last  four  are  probably  by  a  later  hand 
(perhaps  Nemesianus,  a  poet  of  the  later 
part  of  the  3rd  c.  A.D.).  The  remaining 
seven  are  pleasant  poems,  showing  the 
strong  influence  of  Virgil,  and  are  the  only 
attempt  at  pastoral  in  the  early  post- 
Augustan  empire.  Eel.  I,  on  the  dawn  of 
a  new  Golden  Age  (the  hope  of  the  early 
days  of  Nero's  reign),  resembles  Virgil's 
Fourth  Eclogue;  Eel.  II  is  an  amoe- 
baean  contest  between  a  shepherd  and 
a  gardener,  resembling  Virgil's  Seventh 
Eclogue.  In  Eel.  Ill  Lycidas  tells  his 
remorse  for  having  ill-treated  his  sweet- 
heart. In  Eel.  IV  Corydon  and  Amyntas 
sing  the  praises  of  the  young  emperor. 
Their  patron  Mcliboeus  (perhaps  intended 
for  Seneca)  is  asked  to  lay  their  lines 
before  his  majesty,  for  Corydon  (perhaps 
the  author)  is  poor  and  humble.  Eel.  V 
is  a  didactic  poem  on  the  rearing  of  sheep 
and  goats.  Eel.  VI  is  a  dispute  between 
two  shepherds  about  the  poetic  merits  of 
two  other  swains.  In  Eel.  VII  Corydon, 
who  has  been  to  Rome,  describes  a  dis- 
play by  the  emperor  of  all  kinds  of  wild 
beasts  in  the  Circus. 

Calpurnius  helped  to  carry  on  the  tradi- 
tion of  pastoral  writing  to  the  Renais- 
sance. His  eclogues  were  printed  at 
Venice  in  1472.  See  also  Laus  Pisonia. 
Ca'lvus,  GAlus  LIciNius  (82-47  B.C.), 
eon  of  the  annalist  Licinius  Macer,  was  a 
poet  celebrated  in  his  day  and  an  eloquent 
barrister.  He  was  a  friend  of  Catullus, 
and  the  '  salaputtium  disertum*  of  Poem 
53.  Catullus  addressed  to  him  the  beauti- 
ful lines  of  consolation  (Poem  96)  on  the 
death  of  his  wife.  His  works,  none  of 
which  survive,  included  an  epyllion  on  lo 


Ca'lydon  (KcUuddri),  a  town  in  AetSlia, 
connected  with  the  story  of  Meleager 

Calydo'nian  Boar,  see  Meleoger. 

Caly'pso  (Kdlupsd),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  goddess,  daughter  of  Atlas  (q.v.).  See 

Camby'ses,  see  Persian  Wars  and  Egypt. 

Came'nae,  meaning  'foretellers',  in  the 
old  Italian  religion  were  water-nymphs, 
who  had  the  power  of  prophecy.  They 
had  a  sacred  spring  outside  the  Porta 
Capena  at  Rome,  dedicated  according  to 
tradition  by  King  Numa,  from  which  the 
Vestals  drew  the  water  for  their  rites. 
They  were  identified  (first  by  Livius 
Andronicus,  q.v.)  with  the  Greek  Muses. 

Cami'lla,  in  the  'Aeneid',  a  maiden- 
warrior,  ally  of  Turnus.  When  her  father 
Metabus  was  driven  from  Privernum,  of 
which  ho  was  tyrant,  he  carried  the  baby- 
girl  with  him.  Pursued  by  the  Volscians 
and  stopped  by  the  flooded  Amasenus,  he 
tied  the  child  to  his  spear,  flung  it  across 
the  river,  and  then  swam  across.  She  was 
so  swift-footed  that  she  could  run  over  a 
field  of  corn  without  bending  the  blades. 
For  her  death  see  under  Aeneid  (13k.  XI). 

Cami'llus,  MARCUS  FCnius,  a  great 
Roman  statesman  and  general,  who 
flourished  in  the  early  part  of  the  4th  o. 
B.C.  According  to  legend  ho  was  the  con- 
queror of  Veii,  went  into  exile  on  a  charge 
of  having  appropriated  some  of  the  booty 
of  that  city,  was  recalled  and  drove  the 
Gauls  under  Brennus  out  of  Rome,  con- 
quered the  Volsci  and  the  Aequi,  quelled 
the  civil  strife  at  the  time  of  the  Licinian 
Rogations  (see  Home,  §  3),  and  once  more 
defeated  an  invasion  of  Gauls.  He  was 
five  times  dictator,  and  a  reform  of  the 
Roman  military  organization  is  attributed 
to  him.  There  is  a  life  of  him  by  Plutarch. 
Camp,  ROMAN,  see  Castra. 

Campa'nia,  a  territory  in  Italy  S.  of 
Latium,  of  exceptional  fertility,  where 
many  of  the  wealthy  Romans  had  their 
villas.  It  included  the  towns  of  Capua, 
Neapolis  (Naples),  and  Pompeii.  See 
PL  10. 

Ca'mpus  Ma'rtlus,  at  Rome,  an  open 
space  NW.  of  the  ancient  city,  the  exercise 
ground  of  early  Roman  armies.  It  was 
dedicated  to  Mars.  It  was  also  the  place 
of  assembly  of  the  citizens  in  their  civil 
capacity  for  purposes  of  election,  e.g.  the 
comitia  centuriata  (q.v.).  Buildings  were 
gradually  erected  on  it  (private  houses 
rarely  till  the  time  of  the  empire),  and  in 
220  B.C.  the  censor  C.  Flaminius  con- 
structed there  the  Circus  that  bore  his 
name.  Later,  in  55  B.C.,  Pompey  built 
close  to  this  the  first  stone  theatre  of 
Rome.  See  PL  14. 



Carmen  Saeculare 

Candau'les,  see  Oyges. 

Cane'phor!  (Kan€phoroi,  'basket-bear- 
ers*), maidens  of  noble  families  at  Athens 
who  carried  on  their  heads  at  the  Panathe- 
naea  (see  Festivals,  §  3)  baskets  containing 
sacred  implements.  Their  graceful  atti- 
tude made  them  a  favourite  subject  for 
sculptors,  and  figures  representing  them 
were  sometimes  used  as  Caryatids  (q.v.) 
to  support  the  entablature  of  a  temple. 

Cani'dia,  the  witch  of  Horace's  Epodes 

iii,  v,  and  xvii;  and  Satires  I.  viii,  n.  i, 

and  ii.  viii. 

Cani'nius  Re'bilus  (quantity  of  the  e 

unknown),   Gllus,   appointed  consul   by 

Caesar  at  noon  on  the  last  day  of  the  year 

45  B.C.  for  the  remainder  of  the  day  (the 

consul  having  died  whoso  term  of  office 

terminated  that  evening).    His  was  the 

consulship  in  which,  according  to  Cicero's 

bitter  jest,  no  one  breakfasted  and  the 

consul  never  slept. 

Ca'nnae,  in  Apulia,  the  scene  of  a  great 

defeat  of  the   Romans  by  Hannibal  in 

216  B.C.  The  consul  Aemilius  Paullus  and 

(it  is  said)  50,000  Romans  were  killed  in 

the  battle. 

Canons  (kanones),  see  Texts  and  Studies, 


Ga'ntica,  in  Roman  plays,  the  portions 

that   were   sung   or   recited   to   musical 

accompaniment.   See  Comedy,  §  5  ad  fin. 

and  Plautus. 

Canto'res  Euphorio'nis,  see  Euphorion. 

Cape'lla,     MARTIANUS,    see    Martianus 


Ca'pito,  Gilus  ATEIUS,  an  eminent  jurist 

of  the  time  of  Augustus  and  Tiberius.  See 


Ca'pitol  (Capitdlium),  the  SW.  summit 

of  the  Capitoline  hill  at  Rome;  it  stood 

NW.   of  the   Palatine,   overlooking   the 

Forum  (see  PI.  14).    On  this  summit  was 

erected    the    great    temple    of    Jupiter 

Optimus  Maximus  (the  special  guardian 

of  the  city)  and   his  companions  Juno 

and  Minerva.   There  sacrifice  was  offered 

by  magistrates  on  taking  office,  and  by 

victorious  generals  in  a  triumph  (q.v.). 

On  the  Capitol  also  stood  the  ancient 

sanctuary  of  Jupiter  Feretrius  (see  under 

Jupiter).    For  the  other  summit  of  the 

Capitoline  Hill,  see  Arx.  For  the  legend 

of   the  saving  of   the  Capitol  from  the 

Gauls  by  the  sacred  geese,  see  Manlius 


Capitoli'nus,  Juuus,  see  Historia  Au 

Capitoli'nus,    MARCUS    MANLIUS,    see 
Manlius  Capitolinus. 

Captl'vl,  a  comedy  of  sentiment  by 
Plautus,  and  one  of  his  most  interesting 
plays.  There  are  no  female  characters. 
The  prologue  is  probably  by  a  later  hand. 
One  of  the  sons  of  Hegio  has  been  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Eleans;  the  other  was 
kidnapped  when  a  child  by  a  slave  and  has 
not  since  been  heard  of.  Some  Eleans 
have  now  been  taken  prisoners  of  war  and 
Hegio  has  purchased  two  of  these,  Philo- 
crates and  his  slave  Tyndarus,  in  the  hope 
of  recovering  by  their  means  his  captive 
son.  The  slave  is  to  be  sent  to  Elis  to 
negotiate  the  exchange.  From  devotion 
to  Philocratcs,  Tyndarus  assumes  the 
name  and  dress  of  his  master,  while 
Philocratcs  passes  as  his  slave.  Thus  it 
is  Philocratcs  who  is  released  and  sent 
to  Elis,  while  Tyndarus  remains  in  cap- 
tivity. But  the  trick  is  revealed  un- 
intentionally by  an  Elean  fellow-prisoner, 
and  Hegio,  believing  that  he  has  been 
fooled,  and  disappointed  of  his  hope  of 
recovering  his  son,  sends  Tyndarus,  loaded 
with  irons,  to  work  in  the  quarries. 
Presently  Philocrates  returns  bringing 
with  him  not  only  the  captive  son  of 
Hegio,  but  also  the  slave  who  stole  his 
infant  boy.  From  the  revelations  of  the 
slave  it  appears  that  this  child  had  been 
sold  to  the  father  of  Philocrates,  and  by 
a  stroke  of  dramatic  irony  is  the  very 
Tyndarus  whom  Hegio  has  cruelly  mal- 

Ca'pua,  the  chief  city  of  Campania, 
famous  for  its  luxury  and  wealth.  It  went 
over  to  Hannibal  after  the  battle  of 
Cannae,  but  was  recaptured  by  Rome  in 
211  and  severely  punished:  its  leading 
citizens  were  beheaded,  the  others  exiled, 
and  its  territory  became  the  property  of 
the  Roman  State. 

Cara'tacus  or  CARA'CTACUS,  see  Britain, 


Carau'sius,    MARCUS    AUR£LIUS    MAU- 

SAEUS,  see  Britain,  §  2. 

Cari'stia,  see  Parentalia. 

Ca'rtnen  Sacculfi're,  a  poem  by  Horace, 
written  in  17  B.C.  by  command  of  Augus- 
tus for  the  celebration  of  the  Secular 
Games  (see  Ludi,  §  2).  It  is  an  invocation, 
in  sapphic  stanzas  (see  Metre,  §  5),  of  the 
various  gods  of  the  Roman  pantheon  to 
grant  their  blessings  to  the  State.  It  was 
sung  on  the  Palatine  on  June  3,  the  third 
day  of  the  celebrations,  by  27  girls  and 
27  boys,  whose  parents  were  still  alive. 
An  inscription  describing  the  ceremony 
survives  (see  Epigraphy,  §  10).  (The  num- 
ber 27,  or  thrice  nine,  is  repeatedly  met 
with  both  in  Greek  and  Roman  ritual;  it 
was  regarded  as  especially  lucky.) 




Carme'ntis  or  CABME'NTA,  in  Roman 
religion,  a  deity  possessing  the  power  of 
prophecy,  probably  originally  a  water- 
spirit,  but  early  associated  with  child- 
birth. She  was  celebrated  on  the  llth  and 
15th  January.  One  of  the  gates  of  Rome, 
S.  of  the  Capitol,  bore  her  name  (Porta 
Carmentfilis).  She  is  sometimes  spoken  of 
in  the  plural,  as  the  Carmentes.  In  mytho- 
logy she  is  the  mother  of  Evander  (q.v.), 
and  accompanied  him  from  Arcadia  to 

Carne'a  (Karneia),  see  Festivals,  §  6. 

Carne'ades  (Karneades)  of  Gyrene  (214- 
129  B.C.),  a  Greek  philosopher  of  the  New 
Academy  (see  Academy),  who  held,  in 
opposition  to  the  dogmatism  of  the  Stoics 
and  Epicureans,  that  certain  knowledge 
was  unattainable,  but  that,  in  its  absence, 
conclusions  of  various  degrees  of  proba- 
bility could  be  formed,  and  that  these 
supply  a  guide  to  conduct.  Cicero  was  an 
adherent  of  his  views.  For  the  visit  of 
Carnoades  to  Rome  in  155  B.C.  see 
Philosophy,  §  2. 

Ca'rrhae,  in  the  northern  part  of  Meso- 
potamia, the  scene  of  the  defeat  of  M. 
Licinius  Crassus  (q.v.)  by  the  Parthians 
in  53  B.C. 

Carthage  (CarthdQd,  Gk.  Karchedon),  a 
colony  founded,  perhaps  in  the  9th  c.  B.C., 
by  Phoenicians  from  Tyre,  and  occupy- 
ing a  strong  strategic  position  on  a  pen- 
insula in  the  centre  of  the  northern 
coast  of  Africa,  near  the  modern  Tunis. 
For  the  legend  of  its  founding  see  under 
Dido.  Byrsa,  the  name  of  the  citadel 
of  Carthage,  signifying  *  fortress'  in  Phoe- 
nician and  'hide*  in  Greek,  may  be  the 
origin  of  the  story  of  the  territory  en- 
closed by  strips  of  oxhide.  Carthage 
gradually  took  the  lead  among  the  inde- 
pendent Phoenician  cities  of  N.  Africa 
(Utica  was  her  chief  rival),  founded  numer- 
ous colonies  on  African  soil,  and  exercised 
direct  rule  over  the  native  agricultural 
population  of  a  considerable  region.  Her 
constitution  (a  controversial  subject)  ap- 
pears to  have  been  mainly  aristocratic, 
the  government  being  in  the  hands  of  two 
chief  magistrates  and  a  senate.  The  chief 
magistrates,  originally  perhaps  Judges, 
held  the  highest  executive  functions,  and 
had  also  frequently,  especially  in  older 
times,  the  chief  command  in  war.  Hence, 
because  of  the  similarity  of  functions,  the 
Greeks  called  them  BaoiXeis,  the  Romans 
reges,  or  more  accurately  and  appropriately 
praetores.  The  Romanized  form  of  their 
name  was  suffetes.  Though  an  annual 
office,  this  magistracy  between  520  and 
300  B.C.  seems  to  have  been  in  the  power 

first  of  the  house  of  Mago,  and  then  of  the 
house  of  Hanno.  But  the  rule  of  the 
aristocracy  was  not  unqualified,  and  Aris- 
totle praised  the  equilibrium  of  aristo- 
cratic and  democratic  elements  that  he 
found  there.  Carthage  was  pre-eminently 
a  commercial  State,  carrying  on  trade  all 
along  the  coasts  of  the  Mediterranean. 
Her  merchants  dealt  in  Tyrian  purple, 
gold,  ivory,  slaves,  grain,  pottery,  bronze, 
perfumes,  and  textiles.  They  reached  the 
Cassiteridcs  (q.v.)  or  Tin  Islands,  and 
Guinea  on  the  Atlantic  coast  of  Africa. 
They  founded  settlements  in  Spain,  Sar- 
dinia, and  Sicily,  and  came  into  conflict  at 
an  early  date  with  the  Greeks,  driving  the 
Phocaeans  out  of  Corsica  c.  640  B.C.  and 
carrying  on  with  them  in  Sicily  a  struggle 
that  lasted  until  the  Punic  Wars  (q.v.). 
With  the  Roman  republic  they  made 
commercial  treaties,  by  which  Rome  was 
restricted  from  interfering  with  Cartha- 
ginian trade.  The  earliest  of  these  dated, 
according  to  Polybius,  from  the  first  year 
of  the  Roman  republic.  These  treaties 
governed  the  relations  of  Rome  and  Car- 
thage until  their  great  struggle  of  the  3rd 
c.  B.C.  The  Carthaginians  wore  essentially 
a  maritime  folk,  and  their  powerful  navy 
was  manned  by  their  citizens.  For  their 
army  on  the  contrary  they  relied  on  mer- 
cenaries, employing  Libyans,  Iberians, 
Ligurians,  Sardinians,  and  Corsicans. 
Plutarch  (De  rep.  ger.,  iii.  799)  describes 
them  as  sour  and  morose,  servile  to  their 
rulers,  harsh  to  their  subjects,  lacking 
fortitude  in  danger,  ungoverned  in  anger, 
obstinate,  without  elegance  or  urbanity. 
Their  religion  was  oriental  in  its  origin, 
their  chief  gods  being  Melkart,  Astarte", 
and  Baal-Hammon ;  but  Libyan  and 
Greek  deities  were  gradually  introduced. 
In  spite  of  the  Greek  influence,  their 
religious  rites  retained  a  barbarous  charac- 
ter and  included  human  sacrifices.  Agri- 
culture was  highly  developed  in  Cartha- 
ginian territory.  Olive  oil,  fruit,  and  to 
some  extent  wine,  besides  corn,  were  the 
chief  products.  A  treatise  on  agriculture 
by  the  Carthaginian  Mago  was  translated 
into  Latin  by  order  of  the  Roman  Senate. 
For  the  later  history  of  Carthage,  see 
Punic  Wars,  and  Colonization,  §  7. 

Carya'tids  (Karydtides),  female  statues 
in  long  drapery  used  instead  of  columns  to 
support  the  entablature  of  a  temple  (q.v.). 
The  word  means  'maidens  of  Caryae',  a 
town  in  Laconia,  where,  at  the  annual 
festival  of  Artemis,  it  was  customary  for 
bands  of  girls  to  perform  ritual  dances.  In 
these  they  sometimes  took  the  attitude  in 
which  they  are  represented  in  the  statues. 
The  best-known  examples  of  Caryatids  are 



Cassius  Dio  Gocceianos 

the  six  that  supported  the  entablature  of 
the  southern  portico  of  the  Erechtheum 
on  the  Acropolis  of  Athens.  One  of  these 
has  been  removed  to  the  British  Museum. 

Gasaubon,  see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  10. 

Co'sina,  a  comedy  by  Plautus,  adapted 
from  a  play  by  Diphilus  (see  Comedy,  §4). 
An  old  gentleman  of  Athens  and  his  son 
have  both  taken  a  fancy  to  Casina,  a  slave- 
girl  who  has  been  rescued  from  exposure  as 
a  baby  and  brought  up  in  their  household. 
The  father  wants  to  have  her  married  to 
his  bailiff,  the  eon  to  his  own  attendant, 
Challnus;  while  the  wife  of  the  old  man, 
aware  of  her  husband's  scheme,  Intrigues 
to  defeat  it.  Recourse  to  lot  favours  the 
father,  but  at  the  wedding  the  bailiff  is 
fobbed  off  with  Chalinus  dressed  as  a  bride, 
and  the  bailiff  and  the  old  man  moreover 
get  a  good  beating.  Casina,  according  to  the 
epilogue,  is  found  to  be  a  free-born  Athen- 
ian, and  is  married  to  the  old  man's  son. 

Gassa'ndra  (Kassandrd  or  Kdsandrd), 
daughter  of  Priam  and  Hecuba  (qq.v.).  She 
was  loved  by  Apollo  (q.v. )  but  resisted  him. 
In  consequence,  the  god  rendered  useless 
the  gift  of  prophecy  that  he  had  bestowed 
on  her,  by  causing  her  prophecies  never  to 
be  believed.  She  is  a  sombre  figure  in  Greek 
legend,  foreseeing  the  doom  of  Troy,  but 
foretelling  it  to  deaf  ears.  When  the  city 
fell,  she  was  dragged  from  the  image  of 
Athena  where  she  had  taken  refuge  and 
violated  by  Ajax  (q.v.),  son  of  Oi'lcus. 
To  expiate  this  sacrilege,  the  Opuntian 
Locrians,  his  people,  were  obliged  to  send 
yearly  a  number  of  noble  maidens  to  servo 
as  slaves  in  Athena's  temple  at  Troy.  If 
caught  by  the  inhabitants  before  reaching 
the  temple,  they  were  executed.  (This 
practice,  of  which  there  is  evidence  in 
inscriptions,  lasted  until  early  in  the 
Christian  era.)  Cassandra  fell  to  the  lot 
of  Agamemnon  (q.v.),  and,  accompanying 
him  to  Mycenae,  was  killed  with  him  by 

Cassiodo'rus  (Fldvius  Cassioddrus  Mag- 
nus Aurelius  Senator)  (c.  A.D.  480-575), 
born  at  Scylaceum  (Squillace)  in  S.  Italy, 
the  son  of  a  praetorian  prefect,  was  him- 
self appointed  quaestor  to  Theodoric,  and 
consul  in  514.  Under  the  three  successors 
of  Theodoric  he  was  virtually  prime  mini- 
ster. He  spent  the  latter  part  of  his  long 
life  on  his  estate  hi  the  south,  where 
he  founded  two  monasteries.  He  wrote  a 
'History  of  the  Goths'  (known  to  us 
only  in  abridgement)  and  other  historical 
works,  and  published  twelve  books  of  his 
official  writings  under  the  title  'Variae', 
and  a  lengthy  commentary  on  the  Psalms. 
His  most  important  work  was  a  treatise 

on  religious  and  profane  education  entitled 
•  Institutiones  Divinarum  et  Saecularium 
Litterarum',  in  two  books,  of  which  the 
first  was  intended  particularly  for  the 
guidance  of  monks.  He  exhorted  them  to 
the  careful  copying  of  manuscripts  and 
traced  the  limits  within  which  corrections 
were  permissible.  His  'Do  Orthographia', 
written  when  he  was  93,  gives  them  direc- 
tions on  correct  spelling  and  punctuation. 
(See  Texts  and  Studies,  §6). 

Cassiopeia  (pron.  -o'ia)  (Kassiopeia  or 
Kassicpeia),  see  Perseus. 

Cassite'rides,  the  name  given  by  the 
Greeks  to  a  group  of  islands  where,  accord- 
ing to  rumour,  tin  was  found.  It  appears 
to  bo  still  a  matter  of  dispute  whether 
KaaaiT€pos  (tin)  is  derived  from  Cassi- 
terides,  or  Cassiterides  from  Kaaatrepo?. 
It  was  known  in  the  Mediterranean  that 
tin  came  from  the  Atlantic  coast,  but 
owing  to  the  Carthaginian  control  of  the 
Straits  of  Gibraltar  and  the  secrotiveness 
of  merchants,  the  precise  localities  where 
it  was  got  were  unknown.  The  Cassi- 
tcrides  were  thought  to  bo  to  the  north 
of  Galicia  or  in  mid- Atlantic,  or  were 
confused  with  the  Canaries,  or  were 
located  hi  Belerium  (Cornwall).  A  certain 
P.  Crassus  (not  definitely  identified,  per- 
haps the  governor  of  Further  Spain,  96- 
93  B.C.)  was  said  by  Strabo  to  have  found 
his  way  there,  and  the  place  that  he  took 
for  the  Cassitcrides  was  probably  the 
coast  of  Cornwall,  though  this  may  not 
have  been  identical  with  the  Cassiterides 
of  earlier  legend,  the  source  whence  the 
Phoenicians  and  other  early  traders  got 
the  metal,  which  was  perhaps  Galicia  in 
Spain.  There  is  evidence  that  tin  was 
worked  in  Cornwall  from  very  early  times ; 
but  it  appears  to  have  been  undersold  in 
the  Mediterranean  market  during  the 
early  Roman  empire  by  cheaper  tin  from 

Ga'ssius,  GAtus,  one  of  the  murderers  of 
Julius  Caesar,  was  an  energetic  soldier 
who  showed  his  capacity  as  one  of  the 
lieutenants  of  Crassus  at  Carrhae  (53  B.C.), 
where  ho  extricated  a  division  of  the 
Roman  army  from  the  disaster.  He  fought 
against  Caesar  at  Pharsalus  (48),  but  was 
pardoned  by  him  after  the  battle  and 
made  praetor.  Nevertheless  Cassius  was 
one  of  the  leaders  of  the  conspiracy  against 
Caesar.  After  Caesar's  death,  Cassius 
went  to  Syria,  secured  the  province,  and 
joined  Brutus  at  Smyrna.  He  met  hia 
death  at  Philippi. 

Ga'ssius  Di'o  (Dio)  Cocceia'nus,  gener- 
ally known  as  DIO(N)  CASSIUS  (c.  A.D.  150- 
235),  of  Nicaea  in  Bithynia,  who  became 




consul  at  Rome  and  governor  of  Africa 
and  of  Dalmatia,  was  author  of  a '  Roman 
History*  in  Greek,  in  eighty  books,  of 
which  twenty -six  survive.  It  covered  the 
period  from  the  foundation  of  the  city  to 
A.D.  229.  Of  the  surviving  books  (36-60 
and  79)  the  former  deal  with  the  years  68 
B.c.-A.D.  54.  Dio  spent  twenty -two  years 
preparing  the  work.  He  was  a  diligent 
student  of  earlier  historians,  whom  he 
treats  with  discrimination,  but  does  not 
appear  to  have  carried  out  independent 
research.  We  owe  to  him  the  only  narra- 
tive we  possess  of  the  invasion  of  Britain 
by  Claudius.  There  is  an  epitome  of  Bks. 
1-21  by  Zonaras  (12th  c.)  and  of  Bks. 
36-end  by  Xiphilinos  (llth  c.). 

Cassivellau'nus,  see  Britain,  §  1. 

Casta'lia  (Kastalia),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  nymph  who,  when  pursued  by  Apollo, 
throw  herself  into  a  spring  on  Mt.  Parnas- 
sus. The  spring  was  held  sacred  to  Apollo 
and  the  Muses.  It  is  situated  a  little  to  the 
NE.  of  Delphi,  and  may  still  be  seen,  'a 
pool  of  clear,  cold  water,  lying  deep  in  its 
rock-cut  basin  at  the  foot  of  the  sheer 
cliff*  (Frazcr  on  Pausanias  x.  viii.  9).  The 
pool  is  36  feet  long  by  10  feet  wide,  and 
is  fed  by  subterranean  sources. 

Ca'stor  (Kastor),  see  Dioscuri. 

Ca'stra.  Castra,  a  Roman  camp,  was 
invariably  entrenched,  and  under  the 
republic  always  of  the  same  form  and 
elaborate  arrangement.  It  was  planned 
out  in  advance  by  surveyors  (mensores), 
who  first  marked  with  a  flag  the  prae- 
torium  or  head-quarters.  The  camp,  as 
described  by  Polybius,  was  a  square,  each 
side  being  about  2,100  feet  for  a  normal 
army  of  two  legions  and  auxiliaries  (about 
12,000  men).  It  was  surrounded  by  an 
earthen  mound  (agger)  and  palisade  (val- 
lum, a  term  used  also  of  the  mound  plus 
the  palisade),  for  the  construction  of  which 
each  soldier  carried  stakes  in  case  of 
necessity.  Across  the  front  of  the  prae- 
torium,  which  stood  midway  between  the 
two  sides,  ran  a  roadway  (via  principalis) 
ending  in  gates  on  the  two  sides  of  the 
camp  and  dividing  the  latter  into  a  larger 
front  portion  (para  antica),  where  the 
legions  and  their  contingents  of  auxiliaries 
had  their  tents,  and  a  smaller  portion 
behind  (pars  postica).  In  the  latter,  on 
either  side  of  the  praetorium,  were  the 
quarters  of  the  higher  officers,  those  of 
the  exiraordindrii  or  picked  auxiliary 
troops,  the  forum  or  meeting-place  and 
market  of  the  camp,  and  the  quaestorium 
or  paymaster's  office.  From  the  front  of 
the  praetorium  a  broad  via  praetoria  led 
to  the  porta  praetoria  in  the  front  vallum 

of  the  camp.  Behind  the  praetorium 
another  road  led  to  the  porta  decumdna 
in  the  back  vallum  of  the  camp.  There 
were  thus  four  gates  to  the  camp,  one  in 
each  of  its  sides.  See  PL  2c. 

In  the  permanent  camps  (castra  stati- 
va),  of  which  many  in  imperial  times 
were  established  in  conquered  territory, 
the  detailed  arrangements  were  different, 
but  the  characteristic  features  remained 
the  same:  quadrangular  form,  division 
by  roads  at  right  angles,  four  gates, 
the  praetorium  midway  between  the  two 
sides,  the  forum  and  quaestorium  near  it. 
These  camps  contained  barracks  built  of 
permanent  materials,  and  head-quarters 
sometimes  of  an  imposing  appearance,  as 
may  be  seen  in  the  ruins  of  the  prae- 
torium of  Novaesium  (Neuss)  on  the 
Rhino.  The  camps  of  the  imperial  age  are 
described  by  Hyginus  (q.v.). 

Catachre'sis,  the  misuse  of  a  term. 
Quintiliau  extends  it  to  the  adaptation, 
whore  a  term  is  wanting,  of  the  term 
nearest  to  the  meaning,  and  gives  as  an 
example  'equum  divina  Palladis  arte 
aediflcant*  (Aen.  ii.  16)  whore  'aedificant' 
moans  properly  to  build  a  house. 

Catale'pton  (Gk.  'on  a  small  scale'), 
sometimes  known  as  CATALECTA,  a  collec- 
tion of  Latin  epigrams  and  other  short 
poems,  perhaps  identical  with  the  'Epi- 
grammata*  attributed  by  Donatus  and 
Servius  to  Virgil.  The  author  is  unknown. 
A  few  of  the  poems  may  be  by  Virgil. 
Among  those  is  an  address  to  Siron'e  villa, 
which  Virgil  occupied  for  a  time. 

Catale'xis,  CATALK'CTIC.  Catalexis  is  said 
to  take  place  and  a  verse  or  foot  is  said  to 
be  catalectic  when  a  syllable  or  syllables 
of  the  normal  rhythm  are  replaced  by  a 
pause  of  equal  duration.  For  examples  see 
Metre,  §  2. 

Catalogue  of  Women  (Katalogos  Ghtnai- 
kon),  a  poem  in  hexameters,  of  which 
fragments  survive,  by  Hesiod  or  an  imita- 
tor, enumerating  the  heroines  of  ancient 
legend,  relating  their  adventures,  and 
tracing  their  descendants.  The  *Eoeae* 
(q.v.)  is  variously  thought  to  be  identical 
with  it,  or  the  last  part  of  it. 

Ca'tapl&s  (Kataplous),  see  Lucian. 

CatSgo'riae,  a  treatise  by  Aristotle  (q.v., 

Ca'tiline  (Lucius  Sergius  Catillna),  an 
impoverished  patrician,  who  was  praetor 
in  68  B.C.  and  in  the  next  year  governor 
of  Africa.  Dissolute  but  capable,  ruined 
in  reputation  as  in  purse,  he  saw  his  only 
chance  in  revolution,  for  which  he  found 
supporters  among  other  desperate  men* 




With  these  he  conspired  to  effect  a  general 
massacre  early  in  65,  but  the  plot  failed. 
He  stood  for  the  consulship  in  64  but  was 
defeated.  His  renewed  attempt  to  secure 
power  in  63  during  Cicero's  consulship 
is  described  under  Cicero,  §  2,  where  a 
reference  will  be  found  to  Cicero's  speeches 
'In  Catilinam'.  Catiline  fled  from  Rome 
in  63,  and  was  defeated  and  killed  near 
Pistoria  in  62.  According  to  Sallust  (q.v.) 
he  made  a  gallant  end.  Catiline  was  the 
subject  of  a  tragedy  by  Ben  Jonson  (1611). 

Ca'to  (C(Mo),  MARCUS  PORCIUS,  'Cato  the 
Censor'  (234-149  B.C.),  the  son  of  a  farmer 
of  Tusculum,  fought  in  the  Second  Punic 
War  as  private  soldier  and  military  tribune 
under  Q.  Fabius  Maximus  (q.v.),  and  after 
holding  various  offices  was  consul  in  195. 
He  had  been  quaestor  in  Sicily  and  Africa, 
and  subsequently  praetor  in  Sardinia;  it 
was  probably  on  the  later  occasion  that  he 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Ennius  (q.v.). 
In  184  he  held  the  censorship,  the  office 
that  made  him  famous.  Ho  applied  him- 
self to  the  reformation  of  the  lax  morals  of 
the  Roman  nobility,  and  to  checking  the 
luxury  and  extravagance  of  the  wealthy. 
His  ideal  was  a  return  to  the  primitive 
simplicity  of  a  mainly  agricultural  State, 
and  he  showed  a  fearless  independence 
and  honesty  in  his  attacks  on  powerful 
offenders  (including  the  Scipios).  Ho  was 
also  strongly  opposed  to  the  introduction 
of  Greek  culture,  and  under  his  influence 
Greek  philosophers  and  rhetoricians  were 
forbidden  to  reside  at  Rome.  In  his  old 
age,  however,  he  himself  studied  Greek. 
Late  in  life  he  went  as  a  commissioner  to 
Carthago,  and  was  so  impressed  by  the 
danger  to  Rome  from  her  reviving  pros- 
perity that  he  never  ceased  impressing  on 
the  Senate  the  necessity  for  her  destruc- 
tion: 'Carthago  delendaest*.  Jealousy  of 
her  agricultural  development  may  have 
been  one  of  the  causes  that  impelled  him. 
He  composed  a  work  on  Origines,  dealing 
with  the  rise  of  the  Italian  cities  (whence 
the  title)  and  the  history  of  Rome  from 
the  time  of  the  kings  to  149  B.C.,  ono  of 
the  first  historical  works  written  hi  Latin 
(earlier  Roman  annalists  wrote  in  Greek), 
unfortunately  lost;  also  a  treatise  'Do 
Agri  Cultura*  (q.v.),  sometimes  known  as 
*De  Re  Rustica',  which  in  great  part 
survives.  It  is  the  oldest  extant  literary 
prose  work  in  the  Latin  language.  Cato 
was  also  a  successful  orator;  150  of  his 
speeches  were  known  to  Cicero.  The 
surviving  fragments  show  shrewdness 
and  wit,  earnest  honesty,  and  simplicity. 
To  hhn  we  owe  the  phrase  'rem  tone 
verba  sequentur*.  Cicero  makes  him  the 
principal  interlocutor  in  his  dialogue  '  De 

Senectute',  There  is  a  life  of  Cato  by 
Plutarch,  who  severely  censures  his  mean- 
ness, particularly  in  his  practice  of  selling 
off  his  slaves  when  too  old  to  be  remunera- 
tive. There  is  also  a  short  life  of  Cato 
attributed  to  Nepos. 

Ca'to  (Cdto),  MARCUS  PORCIUS  'of  Utica' 
(95-46  B.C.),  great-grandson  of  Cato  the 
Censor  (q.v.),  a  man  of  unbending  charac- 
ter, and  absolute  integrity,  narrow,  short- 
sighted, impervious  to  reason  as  to  bribery. 
Ho  was  the  chief  political  antagonist  of 
Caesar  and  the  triumvirate, '  the  conscience 
of  Rome',  'equally  above  praise  and  vitu- 
peration '  (Livy ).  We  hear  of  him  as  voting 
for  the  death  of  Catiline's  fellow  conspira- 
tors when  these  were  arrested  by  Cicero 
(q.v.).  Ho  was  sent  on  a  mission  to  Cyprus 
in  58  (at  the  time  when  Cicero  was 
banished)  in  order  that  he  might  be  got 
out  of  tho  way.  In  the  Civil  War  ho  held 
Sicily  in  the  interest  of  the  Senate  and  was 
driven  thence  by  Curio.  After  tho  death 
of  Pompey  and  tho  battle  of  Thapsus,  ho 
shut  himself  up  in  Utica  (NW.  of  Carthage) 
against  the  Caesarians,  and  seeing  that  his 
cause  was  hopeless  took  his  own  life.  It 
is  said  that  he  spent  the  last  night  of  his 
life  reading  Plato's  '  Phacdo '.  For  Cicero's 
panegyric  on  him  see  Cicero,  §  4.  He  is  ono 
of  tho  heroes  of  Lucan's  'Pharsalia'  (q.v.). 
Dante  devotes  to  him  a  great  part  of  the 
first  canto  of  his  'Purgatorio'.  Cato's  last 
stand  and  death  at  Utica  form,  in  part, 
the  subject  of  Addison's  tragedy  'Cato' 

Cato    Major    de    Senectute,    see    De 


Cats,  see  Pets. 

Catu'llus,  Gilus  VALERIUS  (c.  84-*.  54 
B.C.),  was  born  at  Verona,  then  a  small 
frontier  town,  of  a  well-to-do  family,  and 
came  about  62  B.C.  to  Rome.  He  had 
access  to  the  refined  and  profligate  society 
of  tho  day,  and  became  attached  to  tho 
lady  whom  he  celebrated  under  the  name 
of  Lesbia,  Clodia  (q.v.),  the  sister  of 
Cicero's  enemy  Publius  Clodius  (q.v.)  and 
wife  of  Q.  Metellus  Celer,  consul  in  60  B.C. 
His  love  for  her,  followed,  as  a  result  of 
her  infidelity,  by  rifts  and  reconciliations, 
deepening  reproaches,  and  finally  fierce 
revolt  and  rupture,  inspired  some  of  his 
most  beautiful  and  of  his  most  bitter 
poems.  After  their  final  separation  Catul- 
lus to  57  travelled  to  Asia  in  the  suite  of 
the  propraetor  C.  Memmius,  the  patron 
of  Lucretius.  It  was  probably  in  the 
course  of  this  voyage  that  he  wrote  the 
lament,  the  famous  *Ave  atque  vale' 
poem  (101),  for  his  brother  buried  in  the 
Troad,  whose  tomb  he  now  visited;  the 



Cavalry  Commander 

charming  poem  of  spring  (46)  'Jam  ver 
egelidos  refert  tepores';  and  on  his 
return  (with  Helvius  Cinna  in  a  yacht 
which  he  celebrated  In  poem  4)  the  lines 
to  Sinnio  (31)  expressive  of  the  1oy  and 
gratitude  of  home-coming.  The  date  of 
his  death  is  not  known  with  certainty,  but 
he  died  very  young,  at  the  age  of  thirty 
or  thirty -three  at  most.  The  melancholy 
little  poem  (38)  addressed  to  Corniflcius 
from  his  sick-bed  is  perhaps  his  last  work. 
His  poems  are  mostly  short  pieces,  in 
hendecasyllables  or  other  lyric  forms  (iam- 
bics, scazons,  ono  in  glyconics)  or  in 
elegiacs.  They  are  varied  in  subject  and  in 
manner,  ranging  from  graceful  trifles  on 
some  incident  of  Roman  life,  an  invitation 
to  dinner  or  the  pilforings  of  a  guest,  to 
expressions  of  warm  attachment  and  sym- 
pathy for  friends,  genial  satires,  virulent 
lampoons,  and  poems  of  deepest  passion. 
The  beet-known  of  them  are  the  sequence 
relating  to  Lesbia,  beginning  with  the  first 
Intoxication  of  love  and  the  tender  play- 
fulness of  the  lines  on  Lesbia's  sparrow,  and 
ending  with  poignant  cries  of  suffering  (such 
as  the  lines  '  O  di,  si  vestrumst  misereri . . .' 
in  Poem  76)  and  venomous  insults  flung  at 
his  unfaithful  mistress.  The  political  lam- 
poons of  Catullus  (especially  29  and  57) 
reflect,  in  some  measure,  the  attitude  of 
the  aristocratic  society  of  Rome  towards 
Caesar  and  his  associates.  Caesar  was 
Btung  by  the  attacks,  but  was  reconciled 
with  Catullus  in  the  end.  Poem  51,  'Illo 
mi  par  esse  deo  vidctur*  is  a  translation 
of  an  extant  poem  by  Sappho.  All  these 
short  poems  aro  strikingly  sincere  and 
vivid,  and  perfect  in  form.  In  a  different 
category  falls  the  beautiful  short  hymn 
to  Diana  (Poem  34).  The  longer  poems  of 
Catullus  include  an  opithalamium  (61)  for 
the  marriage  of  a  friend  named  Mallius; 
another  wedding-song  (62);  a  strange 
poem  (63)  hi  galliambics  on  the  legend 
of  Attis  (a  young  man  is  represented 
as  becoming,  in  a  frenzy,  an  acolyte  of 
the  goddess  Cybele,  undergoing  the  awful 
initiation  by  emasculation ;  then  realizing 
with  vain  regrets  the  loss  of  his  former 
life);  the  'Coma  Berenices'  (on  the  legend 
of  the  lock  of  Berenice,  q.v.),  translated  or 
imitated  from  Callimachus;  and  a  poem 
in  hexameters  on  the  marriage  of  Peleus 
and  Thetis  (q.v.),  in  which  a  digression 
on  the  story  of  Theseus  and  Ariadne  (q.v.) 
occupies  the  greater  part.  Some  of  these 
longer  poems  show  the  influence  on  Catul- 
lus of  the  Alexandrian  school. 

Catullus  before  his  death  may  have 
Issued  a  small  group  of  his  poems  with  a 
dedication  to  Nepos,  but  this  is  a  hypo- 
thesis over  which  the  authorities  are 
divided.  His  literary  executor  appears  to 

have  published  all  his  writings  indis- 
criminately, including  for  instance  the  in- 
vectives against  Caesar,  in  spite  of  the 
reconciliation.  Our  texts  all  derive  from 
a  single  manuscript  preserved  in  Verona, 
the  city  of  his  birth. 

Catullus  not  only  adapted  the  hendeca- 
syllable  to  a  great  variety  of  moods  and 
purposes,  but  also  established  in  Roman 
literature  a  new  form,  the  light,  witty, 
elegant  poem,  to  fill  a  place  between 
tragedy  and  epic  on  the  one  hand,  and 
comedy  and  satire  on  the  other.  Ho 
exerted  a  wide  influence  on  his  Roman 
successors,  on  the  elegiac  poets  Tibullus, 
Propertius,  and  Ovid,  on  Horace,  and  on 
Martial.  In  English  literature  his  influence 
may  be  traced  in  the  Elizabethan  wedding- 
odes  and  still  more  in  the  Caroline  lyrics, 
notably  in  Herrick.  Ono  of  his  epithala- 
mia  was  translated  by  Ben  Jonson  in 
his  masque  'Hymenaei'.  Meredith's 
'Phaethon'  in  galliambics  was  modelled 
on  Catullus's  'Attis'.  Byron  translated 
Poems  3  ('Lugete  o  Veneres')  and  51  ('Hie 
mi  par  esse  deo  vidotur ').  Tennyson's  lines 
entitled  'Frater  Ave  atquo  Vale'  are  a 
tribute  to  the  'tenderest  of  Roman  poets 
nineteen  hundred  years  ago*. 
Ca'tulus,  QUINTUS  LUTATIUB,  consul  hi 
102  B.C.,  and  the  colleague  of  Marius  in 
the  defeat  of  the  Cimbri,  wrote  epigrams 
and  occasional  poems  in  elegiacs  (some  of 
which  have  survived),  and  developed  the 
use  of  this  metre  at  Rome.  He  also  wrote 
a  commentary  on  his  part  in  the  Cimbric 
War,  which  was  distinguished  by  its  purity 
of  style.  It  seems  to  have  been  a  source  for 
Plutarch's  life  of  Marius. 

An  earlier  Catulus  (Giius  LUTATTUS 
CATULUS)  was  the  victor  over  the  Cartha- 
ginians at  the  sea-battle  off  the  Aegatian 
Islands  in  241  B.C. 

Cau'dine  Forks  (Furculae  Caudinae),  the 
defile  of  Caudium  in  Samnium,  where  the 
Roman  army  in  321  B.C.  was  obliged  to 
surrender  to  the  Samnites  (see  Rome,  §  4). 

Cavalry  Commander,  The  (Hippar~ 
chikos),  a  treatise  attributed  to  Xenophon 
(q.v.),  written  at  a  time  when  Athens  was 
at  peace,  probably  about  365  B.C. 

Xenophon  was  deeply  interested  in 
cavalry  and  horses,  and  had  probably  at 
one  time  belonged  to  the  Athenian  cavalry 
corps.  This  corps  was  composed,  nomin- 
ally, of  one  thousand  men,  of  whom  each 
of  the  ten  tribes  was  required  to  furnish 
one  hundred.  The  whole  corps  was  under 
two  commanders.  The  treatise  purports 
to  be  addressed  to  some  one  about  to  hold 
one  of  these  commands.  It  includes  advice 
on  the  selection  and  training  of  the  re- 
cruits, the  care  of  the  horses,  the  choice 


of  subordinate  officers,  the  qualities  re- 
quired of  a  commander,  and  his  duties 
both  in  the  ceremonial  functions  of  the 
cavalry  and  on  active  service  (including 
tactics,  ruses,  &c.). 

Ce'bes  (Kibes),  of  Thebes,  a  Pythagorean 
philosopher  who  figures  in  the  'Phaedo' 
of  Plato,  and  in  passages  of  Lucian.  A 
famous  allegorical  composition  on  the  life 
of  man,  known  as  the  'Pinax*  ('Picture') 
of  Cebes,  was  attributed  to  him,  but  is  of 
much  later  date.  It  is  based  on  the  Stoic 
philosophy  of  the  time  of  the  Roman 

Ce'crops  (Kekrops),  a  legendary  ancestor 
or  first  king  of  the  Athenians.  Ho  is 
represented  as  serpent-shaped  below  the 
waist  (see  Monsters)  and  was  said  to  be 
earth-born.  Attica  was  sometimes  called 
Cecropia  after  him  (see  Athens,  §2).  For 
the  story  of  the  daughters  of  Cecrops  see 

Celae'no  (Kclaino),  one  of  the  Pleiades 
(q.v.);  also  a  Harpy  (q.v.). 

Ce'leus  (Kdeos),  see  Demcter. 

Ce'lsus,  AULUS  CORNELIUS,  of  whom  very 
little  is  known,  lived  under  Tiberius.  He 
was  an  encyclopaedist  who  wrote  in  Latin 
on  agriculture,  medicine,  philosophy,  and 
other  subjects.  Quintilian  calls  him  'medi- 
ocri  vir  ingenio*.  Of  his  works  only  eight 
books  on  medicine  survive.  They  are  largely 
based  on  Hippocrates  (q.v.)  and  other  Greek 
medical  authors,  but  also  on  contemporary 
practice.  They  show  humanity  and  good 
sense,  holding  the  balance  between  theory 
and  experience,  recommending  dissection 
but  discouraging  vivisection  (of  criminals), 
and  propounding  sound  rules  for  the 
maintenance  of  health.  The  work  begins 
with  an  historical  introduction  hi  which  the 
prevailing  tendencies  hi  medical  theory 
and  practice  in  his  own  day  are  discussed. 
The  first  two  books  deal  with  diet  and  the 
general  principles  of  the  healing  art,  the 
third  mainly  with  fevers,  the  fourth  with 
internal  diseases,  the  fifth  and  sixth 
with  external  ailments  (such  as  wounds 
and  ulcers),  and  the  last  two  with  surgery, 
showing  that  difllcult  and  dangerous  opera- 
tions were  undertaken  hi  his  day.  This 
was  the  first  classical  medical  work  to  be 
printed  (Florence,  1478). 

Censors,  at  Rome,  two  in  number,  were 
elected  every  five  years  to  take  the  census 
of  the  people  and  carry  out  tho  solemn 
purification  (lustrum)  which  accompanied 
it.  Their  period  of  office  was  eighteen 
months,  but  might  be  extended.  They 
had  a  general  supervision  over  the  conduct 
of  citizens,  and  in  particular  the  duty  of 

96  Cephalus 

revising  the  roll  of  senators  (legere  sena- 
lum),  removing  those  who  wore  unworthy 
and  replacing  them  by  others.  They  had, 
moreover,  the  duty  of  making  contracts 
for  public  works  and  for  the  farming  of 
baxes,  and  of  letting  the  State  lands.  Tho 
institution  dated  from  about  440  B.C.  Its 
mportance  was  much  reduced  by  the 
legislation  of  Sulla.  Tho  emperors  used 
censorial  powers  for  revising  tho  composi- 
tion of  the  Senate. 

Centaurs  (Kentauroi),  a  fabulous  race  of 
beings  shaped  like  a  horse  with  tho  body 
of  a  man  in  place  of  the  horse's  neck  and 
head  (see  Monsters),  said  to  be  descended 
from  Ixion  (q.v.)  and  Nephele  ('Cloud'). 
They  dwelt  in  Thessaly.  When  their  neigh- 
bours the  Lapithae  were  holding  a  feast  for 
the  wedding  of  their  king,  PirithOus,  with 
Hippodamia,  the  Centaurs,  whom  they 
had  invited,  tried  to  carry  ofl  Hippoda- 
mia and  other  women.  A  battle  resulted, 
in  which  the  Centaurs  wore  defeated, 
and  were  driven  from  their  haunts  about 
Mt.  Pelion. 

Centu'mviri,  at  Rome,  a  board  of  105 
members  (elected  annually,  three  from 
each  of  the  thirty-five  tribes),  increased 
under  the  empire  to  at  least  180,  who 
formed  the  jury  in  trials  relating  to  pro- 
perty and  inheritance  and  other  kindred 
questions.  They  were  divided  into  four 
courts,  which  usually  sat  separately,  but 
might  sit  as  a  single  body  in  important 
suits.  See  Law  (Roman),  §  2. 

Ce'phalas  (Kephalds),  see  Anthologies. 

Ce'phalus  (Kephalos).  (1)  in  Greek  my- 
thology, tho  husband  of  Procris,  daughter 
of  Ercchtheus  (q.v.).  Eos  (q.v.)  fell  in  lovo 
with  him,  causing  dissension  between  hus- 
band and  wife.  Artemis  (or  Minos)  gave 
Procris  a  hound  called  Lailaps  ('Storm') 
which  was  fated  to  catch  whatever  it  pur- 
sued, and  a  spear  that  never  missed  its 
mark.  These  Procris  gave  to  Cephalus  and 
a  reconciliation  followed.  (A  difficulty 
seemed  likely  to  arise  when  the  marvellous 
hound  was  set  to  hunt  an  uncatchable  fox 
which  was  devastating  Theban  territory; 
but  Zeus  evaded  it  by  turning  both  into 
stone.)  Procris  was  still  jealous  and, 
hidden  in  a  bush,  watched  her  husband 
when  he  was  hunting.  Cophalus,  thinking 
that  he  heard  an  animal  stir  in  the  bush, 
hurled  his  spear  and  killed  Procris.  There 
is  a  reference  to  this  legend  in  tho  *Sha- 
falus*  and  'Proems*  of  Pyramus  and 
Thisbe  (Shakespeare,  'Midsummer  Night's 
Dream*,  v.  i).  Milton  refers  to  Cephalus 
as  'the  Attic  boy*  in  'H  Penseroso*. 

(2)  The  old  man  in  Bk.  i  of  Plato's 
'Republic*,  the  father  of  Lysias  (q.v.). 



Chariot  races 

Cephi'sus  or  CEpm'ssus  (KepJusos  or 
Kephissos),  (1)  the  chief  river  in  the 
Athenian  plain,  rising  in  Mt.  Parnes,  and 
flowing-  past  Athens  a  mile  to  the  west. 
It  is  usually  dry  or  nearly  so  in  summer. 
(2)  The  chief  river  of  Phocis  and  Bocotia. 

Cerami'cus  (Kerameikos),  probably  mean- 
ing the  Potters'  Quarter,  at  Athens,  a 
region  N  W.  of  the  Acropolis,  partly  within 
partly  without  the  city  wall.  The  portion 
outside  the  walls  was  used  as  a  burial 
ground.  The  Agora  (q.v.)  was  included 
in  the  inner  portion.  Seo  PI.  13a. 

Ce'rberus  (Kerberos),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, a  monstrous  dog  with  three  (or  fifty) 
heads,  offspring  of  Typhon  and  Echidna 
(qq.v.),  the  watchdog  of  Hades.  See 
Monsters  and  Heracles  (Labours  of). 

Ce'rcidas  (KerJddds),  a  Greek  poet  of 
uncertain  date  (probably  c.  250  B.C.),  of 
whose  works  only  fragments  survive.  Ho 
professed  the  Cynic  philosophy  and  wrote 
in  lyric  metres  on  ethical  subjects  in  a 
simple  and  popular  style. 

Cerc5'pe*s  (KerkSpes),  in  Greek  my- 
thology, a  monkey -liko  race  of  men,  who 
tried  to  steal  the  weapons  of  Heracles  and 
for  their  pains  were  slung  upside  down 
on  a  pole  carried  by  Heracles  across  his 
shoulders.  Whereupon  their  jokes  at  his 
hairiness  so  amused  the  hero  that  he  let 
them  go.  The  tale  afforded  matter  for 
comic  treatment  in  literature  and  art. 

Cerea'lia,  see  Ceres. 

Ce'res  (C&res),  probably  originally  an 
Italian  deity  representing  the  generative 
power  of  nature.  Her  first  temple  at  Rome 
was  traditionally  founded  in  consequence 
of  a  famine  in  496  B.C.,  and  dedicated  hi 
493.  Hero  the  cult  had  a  Greek  charac- 
ter and  the  goddess  was  identified  with 
Demeter  (q.v.).  The  temple  was  at  the 
foot  of  the  Aventino  and  was  connected 
closely  with  the  plebs.  The  Ceredlia  were 
held  in  honour  of  Cores  on  April  12-19.  At 
this  festival,  connected  with  the  growth  of 
the  corn,  it  was  the  practice  to  tie  burning 
brands  to  the  tails  of  foxes  and  let  them 
loose  in  the  Circus  Maximus.  Ovid  (Fast, 
iv.  681  et  seq.)  has  a  tale  to  account 
for  this  curious  rite,  of  which  modern 
scholars  offer  various  explanations.  Virgil 
describes  a  festval  of  Ceres  in  'Georgics*  i. 
338-50.  Ceres  had  also  an  other  aspect, 
as  a  deity  of  the  earth :  after  a  death,  the 
house  of  the  deceased  was  purified  by 
means  of  sacrifice  to  her. 
Ce'to  (Keto),  hi  Greek  mythology,  daugh- 
ter of  Pontus  and  Ge  and  mother  of  the 
Graiae  and  the  Gorgons  (qq,v.)» 

Ce'yx  (K&ux),  see  Alcyone. 

Chae'reas  (Chaireds)   and  Calli'rrhdG 

(Kattirrhoc),  see  Novel. 

Chaerone'a  (Chair  oneia),  in  Boeotia,  the 
scene  of  the  defeat  of  the  Thebans  and 
Athenians  by  Philip  (q.v.)  of  Macedon  in 
338  B.C.  (this  was  the  battle  'fatal  to 
liberty*  referred  to  in  Milton's  sonnet  *To 
the  Lady  Margaret  Ley');  also  of  the 
defeat  of  Mithridates  by  Sulla  in  86  B.C. 
Chaeronea  was  the  birthplace  of  Plutarch. 

Chalce'don  (Chalkedon),  on  the  Asiatic 
shore  of  the  Bosporus,  see  Colonization,  §  2, 
and  Byzantium.  Later  the  capital  of  the 
Roman  province  of  BIthynia. 

Chalci'dic  League,  formed  early  fa  the 
4th  c.  B.C.  by  the  city  Olynthus,  of  towns 
on  the  promontory  of  Chalcidico  (q.v.), 
on  the  basis  of  common  laws  and  common 
citizenship.  It  spread  to  other  towns  in 
the  neighbourhood.  The  attempt  of  the 
Chalcidians  to  impose  membership  on  cer- 
tain Greek  towns  led  to  the  intervention 
of  Sparta  and  the  dissolution  of  the  League 
(379).  What  might  have  been  a  check  on 
the  growth  of  Macedonian  power  was  thus 
suppressed.  In  364-2  Timotheus  (q.v.  (2)) 
acquired  some  of  the  Chalcidie  towns 
for  Athens,  in  order  to  weaken  Olynthus, 
the  chief  support  of  Amphipolis.  The 
latter  was  originally  an  Athenian  colony, 
lost  in  the  Poloponnesian  War,  which 
Athens  constantly  desired  to  recover. 
Chalcidico  was  finally  reduced  by  Philip 
of  Macedon,  and  incorporated  in  his 
dominions.  Olynthus,  the  last  city  to  hold 
out,  was  captured  in  348,  an  Athenian 
force  sent  to  its  relief  arriving  too  late. 

Chalci'dice  (Chalkidike),  a  promontory  hi 
Macedonia  between  the  Thermaic  and 
Strymonio  Gulfs  terminating  in  three 
smaller  peninsulas.  See  Colonization,  §  2, 
and  Philip  of  Macedon,  §  2. 

Cha'lcis  (Chalkis^  the  chief  town  in 
Euboea,  on  its  W., coast,  and  separated 
from  the  mainland  only  by  the  narrow 
strait  of  the  Euripus.  It  was  subject  to 
Athens  during  the  greater  part  of  the  5th 
and  4th  cc.  B.C.  See  Colonization,  §  2. 

Cha'os,  see  Theogony. 
CharactSres,  see  Theophrastus. 
Chara'xus  (Charaxos),  see  Sappho. 

Charicl&a  (Charikleia)  and  The&'genSs 

(TheOgenes),  an  alternative  title  of  the 
'Aethiopica*  of  Heliodorus;  see  Novel. 

Chariot  races  were  held  at  the  Pan- 
heUenio  festivals  in  Greece,  especially 
at  the  Olympian  festival,  from  early 
times  (see  Festivals,  §  2).  The  chariots 




resembled  those  of  the  heroic  age,  which 
carried  the  warrior  and  his  charioteer,  low 
and  rounded  in  front,  open  at  the  back,  on 
low  wheels.  They  were  drawn  by  two  horses, 
one  on  each  side  of  the  pole,  by  means 
of  a  yoke ;  where  four  horses  were  used,  the 
two  additional  horses  were  at  the  sides 
of  the  first  two,  not  in  front,  and  drew 
by  means  of  traces.  The  Roman  racing 
chariot  was  similar,  except  that  the  board 
forming  the  front  was  higher.  Pausanias 
(vi.  20)  describes  the  elaborate  arrange- 
ment for  starting  the  chariot  races  at 
Olympia,  including  a  mechanical  signal 
which  raised  a  bronze  eagle  and  lowered 
a  bronze  dolphin.  He  also  mentions  how 
horses  generally  shied  at  a  particular  point 
in  the  course,  called  Taraxippus  ('  Disturber 
of  Horses').  Chariot  races  (Circenscs)  wore 
held  at  Rome  both  in  republican  and 
imperial  times  in  the  Circus  Maximus. 
The  chariots  might  be  two-horsed  (bigae) 
or  four-horsed  (quadrigae).  Four  or  even 
six  chariots  competed  in  a  heat,  driving 
up  one  side  of  the  Circus  (which  was 
divided  down  the  centre  by  a  low  wall 
known  as  the  splna)  and  down  the  other, 
rounding  the  metae  or  conical  pillars  at 
each  end  of  the  spina ;  seven  rounds  of  the 
Circus  formed  a  heat. 

In  republican  times  the  teams  belonged 
to  private  owners;  under  the  empire  to 
associations  of  contractors,  who  wore  dis- 
tinguished by  four  colours,  blue,  white, 
red,  and  green.  Domitian  added  two  new 
colours,  the  purple  and  the  gold.  It  is 
perhaps  from  this  time  that  six  chariots 
began  to  compete  in  a  heat.  But  the 
number  of  chariots  so  competing  is  not 
invariable.  The  two  now  factions  do  not 
seem  to  have  survived  Domitian's  reign. 
There  was  keen  partisanship  among  the 
public  and  betting  on  the  colours.  Pliny 
tells  how  Caecina  of  Volaterrae,  an  owner 
of  chariots,  had  homing  swallows,  daubed 
with  paint,  to  announce  his  victories.  In 
the  later  empire,  by  supporting  and  cheer- 
ing the  factions  that  were  not  favoured  by 
the  emperor  or  his  officials,  the  people 
frequently  expressed  their  disapproval  of 
the  Government.  Charioteers  earned  large 
sums.  Diodes  loft  a  fortune  of  35  million 
sesterces  (say  £290,000).  Caligula  gave 
Eutychus,  charioteer  of  the  green,  2  mil- 
lion sesterces. 

Cha'rites,  see  Graces. 
Cha'riton  (Charitdn),  see  Novel. 
Cha'rmidZs,  see  Plato,  §  2. 

Gha'ron  (Chdrori)t  in  Greek  mythology, 
the  ferryman  who  conveyed  the  dead  in 
his  boat  across  the  Styx  to  Hades,  repre- 
sented as  an  old  man  of  squalid  aspect. 

He  received  an  obol  from  each  passenger 
for  his  pains.  To  pay  his  fee  the  dead  were 
buried  with  a  small  coin  in  their  mouths. 
Charon  is  unknown  to  Homer.  He  figures 
in  the  'Frogs'  of  Aristophanes  and  in 
the  Vlth  Aeneid  of  Virgil.  See  also  Lucian. 
Charon  survives  (as  Charos  or  Charontas) 
in  modern  Greek  folklore,  rather  in  the 
character  of  Angel  of  Death  than  of  the 
ferryman.  But  the  custom  of  placing  a 
coin  in  a  dead  person's  mouth  prevailed 
among  some  of  the  Greeks  until  quite 
recent  times  (Rcnnell  Rodd, '  Customs  and 
Lore  of  Modern  Greece'). 

Cha'ron  (Charon)  of  Lampsacus,  see  Loflro- 
graphi  (1). 

Chary'bdis  (Charubdis),  in  Greek  legend, 
a  dangerous  whirlpool  off  the  coast  of 
Sicily,  opposite  Scylla  (q.v.).  The  Argo 
(see  Argonauts),  according  to  Apollonius 
Rhodius,  sailed  between  Scylla  and 
Charybdis;  and  Homer  (Od.  xii)  has 
a  vivid  description  of  the  passage  of 
Odysseus  between  these  two  perils. 

Chei'ron,  see  Chiron. 

Che'rsonese  (Chersonlsos,  'land-island* 
or  peninsula),  Thracian,  the  promontory 
of  Thrace  (the  peninsula  of  Gallipoli)  that 
runs  along  the  \V.  side  of  the  Hellespont. 
It  was  acquired  by  Athens  in  the  time 
of  Pisistratus  and  further  colonized  by 
Pericles.  It  was  threatened  by  Philip  of 
Macedon  and  this  threat  was  one  of  the 
chief  grounds  of  hostility  between  Athens 
and  Macedonia.  The  Tauric  Chersonese  in 
the  Euxine  is  the  modern  Crimea. 

Chersonese,  On  the,  a  political  speech  by 
Demosthenes.  See  Demosthenes  (2),  §  5  (f). 

Chia'smus  (from  the  form  of  the  Greek 
letter  chi),  a  figure  of  speech  in  which 
the  terms  of  the  second  of  two  parallel 
phrases  reverse  the  order  of  the  corre- 
sponding terms  in  the  first;  e.g.  'Odit 
populus  Romanus  privatam  luxuriam, 
publicam  magnificcntiam  diligit*  (Cic.  pro 
Murcna,  c.  32). 

Chi'lon  (Chttori),  a  Spartan  ephor  in  the 
6th  c.  B.C.,  who  appears  to  have  had  an 
important  influence  on  the  policy  of  his 
State  (see  Sparta,  §3).  Ho  was  included 
among  the  Seven  Sagos  (q.v.)  of  Greece. 

Chimae'ra  (CMmaira),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, a  monster  with  the  head  of  a  lion, 
the  body  of  a  goat,  and  the  tail  of  a 
dragon,  the  offspring  of  Typhon  and 
Echidna  (qq.v.).  See  Bellerophon  &nd.  Mon- 
sters. According  to  Virgil  she  was  *  armed 
with  flame*. 

The  Flaming  Chimaera  is   the   name 
given  to  a  patch  of  land  high  up  in  the 


Lycian  forest  near  the  sea-coast  where 
an  undying  fire  (apparently  burning 
natural  gas),  breaks  up  from  vents  in  the 
ground.  There  are  the  ruins  of  a  church, 
and  the  place  was  probably  from  ancient 
times  the  site  of  a  temple  to  the  Spirit  of 
Fire  (see  D.  G.  Hogarth,  'Accidents  in  an 
Antiquary's  Life'). 
Chi'os  (Chios),  a  large  Ionian  island  off 
the  coast  of  Asia  Minor.  It  claimed  to  bo 
the  birthplace  of  Homer.  It  formed  part 
of  the  first  Athenian  Confederacy  (see 
Athens,  §4),  led  the  revolt  of  the  allies 
in  412  B.C.,  and  was  laid  waste  by  the 
Athenians.  It  formed  part  also  of  the 
second  Confederacy  and  again  revolted, 
recovering  its  independence  in  354.  The 
island  was  famous  for  its  wine  and  its  figs. 

Chi'ron  (Cheiron),  in  Greek  mythology,  a 
Centaur  (q.v.),  son  of  Cronus  (q.v.)  and 
Philyra,  a  daughter  of  Oceanus.  It  was 
said  that  Chiron  owed  his  shape,  half -man 
half -horse,  to  the  fact  that  Cronus,  to  escape 
the  jealousy  of  his  wife  Rhea,  had  turned 
himself  into  a  horse.  Chiron  was  wise  and 
just,  and  learned  in  music  and  medicine. 
He  educated  some  of  the  most  famous  of 
the  Greek  heroes,  such  as  Asclcpius,  Jason, 
and  Achilles.  When  the  Centaurs  (qfv.) 
were  driven  from  Mt.  Pelion  by  the 
Lapithae,  they  took  up  their  abode  in  the 
Peloponnese.  There  Heracles,  pursuing 
the  Erymanthian  Boar  in  Arcadia,  was 
entertained  by  one  of  them,  named  Pholos. 
When  Pholos  set  wine  before  Heracles,  the 
neighbouring  Centaurs,  attracted  by  the 
smell,  crowded  round  and  a  fierce  fight 
ensued.  Heracles  drove  the  Centaurs  off 
and  one  took  refuge  at  Malea  with  Chiron, 
who  was  accidentally  wounded  in  the  knee 
by  one  of  Heracles'  poisoned  arrows.  To 
escape  from  tho  pain  of  the  wound,  he 
surrendered  his  immortality  to  Prome- 
theus, and  after  his  death  was  changed 
into  the  constellation  Centaur. 
Chi'ton,  see  Clothing,  §  1. 
Chla'mys,  see  Clothing,  §  1. 
Chti&'phoroe  (Chdephoroi),  see  Oresteia. 

Choe'rilus  (C/wririZos).  (1)  of  Athens,  see 
Tragedy,  §  4;  (2)  of  Samos,  see  Epic,  §  1. 

Cholia'mbic,  see  Metre,  §  5. 

Choral  Lyric,  poetry  written  to  be  sung 
in  chorus,  a  development  of  lyric  (q.v.) 
poetry  originating  in  the  song  and  dance 
with  which,  from  very  early  times,  the 
Greeks  celebrated  important  occasions. 
While  at  first  these  celebrations  appear  to 
have  been  of  the  nature  of  a  public  reli- 
gious duty,  they  later  also  took  the  form 
of  professional  entertainments  to  the  order 
of  a  patron,  and  poets  were  commissioned 



to  write  odes  for  some  private  occasion, 
such  as  a  victory  at  the  Games.    The 
development  of  the  choral  lyric  was  the 
work  at  first  of  Dorians  at  Sparta  and  is 
associated  with  the  names  of  Thaletas, 
Terpander,  Alcman,  and  Arion   (qq.v.). 
The  later  great  writers  of  choral  lyrics 
were   Sicilians,   lonians   or  Boeotians — 
Stesichorus,  Ibycus,  Simonldes,  Bacchy- 
lides,  and  Pindar  (qq.v.);  but  the  Dorians 
had  made  the  choral  lyric  so  much  their 
own  that  it  continued  to  be  written  in  the 
Dorian  dialect.  The  principal  forms  of  the 
choral  lyric  were  the  paean,  the  hypor- 
chema,  the  parthenion,  tho  heroic  hymn,. 
the  encomion,  and  the  dithyramb  (qq.v.). 
Choree',  see  Metre,  §  1. 
Chore'gia,  see  Liturgy. 
Chor€'gus,  see  Chorus. 
Chd'riamb,  see  Metre,  §  1. 
Chorodida'skalos,  see  Chorus. 
Chorogra'phia,  see  Pomponius  Mela  and 
Varro  'Atacinus*. 

Cho'rus  (Choros),  in  Greece,  a  band  of 
men  who  performed  songs  and  dances  at 
a  religious  festival,  and  became  an  essen- 
tial part  in  the  drama  as  this  evolved  (see 
Tragedy,  §  2,  and  Comedy,  §  2).  This  part, 
at  first  predominant,  later  became  subord- 
inate to  that  of  the  actors.  Tho  provision 
of  a  chorus  was  regarded  as  a  public  service 
(see  Liturgy)  and  the  duty  of  assembling, 
paying,  and  equipping  them  was  borne  by 
some  wealthy  private  citizen  selected  for 
the  purpose  (known  as  the  choregus),  until 
with  the  decline  of  the  prosperity  of 
Athens  the  duty  had  to  be  undertaken 
by  the  State.  Tho  chorus  was  trained  by 
the  poet  himself,  who  was  known  in  this 
capacity  as  clwrodidaskalos.  The  leader  of 
the  chorus  was  called  the  coryphaeus.  The 
portions  of  a  drama  assigned  to  the  chorus 
might  be  written  partly  in  iambics  (for 
dialogue),  partly  hi  anapaestic  measure 
(chiefly  for  the  entrance  and  exit  of  the 
chorus),  but  consisted  mainly  of  lyrics 
(see  Metre,  §§  2  and  3).  The  chorus  was 
frequently  divided  into  two  semi-choruses, 
who  sang  alternate  stanzas ;  but  whether 
particular  lines  were  sung  by  the  whole 
chorus,  by  part  of  it,  or  by  a  single  voice, 
is  often,  in  the  absence  of  stage  directions, 
a  matter  of  more  or  less  probable  con- 
jecture. See  also  Theatre. 
Chremonide'an  War,  see  Athens,  §  8. 
Chronica,  see  Nepos,  Eusebius,  Jerome. 
Chroniclers.  (1)  GREEK,  see  Logographi 
(1);  (2)  ROMAJJ,  see  under  Annales. 

Chrysa'or   (Chrusddr,  'Golden  Sword'), 
see  Oorgons. 




Chryse'is  (ChrOatis),  see  Iliad. 
Chrysi'ppus  (Chrusippos),  see  Stoics. 

Chrysolo'ras,  MANUEL,  see  Texts  and 
Studies,  §  9. 

Ci'cero,  MARCUS  TULLIUS  (106-43  B.C.), 
a  great  Roman  orator  and  statesman. 

§  1.  Early  life,  106-65  B.C. 
Cicero  was  born  at  Arpinum  in  the  Vol- 
scian  mountains  (the  birthplace  likewise 
of  Marius),  a  city  enjoying  full  Roman 
citizenship,  of  a  well-to-do  family  of  some 
local  distinction.  His  father  was  a  Roman 
knight.  Cicero  records  the  influence  ex- 
erted on  him  in  his  youth  by  the  Greek 
poet  Archias,  who  was  then  living  in 
Rome.  In  89  he  saw  military  service  in 
the  Social  War.  At  Rome  ho  studied 
rhetoric,  philosophy  under  Philo  the 
Academic  and  Diodotus  the  Stoic,  and 
law  under  the  Scaovolae  (q.v.).  In  81, 
towards  the  end  of  the  period  of  disorder 
caused  by  the  partisans  of  Marius  and 
Sulla  (qq.v.),  he  made  his  first  extant 
speech  in  the  law-courts,  'Pro  Quinctio* 
(q.v.)»  having  as  his  opponent  the  greatest 
advocate  of  the  day,  Hortcnsius.  In  the 
next  year  (#0),  in  his  speech  *Pro  Roscio 
Amerino*  (q.v.),  Cicero  first  showed  not 
only  his  ability  as  a  pleader  but  his  anti- 
Sullan  sympathies  and  his  courage,  for  ho 
did  not  shrink  from  attacking  Sulla's 
powerful  freedman  Chrysogonus.  After 
this  Cicero  travelled  to  Athens  and  Asia 
Minor,  to  improve  his  health  and  pursue 
his  study  of  rhetoric.  At  Rhodes  he 
received  instruction  from  Mold  the  rhetori- 
cian, who  chocked  his  tendency  to  exu- 
berance, and  from  Posidonius  (q.v.).  He 
married  Terentia,  a  lady  of  good  family, 
apparently  somewhat  domineering,  per- 
haps before  leaving  for  Greece  hi  79.  He 
returned  to  Rome  in  76  and  became,  with 
Hortensius  and  Cotta,  one  of  the  three 
leading  Roman  advocates.  To  this  period 
may  belong  the  speech  'Pro  Roscio 
Comoedo'  (q.v.;  some  authorities  place 
it  later,  in  68),  on  behalf  of  his  friend  the 
actor  Roscius  (q.v.)  In  75  he  was  quaestor 
In  Sicily,  a  magistracy  which  carried 
admission  to  the  Senate.  In  72  he  delivered 
the  speech  'Pro  Tullio*  on  behalf  of  a  cer- 
tain M.  Tullius  who  was  involved  in  a 
dispute  about  property  with  a  neighbour, 
one  of  Sulla's  veterans.  He  was  retained 
in  70  by  the  Sicilians  to  prosecute  C. 
Verres,  who  during  his  governorship  of 
the  island  had  shown  appalling  rapacity 
and  cruelty.  Cicero's  first  *  Verrine '  ('  Actio 
prima  in  Verrem',  preceded  by  a  'Divina- 
tio  in  Q.  Caecilium',  to  prevent  a  collusive 
action),  in  which  he  formulated  the  charges 
he  intended  to  prove,  was  sufficient  to 

force  Verres  to  throw  up  the  case  and 
retire  into  exile.  Cicero  then  published 
the  five  further  orations  of  the  'Actio 
secunda'  against  Verros,  designed  to  bring 
home  to  the  public  the  evils  of  the  existing 
predatory  system  of  provincial  adminis- 
tration. This  year  (70)  was  that  of  the 
consulship  of  Pompey  and  Crassus,  during 
which  they  effected  the  repeal  of  the 
Sullan  constitution.  Cicero,  with  his  liberal 
sympathies,  supported  Pompey,  and  there- 
after looked  up  to  him  as  his  political 
leader.  He  was  now  recognized  and  courted 
as  the  chief  advocate  of  the  day,  for  Hor- 
tensius (who  had  been  the  advocate  of 
Verres)  for  a  time  effaced  himself.  In  66 
Cicero  was  praetor  and  delivered  in  public 
assembly  his  first  political  oration,  the  *  De 
Loge  Manilla*  (or  'De  Imperio  Cn.  Pom- 
peii'). In  this  he  defended  the  proposal 
of  the  tribune  Manilius  to  grant  Pompey 
(q.v.)  the  command  against  Mithridates. 
Under  the  year  69  we  have  the  (incom- 
plete) speech  'Pro  Fonteio',  in  which 
Cicero  defended  M.  Fontcius  on  a  charge 
of  extortion  as  governor  of  Gaul ;  and  the 
'Pro  A.  Caecina',  in  a  case  involving 
subtle  legal  points  connected  with  inheri- 
tance of  land. 

§  2.  64-63  B.C.  Cicero's  consulship 
In  64  Cicero  stood  for  the  consulship. 
As  a  novus  homo,  i.e.  without  dignity  of 
ancestry,  he  was  at  a  disadvantage,  but 
he  was  helped  by  the  revelation  of 
the  revolutionary  inclinations  of  Catiline 
(q.v.),  one  of  his  rivals  In  the  contest. 
Cicero  was  elected  with  C.  Antonius, 
an  associate  of  Catiline;  he  won  over 
his  colleague  by  ceding  to  him  the  rich 
province  of  Macedonia.  As  consul  in  63 
he  delivered  the  speeches '  Contra  Rullum' 
or  '  De  Lege  Agrarla'  (q.v.),  combating  an 
agrarian  proposal  designed  to  give  the  pop- 
ular party  a  manoeuvring  ground  against 
Pompey  (then  absent  in  the  East) ;  Cicero's 
condemnation  of  it  was  endorsed  by  the 
people  and  the  proposal  was  rejected.  The 
*Pro  Rabirio*  (q.v.)  of  the  same  year  was 
in  defence  of  an  aged  knight  charged  by 
the  popular  party  with  having  killed, 
thirty-seven  years  before,  the  tribune 
Saturninus.  It  will  be  seen  that  Cicero 
now  takes  up  the  position  of  a  moderate,  in 
opposition  to  the  popular  party  and  Caesar. 
In  the  second  half  of  Cicero's  consulship 
came  to  light  the  anarchic  conspiracy  of 
the  desperate  and  unscrupulous  Catiline 
and  his  band  of  associates.  Cicero  by  his 
promptitude  and  firmness  defeated  the 
plot.  Catiline's  renewed  candidature  for 
the  consulship  was  rejected,  and  when  the 
conspirators  prepared  for  military  insur- 
rection, Cicero  obtained  the  'Senatus  con- 




sultum  ultimum',  empowering  the  consuls 
to  take  all  measures  for  the  protection  of 
the  State  (Oct.  22).  He  frustrated  Cati- 
line's projected  massacre,  drove  him  from 
the  city  by  his  first  speech  'In  Catilinam' 
(Nov.  8),  exposed  the  situation  to  the 
people  in  his  second  speech  (Nov.  9),  and 
secured  the  detection  of  five  leading  con- 
spirators in  treasonable  correspondence 
with  envoys  of  the  Allobroges,  and  their 
arrest  (Dec.  2-3).  In  a  third  oration  Cicoro 
explained  the  new  developments  to  the 
people.  The  fourth  was  delivered  in 
the  Senate  (Dec.  5)  on  the  question  of  the 
punishment  of  the  prisoners.  Silanus  had 
proposed  the  death  penalty;  Caesar,  it 
appears,  perpetual  imprisonment  in  chains. 
Cicero  recommended  the  former  course  as 
more  merciful,  and  Cato  also  advocated 
the  death  penalty.  This  was  voted  by  the 
Senate,  and  Cicero  at  once  had  the  sen- 
tence carried  out.  The  army  of  Catiline 
now  began  to  disperse,  and  the  remainder, 
with  their  leader,  were  cut  to  pieces  a 
month  later.  The  suppression  of  this 
anarchist  conspiracy  was  the  first  of 
Cicero's  two  great  feats  of  political  leader- 
ship ;  the  second,  twenty  years  later,  was 
his  supreme  attack  on  Mark  Antony.  In 
the  midst  of  tho  crisis  Cicero  found  him- 
self called  upon  to  defend  the  consul-elect, 
L.  Murena,  on  an  ill-timed  charge  of 
bribery  brought  against  him  by  Cato  (sec 
Pro  Murena). 

§  3.  From  62  B.C.  to  Cicero's  banishment 
in  58 

Cicero's  defeat  of  the  conspiracy  of 
Catiline  made  him  unduly  jubilant.  He 
had  rendered  a  great  service  to  the  State, 
but  he  injudiciously  referred  to  it  on  every 
occasion.  The  legality  of  the  executions 
was  questioned  by  the  popular  party,  and 
it  was  significant  that  the  tribune  Metellus 
Nfipos,  a  lieutenant  of  Pompey's,  refused 
to  allow  Cicero  to  address  the  people  on 
laying  down  his  office.  But  Cato  saluted 
him  as  'father  of  his  country*  (pater 
patriot),  and  Cicero,  in  spite  of  the  cold- 
ness of  Pompoy,  tried  to  secure  the  latter 
as  leader  of  his  ideal  coalition  of  Senate 
and  equestrian  order  as  constitutional 
governors  of  the  empire.  At  the  end  of  62 
Publius  Clodius  (q.v.)  was  detected  in 
disguise  at  the  mysteries  of  the  Bona  Dea ; 
his  attempt  to  set  up  an  alibi  was  defeated 
by  the  evidence  of  Cicero,  who  thereby 
incurred  Clodius's  deadly  hatred  (though 
in  the  actual  trial  the  latter  was,  thanks 
to  bribery,  acquitted).  Pompey  returned 
to  Italy  at  the  end  of  62.  The  jealousy 
and  hostility  of  the  Senate  threw  him 
into  the  arms  of  Caesar,  who  returned 
from  Spain  in  June  60 ;  the  '  First  Trium- 

virate* was  formed,  and  Caesar  became 
consul  in  59.  During  the  period  Imme- 
diately preceding  this  Cicero  had  made 
only  two  speeches  that  have  survived,  one 
on  behalf  of  Publius  Sulla  ('Pro  Sulla', 
q.v.)  and  the  other  on  behalf  of  the  poet 
Archias  ('  Pro  Archia',  q.v.),  famous  for  its 
eloquent  disquisition  on  the  glories  and 
benefits  of  literature. 

It  appears  that  Caesar  made  advances 
to  Cicero  with  a  view  to  attaching  him  to 
the  triumvirate.  But  Cicero  could  not 
reconcile  himself  to  Caesar's  unconstitu- 
tional attitude  and  stood  aloof.  He  did 
more ;  in  a  speech  for  C.  Antonius  (accused 
of  misconduct  in  his  province),  Cicero  in 
59  made  some  complaint  of  the  evil  state 
of  the  times.  It  was  immediately  after 
this  that  Cicero's  bitter  enemy  Clodius 
was  adopted  into  a  plebeian  family  to 
qualify  him  for  a  tribunate,  with  a  view  to 
keeping  Cicero  in  check.  This  was  Caesar's 
reaction  to  Cicero's  attitude,  for  the  adop- 
tion of  Clodius  required  the  consent  of  the 
pontifex  maximust  viz.  Caesar.  That  Cicero 
felt  tho  peril  of  his  position  is  shown  by  his 
only  surviving  speech  of  this  year,  *Pro 
Flacco ',  in  which  he  defended  Flaccus,  one 
of  the  praetors  in  63  who  had  effected  the 
arrest  of  the  Catilinarians,  on  a  charge  of 
extortion  in  his  province.  In  this  speech 
he  takes  the  opportunity  to  appeal  to 
popular  sentiment  in  his  own  favour. 
Caesar,  still  anxious  to  give  Cicero  a  means 
of  escape,  offered  him  a  commissionerehip 
for  executing  his  agrarian  law  or  a  position 
under  himself  in  Gaul.  These  offers  Cicero 
declined.  Thereupon  Clodius  was  allowed 
to  bring  in  a  Bill  exiling  any  one  who  had 
put  Romans  to  death  without  right  of  ap- 
peal— a  measure  directed  against  Cicero's 
execution  of  the  Catilinarians.  Cicero  had 
behind  him  the  support  of  tho  Senate, 
the  knights,  and  the  country  people ;  but 
Clodius  controlled  Rome  by  gangs  of 
roughs,  and  behind  him  stood  Caesar  with 
his  army.  Pompey,  in  spite  of  Cicero's 
fidelity,  refused  to  help  him.  Cicero  bowed 
to  the  storm  and  left  Italy  (58).  Clodius 
now  carried  a  decree  against  him  by  name ; 
his  property  was  confiscated  and  his 
magnificent  house  on  the  Palatine  was 
destroyed.  Cicero  first  went  to  Thessa- 
lonica,  where  he  was  kindly  received  by 
Plancius  the  quaestor.  He  was  utterly 
crushed  and  unmanned  by  his  misfortune. 
But  his  exile  was  not  prolonged.  Clodius 
became  so  reckless  that  he  even  attacked 
Pompey  and  was  met  with  his  own 
weapons,  gangs  organized  by  Milo. 

§  4.  57-45  B.C. 

Cicero  returned  with  Caesar's  consent  in 
57  and  was  enthusiastically  received.  His 




speeches  during1  the  ensuing  period  arise 
out  of  his  return,  the  continued  vexations 
to  which  he  was  subjected  by  Clodius,  and 
the  turbulence  of  the  times.  In  the  two 
speeches '  Post  Reditum'  (q.v.)  he  thanked 
the  Senate  and  the  people  for  his  recall; 
the  'De  Doma  Sua*  and  'De  Haruspicum 
Kesponso'  (qq.v.)  dealt  with  questions  re- 
lating to  the  restoration  of  his  house.  In 
56  he  defended  P.  Sestius  ('Pro  Sestio'),  a 
tribune  who  had  exerted  himself  in  his 
behalf,  against  a  charge  of  rioting  brought 
by  Clodius.  The  speech,  largely  occupied 
with  Cicero's  own  services  and  an  attempt 
to  rally  the  aristocratic  party  against  the 
triumvirs,  contains  some  of  the  orator's 
finest  passages.  The  speech  *  In  Vatinium  * 
was  an  attack  on  a  creature  of  Caesar's 
who  had  been  a  witness  against  Sestius  in 
the  preceding  prosecution.  The  *Pro 
Caelio '  was  a  defence  of  M.  Caelius  Rufus 
on  a  charge  of  attempted  poisoning  brought 
against  him  by  the  notorious  Clodia,  sister 
of  Clodius  and  the  'Lesbia'  of  Catullus. 
The  speech  contains  a  fierce  attack  on 
Clodia  herself.  Cicero  now  showed  signs 
of  assailing,  with  Pompey's  support, 
Caesar's  agrarian  law  of  59.  To  check 
this  inconvenient  alliance,  Caesar  met  the 
other  triumvirs  at  Luca  in  56  and  renewed 
his  understanding  with  them.  Cicero  was 
forced  to  submission,  and  his  humiliation 
may  be  seen  in  his  speech  of  recantation, 
*De  PrOvinciis  Consularibus '  (56),  in  fav- 
our of  the  prolongation  of  Caesar's  com- 
mand in  Gaul,  and  in  his  'Pro  Balbo',  in 
defence  of  the  right  of  citizenship  of  a 
friend  of  Caesar  and  Pompey.  The  'In 
PlsSnem*  of  55  was  a  reply  to  an  angry 
speech  by  L.  Calpurnius  Piso  when  re- 
called from  the  governorship  of  Macedonia 
at  Cicero's  instance.  In  54  Cicero  defended 
his  friend  Plancius  (referred  to  above  in 
connexion  with  Cicero's  exile)  on  a  charge 
of  electoral  corruption  ('  Pro  Plancio '),  and 
Rablrius,  a  partisan  of  Caesar,  on  a  charge 
of  extortion  ('  Pro  Rabirio  Postumo ') ;  also 
M.  Aemilius  Scaurus,  ox -governor  of  Sar- 
dinia on  a  charge  of  extortion  (of  this 
speech  we  have  only  fragments).  The 
'  Pro  Milone'  is  a  written  elaboration  of  the 
speech  which  Cicero  attempted  to  deliver 
in  defence  of  Milo  (q.v.)  on  the  charge  of 
killing  Clodius  in  a  faction  fight  in  Jan.  52. 
The  death  of  Clodius  gave  rise  to  great 
turbulence,  in  the  midst  of  which  the  trial 
was  held.  Cicero's  nerve  gave  way,  his 
speech  was  a  failure,  and  Milo  was  found 
guilty.  The  amended  version,  a  splendid 
defence,  was  sent  by  Cicero  to  Milo  in  his 
exile.  Milo  is  said  to  have  congratulated 
himself  that  it  was  not  delivered,  else  he 
would  never  have  known  the  excellent 
red  mullets  of  Massilia.  In  53  Cicero  was 

elected  to  the  College  of  Augurs,  and  was 
much  gratified  by  the  honour.  In  51,  owing 
to  the  new  law  regarding  provincial  gover- 
norships, he  was  reluctantly  obliged  to 
accept  that  of  Cilicia.  He  disliked  leaving 
Rome;  but  he  carried  out  his  new  duties 
honestly  and  efficiently.  He  hoped  for  a 
triumph  in  recognition  of  his  success  in  a 
small  campaign.  He  returned  to  find 
Rome  on  the  brink  of  the  Civil  War.  He 
left  the  city  with  many  of  the  Senatorial 
party  when  Caesar  crossed  the  Rubicon. 
The  withdrawal  of  Pompey  to  Epirus  left 
him  in  the  deepest  trouble  and  perplexity. 
He  decided  to  remain  in  Italy,  and  fol- 
lowed Pompey  only  at  a  later  stage.  After 
Pharsalus  (at  which  he  was  not  present) 
he  returned  to  Italy.  A  period  of  anxious 
suspense  was  ended  in  47,  when  Caesar 
came  to  Italy  and  was  completely  recon- 
ciled with  Cicero.  The  latter  was  im- 
pressed by  Caesar's  clemency  and  had 
hopes  that  he  would  restore  liberty.  But 
Cicero,  during  the  rest  of  Caesar's  life, 
exerted  no  political  influence.  In  46  he 
delivered  the  'Pro  Marccllo',  a  speech  of 
effusive  thanks  to  Caesar  for  his  clemency 
to  an  exiled  Pompeian;  in  45  the  'Pro 
Ligario'  in  defence  of  Q.  Ligarius,  tried  as 
an  enemy  of  Caesar,  a  speech  whoso  elo- 
quence is  said  so  to  have  moved  Caesar 
that  he  acquitted  the  accused ;  and  in  the 
same  year  the '  Pro  Rege  Deiotaro ',  defend- 
ing the  tetrarch  of  Galatla  on  a  charge  of 
attempted  murder  of  Caesar.  Shortly  after 
Cato's  death  at  Utica  in  4 6,  Cicero  delivered 
a  panegyric  (lauddtio)  on  him,  which  is  not 
extant.  It  displeased  Caesar,  who  replied 
to  it  in  a  work  called  Anticato.  In  46  Cicero 
divorced  his  wife  Torentia,  and  soon  after 
married  Publilia,  who  had  been  his  ward. 
In  45  his  beloved  daughter  Tullia  (q.v.) 
died,  and  Cicero  was  overwhelmed  with 
grief.  Publilia  offended  Cicero  by  her  lack 
of  sympathy,  and  this  second  marriage 
also  was  ended  by  divorce. 

§  5.  Philosophical  and  literary  writings 
This  is  the  period  of  Cicero's  devotion 
to  philosophy  and  literary  work.  The 
humiliation  which  followed  the  conference 
of  Luca  had  already  turned  him  in  this 
direction,  and  he  had  then  (in  55)  written 
the  'De  Oratoro'  (a  treatise  on  rhetoric 
designed  to  replace  his  crude  early  work 
on  the  same  subject,  *De  InventiSne', 
written  before  he  was  25  years  old),  and 
the  'Do  Re  Publica*  (qq.v.).  It  appears 
from  certain  passages  in  the  'De  Legibus* 
(q.v.)  that  he  was  engaged  on  this  work 
in  52 ;  he  seems  then  to  have  discontinued 
it  and  returned  to  it  in  46  and  the  follow- 
ing year.  It  had  not  been  published  before 
the  'De  DivmatiSne*  (q.v.)  was  writ- 




ten  In  44.  There  is  no  evidence  whether 
Cicero  ever  finished  the  work  or  published 
it  during  his  lifetime.  Probably  in  53  he 
had  written  for  his  son's  instruction  a 
little  catechism  on  rhetoric,  called  'Par- 
titiones  Oratoriae'.  Between  46  and  44 
he  wrote  the  'Brutus'  (q.v.),  a  history 
of  Roman  oratory,  the  'Orator*  (q.v.), 
a  picture  of  the  accomplished  speaker, 
and  other  works  on  rhetoric  (an  abstract 
of  the  'Topica*  of  Aristotle,  and  'Do 
Optimo  Gonere  Oratorum',  a  preface 
to  lost  translations  of  the  speeches  of 
Aeschines  and  Demosthenes,  'On  the 
Crown').  In  45  he  wrote  the  'Consolatio* 
on  the  deaths  of  great  men,  a  work  (of 
which  fragments  survive)  occasioned  by 
tho  death  of  Tullia;  the  'Hortensius* 
(not  extant)  in  praise  of  philosophy; 
the  'Academica'  (q.v.)  on  the  evolution 
of  the  philosophical  doctrines  of  the 
Academy;  and  the  'De  Finibus  Bono- 
rum  et  Malorum*  (q.v.)  on  the  different 
conceptions  of  the  Chief  Good.  After  these 
he  wrote  during  45-44  the  five  Books  of 
tho  'Tusculan  Disputations'  (q.v.)  on  the 
conditions  of  happiness;  the  "De  Natura 
Deorum*  (q.v.)  on  the  various  theological 
doctrines;  the  De  Fato  (q.v.) ;  the  charm- 
ing essays  'De  Sencctiitc'  and  'De  Amicitia' 
(qq.v.);  the  'Do  Divmationo'  (q.v.);  and 
tho  'De  Offlciis*  (q.v.,  'On  Duty')  for  the 
edification  of  his  son.  Altogether  a  won- 
derful output  for  two  or  three  years. 

As  a  philosopher  Cicero  claimed  to  be  a 
follower  of  the  New  Academy  of  Carneadcs 
(q.v.),  which  held  that  certain  knowledge 
was  impossible,  and  that  practical  convic- 
tion based  on  probability  was  the  most 
that  could  be  attained.  But  while  his 
general  attitude  was  that  of  the  New 
Academy,  he  was'  an  eclectic,  that  is  to 
say  ho  was  not  dominated  by  any  one 
school,  but  picked  from  among  the  doc- 
trines of  the  various  Greek  schools  those 
which  commended  themselves  to  his 
reason;  and  in  questions  of  morality  he 
was  inclined  (e.g.  in  the  'Tusculan  Dis- 
putations' and  tho  'De  Officiis')  to  accept 
the  positive  Stoic  teaching.  He  believed 
in  the  existence  of  God,  and  stood  for  the 
freedom  of  the  will  against  tho  doctrine 
of  fatalism.  His  philosophical  works  have 
little  claim  to  present  original  thought.  He 
drew  on  Greek  sources '  supplying  little  but 
the  words' ;  but  he  rendered  a  great  service 
in  the  creation  of  a  Latin  philosophical 
vocabulary,  in  popularizing  Greek  thought 
and  keeping  it  alive  for  the  Middle  Ages. 

§  6.  44-43  B.C.  The  Philippics  and 

Cicero's  death 

After  the  assassination  of  Caesar,  Cicero 
came  once  more  into  political  prominence. 

He  had  hated  the  tyrant  hi  Caesar  if  he 
had  liked  and  admired  the  man,  and  he 
exulted  in  the  retribution.  He  soon  saw 
the  course  of  duty  clear  before  him  and 
pursued  it  with  energy.  Oblivion  for  the 
past  and  restoration  of  the  commonwealth 
were  his  aim.  It  was  no  longer  a  contest 
of  factions  but  a  fight  for  liberty  against 
Antony.  The  'Philippics',  delivered  or 
published  after  tho  first  few  months  of 
confusion  and  perplexity,  and  when  the 
alinement  of  the  forces  was  becoming 
clear,  are  the  expression  of  his  policy.  Tho 
'First  Philippic'  (2  Sept.  44  in  tho  Senate), 
while  attacking  the  policy  of  Antony,  is 
conciliatory  and  in  favour  of  peace.  The 
'Second  Philippic*  was  not  a  spoken  ora- 
tion, but  a  pamphlet  published  in  Decem- 
ber 44  when  Antony  was  besieging  Docimus 
Brutus  in  Mutina;  it  is  a  fierce  invec- 
tive against  the  man  who  had  tried  to 
make  Caesar  king.  The  'Third  Philippic* 
(20Dec.)  is  an  exposition  to  the  Senate  of 
his  policy — support  of  Decimus  Brutus 
and  Octavian  against  Antony.  Tho ' Fifth* 
(1  Jan.  43)  proposed  tho  grant  of  tho 
powers  of  propraetor  to  Octavian.  Tho 
'Fourth*  and  'Sixth*  (19  Dec.  44  and 
4  Jan.  43)  were  addressed  to  the  people 
hi  the  Forum.  Cicero  thus  took  the  posi- 
tion of  leader  of  the  State,  stimulating  the 
consuls  to  action,  and  guiding  policy.  Tho 
series  of  these  groat  speeches  continues 
till  the  'Fourteenth  Philippic',  celebrating 
tho  defeat  of  Antony  at  Mutina.  But  tho 
rejoicing  was  premature.  The  armies  of 
Lepidus  and  Pollio  declared  for  Antony, 
tho  Second  Triumvirate  was  formed,  and 
the  Commonwealth  overpowered.  Cicero, 
whose  death  was  reluctantly  consented  to 
by  Octavian,  was  murdered  by  Antony's 
agents  on  7  Dec.  43,  and  his  head  and 
hands  were  displayed  on  the  rostra  (q.v.). 
Repeatedly  faced  during  his  life  by  the 
perplexities  of  the  political  situation,  ho 
died,  in  fact,  for  his  loyalty  to  his  ideal  of 
liberty.  Plutarch  relates  how  Augustus, 
many  years  after,  finding  a  work  by  Cicero 
in  the  hands  of  one  of  his  grand-nephews, 
observed,  after  a  long  perusal  of  it,  'An 
eloquent  man,  my  child,  and  a  lover  of  his 

§  7.  Cicero's  Letters  and  his  character 
Tho  character  and  life  of  Cicero  are 
known  to  us  with  exceptional  clearness 
through  the  letters  to  which  with  complete 
candour  he  committed  the  record  of  his 
moods  and  actions.  Four  collections  of 
these  have  survived:  'Ad  Atticum*  (68— 
44  B.C.)  edited  by  Atticus  (q.v.),  his  inti- 
mate friend,  himself;  'Ad  Familiares- 
(62-43)  'to  his  Friends',  probably  edited 
by  Cicero's  freedman  Tiro ;  '  Ad  Quintum 




Fratrem',  'to  his  brother  Quintus'  (q.v., 
60-54),  and  *  ad  Bmtum'  to  Marcus  Bmtus 
<q.v.).  The  genuineness  of  the  correspon- 
dence with  Brutus  (all  of  it  that  survives 
is  subsequent  to  the  murder  of  Caesar)  has 
been  questioned,  but  is  now  generally 
admitted  as  regards  most  of  the  letters, 
Of  the  total  number  of  864  letters  in  the 
four  collections,  774  are  by  Cicero,  90  are 
addressed  to  him.  There  are  no  letters  for 
the  year  of  Cicero's  consulship  or  the  pre- 
ceding year.  The  bulk  of  the  letters  relate 
to  the  last  years  of  his  life.  They  are 
-addressed  to  correspondents  of  the  most 
diverse  political  views  and  social  position, 
to  Cato  and  Dolabella,  to  Caesar,  Pompey, 
and  Antony,  to  Metellus  and  Tiro.  Their 
subjects  are  no  loss  varied,  from  philo- 
sophy, literature,  and  politics,  to  house- 
hold affairs ;  while  their  tone  ranges  from 
familiar  chat  to  outbursts  of  passion  and 
despair.  The  first  letter  to  his  brother 
Quintus  Is  almost  a  treatise  on  the  duties 
of  a  provincial  governor.  Some  are  politi- 
cal manifestos  intended  for  circulation. 
The  celebrated  letter  of  December  54  to 
Lentulus  (Ad  Fam.  I.  9)  is  a  lengthy 
apologia  for  Cicero's  submission  to  the 
triumvirate  after  Luca.  But  the  most 
interesting  are  the  intimate  letters  to 
Atticus,  which  throw  a  vivid  light  on 
Oicero's  own  character.  They  show  him 
to  have  been  a  man  of  mercurial  temper, 
impressionable,  irresolute,  and  vain;  but 
fundamentally  honest,  intelligent,  affec- 
tionate, and  amiable.  In  politics  he  was 
what  we  should  call  a  liberal,  opposed 
alike  to  reaction  and  to  revolution.  In  the 
days  of  Sulla  he  appears  a  democrat; 
when  Caesar  and  the  mob  rule  of  Clodius 
threatened  the  constitution,  he  appears  a 
conservative.  II  is  weakest  period  is  that 
of  submission  to  the  triumvirate  after  the 
conference  of  Luca  in  56. 

There  is  a  life  of  Cicero  by  Plutarch. 
The  lives  of  him  by  Nepos  and  Tiro  are 

§  8.  Cicero's  influence  on  literature  and 


Cicero's  contribution  to  literature  was 
as  important  as  it  was  varied:  political 
and  forensic  speeches  showing  every  form 
of  rhetorical  art,  from  fierce  indignation 
to  tender  pity  (his  oratorical  style  was 
intermediate  between  the  severe  Attic  and 
the  florid  Asian);  treatises  on  rhetoric, 
political  science,  and  philosophy;  and 
charming  letters.  Cicero  was  also  ac- 
counted a  good  poet  in  his  day,  though  his 
poems  were  later  derided  by  Juvenal  (Sat. 
x.  122  et  seq.).  Of  his  verse  translation  of 
the  works  of  Aratus  (q.v.),  the  greater 
port  of  the  'Phaenonema'  survives.  He 

also  wrote  poems,  in  his  youth  on  Marius, 
and  later  on  his  consulship  and  on  his 
times  (from  which  there  are  quotations  in 
his  *De  Divinatione ') ;  and  he  included 
verse  translations  of  passages  of  Homer 
and  the  Greek  dramatists  in  his  treatises. 
These  show  him  as  a  poet  at  his  best ;  the 
notorious  lino  'O  fortunatam  natam  me 
consule  Romam.%  at  his  worst.  (Ho  wrote 
an  account  of  the  consulship  also  in  Greek 
prose,  and  talked  of  writing  one  in  Latin 
prose;  it  is  not  known  whether  he  did  so.) 
But  his  principal  service  to  literature  was 
in  his  development  of  Latin  prose  to  its 
perfection,  whereby  it  became  the  basis  of 
literary  expression  in  the  languages  of 
modern  Europe.  Its  chief  features  aro 
the  use  of  the  period  (in  which  subordinate 
clauses  and  balanced  antitheses  form  part 
of  the  structure  of  the  sentence),  and  of 
rhythm  and  cadence  (see  Clausula).  There 
was  a  revulsion  against  his  style  in  the 
Silver  Age,  when  the  tendency  was  to  write 
in  concise  epigrammatic  sentences  (as  seen 
in  Seneca  and  Tacitus).  But  Quintilian 
regarded  Cicero  as  the  greatest  of  Roman 

Cicero's  influence  on  later  thought  was 
immense.  It  is  seen  in  such  writers  as 
Minucius  Felix,  St.  Jerome  (who  was  an 
ardent  if  reluctant  Ciceronian,  see  the 
anecdote  under  his  name),  St.  Ambrose 
(whose  manual  of  ethics  'De  Officiis 
Ministrorum*  was  modelled  on  Cicero's 
*De  Offlciis'),  and  St.  Augustine  (who  was 
first  moved  by  Cicero's  'Hortensius*  to 
abandon  frivolity  for  the  search  of  wis- 
dom). On  the  other  side,  the  Pelagians, 
whom  Augustine  condemned,  drew  largely 
on  Cicero.  Petrarch,  the  earliest  of  the 
humanists,  was  devoted  to  Cicero  and 
searched  eagerly  for  manuscripts  of  his 
works.  We  may  imagine  the  delight  with 
which  he  read  Cicero's  tribute  to  literature 
in  the  *  Pro  Archia ',  of  which  he  discovered 
a  manuscript  at  Liege  hi  1333.  He  found 
a  manuscript  of  the  'Letters  to  Atticus' 
at  Verona  in  1345.  His  sentiments  on 
reading  them  are  expressed  in  two  letters 
of  affectionate  reproach  addressed  by  him 
to  the  spirit  of  Cicero  (Ad  Viros  Illustres, 
i,  ii).  The  admiration  of  the  Renaissance 
for  Cicero's  works  gave  rise  to  a  tendency 
among  writers  to  imitate  his  style,  and 
this  to  a  controversy  in  which  Erasmus 
and  the  elder  Scaligor  were  ranged  on 
opposite  sides.  Cicero  was  highly  esteemed 
in  England  at  an  early  date.  He  was  a 
favourite  of  John  of  Salisbury  and  Roger 
Bacon;  Queen  Elizabeth  when  sixteen 
had  read  nearly  all  his  works  with  her 
tutor  Ascham.  His  Influence  is  seen  later 
in  the  works  of  Lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury 
and  the  other  Deists;  in  the  speeches  of 




the  18th-c.  orators;  and  in  the  prose  of 
such  writers  as  Johnson  and  Gibbon. 

Ci'cero,  QUINTUS  Tumus  (c.  102-43  B.C.) 
younger  brother  of  M.  Cicero  (q.v.),  was 
educated  at  Homo  and  in  Greece,  and  was 
praetor  in  62  and  governor  of  Asia  from 
Cl  to  58.  He  served  as  legate  under  Pom- 
poy  in  Sardinia  in  56,  and  under  Caesar  in 
Gaul  in  54  (where  he  underwent  a  perilous 
siege,  see  Commentaries,  Gallic  War,  Book 
V).  In  51-50  he  served  under  his  brother 
in  Cilicia.  In  the  Civil  War  he  Joined 
Pompey,  but  after  the  latter's  defeat  was 
pardoned  by  Caesar.  Like  his  brother  he 
was  killed  in  Antony's  proscriptions. 

Q.  Cicero  wrote  some  tragedies,  which 
have  not  survived ;  also  an  extant  letter  to 
his  brother  on  the  art  of  canvassing,  known 
as  'Commentariolum  petitionis  consula- 
tus*^  Wo  have  a  collection  of  letters  to 
him  from  his  brother,  of  which  the  first 
gives  elaborate  advice  on  the  methods  of 
provincial  government. 

Ciceronian  Age  of  Roman  literature,  a 
term  sometimes  used  to  signify  the  period, 
centring  hi  Cicero  (q.v.),  when  that  litera- 
ture first  reached  its  zenith.  See  Rome,  §  8. 
A  time  of  civil  strife  contrasting  with 
the  Augustan  age  which  followed  it. 
Cimme'rians  (Kimmcrioi),  (1)  a  fabulous 
people,  whose  land  according  to  Homer 
was  on  the  limits  of  the  world,  in  the 
stream  Oceanus.  It  was  shrouded  in  mist 
and  cloud  and  the  sun  never  shone  on  it. 
It  was  there  that  Odysseus  had  access  to 
the  spirits  of  the  dead.  (2)  In  Herodotus 
the  Cimmerians  are  an  historical  people,  liv- 
ing originally  to  the  N.  of  the  Euxine  Sea. 
In  the  8th  and  7th  cc.  B.C.  pressure  from 
nomadic  tribes  from  Central  Asia  com- 
pelled them  to  invade  Assyria  and  Asia 
Minor.  In  Assyria  they  wore  defeated  by 
Sargon  (705).  In  Asia  Minor  they  twice 
captured  Sardis.  The  invasion,  however, 
eoems  to  have  left  no  very  permanent 
traces,  though  a  number  of  Greek  colonies 
on  the  north  coast  of  the  Euxino  (e.g. 
Sinope  and  Trapezus),  founded  in  the  8th 
c.,  had  to  be  refounded  in  the  next. 

CI'mon  (Klmon),  son  of  Miltiadcs  (q.v.) 
and  a  Thracian  princess,  a  distinguished 
Athenian  commander,  and  a  bold  and 
ambitious  aristocrat.  He  was  elected 
strategus  in  479  B.C.,  and  after  the 
ostracism  of  his  rival  Themistocles  and 
the  death  of  Aristides  (qq.v.)  became  all- 
powerful  at  Athens.  His  principal  naval 
achievement  was  the  defeat  of  the  Persian 
fleet  at  the  mouth  of  the  EurymedSn  in 
468  (?),  but  he  also  did  much  to  consolidate 
Athenian  power  in  the  Aegaean,  founding 
colonies,  putting  down  pirates,  and  bring- 

ing Naxos  into  subjection,  'the  first  allied 
city  to  be  enslaved*  remarks  Thucydides, 
a  precedent  of  importance  in  the  later 
history  of  the  Athenian  empire.  His 
policy  favoured  an  understanding  with 
Sparta  and  concentration  of  efforts  against 
the  Persians,  whereas  Themistocles  saw  in 
the  Delian  Confederacy  an  instrument  for 
humbling  Sparta.  Later,  Cimon's  policy 
brought  him  into  antagonism  with  Pericles. 
Cimon  was  ostracized  in  461,  owing  to  the 
failure  of  his  pro-Spartan  policy,  probably 
did  not  return  until  his  ten  years  of  ostra- 
cism ran  out,  and  died  in  Cyprus  in  449 
in  the  course  of  operations  against  the 
Persians.  There  are  lives  of  Cimon  by 
Plutarch  and  Nepos. 

Cincinna'tus,  Ltrcius  QUINCTIUS,  accord- 
ing to  tradition  a  Roman  who  lived  in  the 
first  half  of  the  5th  c.  B.C.  He  was  called 
from  the  plough  in  458  to  save  the  Roman 
army,  which  was  blockaded  by  the  Aequi 
on  Mt.  Algidus.  He  was  made  dictator, 
defeated  the  enemy,  and  returned  to  his 
farm.  He  is  often  referred  to  as  a  type  of 
the  old-fashioned  Roman  simplicity  and 

Cine'sias  (Kinesids),  an  Athenian  di- 
thyrambic  poet,  who  flourished  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  5th  o.  B.C.  Not  only  his 
poetry,  but  also  his  irreligion  and  his 
personal  appearance  made  him  the  butt 
of  his  contemporaries.  Aristophanes  ridi- 
cules him  in  the  'Birds'  and  perhaps  in 
the  'Lysistrata*  (qq.v.).  Ho  was  con- 
demned by  Plato  ('Gorgias')  as  a  poet 
who  aimed  at  producing  pleasure,  not 

Ci'nna,  GIIus  HELVTUS  (d.  44  B.C.),  a 
Roman  poet,  author  of  a  poem  on  Zmyrna 
(q.v.)  or  Myrrha,  mother  of  Adonis,  and 
of  a  'Propempticon',  a  guide-book  to 
Greece  in  verse.  Neither  work  is  extant. 
But  we  know  that  the  'Zmyrna'  showed 
the  learning  and  obscurity  of  the  Alexan- 
drian influence  at  its  worst.  He  was  a 
friend  of  Catullus  (q.v.)  and  accompanied 
him  to  Bithynia.  He  was  murdered  by  the 
mob  at  Caesar's  obsequies  (see  Shake- 
speare, *  Julius  Caesar',  m.  iii),  probably 
owing  to  his  being  mistaken  for  Cornelius 
Cinna,  one  of  the  conspirators. 

Ci'nyras  (Kinuras),  a  name  derived  from 
the  Phoenician  kinnor,  meaning  a  harp,  the 
legendary  first  king  of  Cyprus  and  priest 
of  the  Paphian  Aphrodite.  He  was  re- 
garded as  the  earliest  singer  and  musician. 
He  became  the  father  ol  Adonis  (q.v.) 
by  his  own  daughter,  Myrrha. 

Ci'rce  (Kirk&\  in  Greek  mythology,  a 
daughter  of  Helios  (q.v.)  and  sister  of 




AeStes,  king  of  Colchis  (see  Argonauts). 
For  the  story  of  Circe  and  Odysseus  see 
Odyssey.  By  Odysseus  she  was  mother  of 
Telegonus  (q.v.).  There  was  a  legend  hi 
Italy  that  she  had  her  home  on  a  promon- 
tory of  Latium,  Circeii  (see  Aen.  vii.  10-24), 
famous  for  its  oysters  (Hor.  Sat.  u.  iv.  33). 
Milton  in  his  '  Comus '  makes  the  magician 
Comus  the  son  of  Circe  and  Bacchus. 

Circe'nses,  at  Rome,  contests  and  other 
displays  in  the  Circus,  including  chariot- 
races  (q.v.).  'Pancm  et  circenses*  wore, 
according  to  Juvenal  (x.  78-81),  the  only 
things  that  the  degenerate  Roman  popu- 
lace cared  about. 

Ci'rcus  Ma'ximus,  in  republican  times 
and  under  the  early  empire  the  chief  place 
of  amusement  of  the  Roman  people,  a 
circus  lying  between  the  Palatine  and 
Aventine  hills,  where  races  and  public 
spectacles  were  held  (see  PI.  14).  At  first 
and  probably  down  to  some  time  in 
the  4th  c.  B.C.  there  was  no  permanent 
structure ;  after  this,  permanent  buildings 
were  gradually  added.  The  circus  was 
reconstructed  by  Julius  Caesar,  with  three 
tiers  of  seats,  the  lowest  of  masonry, 
the  others  of  wood.  The  wooden  portion 
was  repeatedly  destroyed  by  fire,  notably 
in  the  great  fire  of  A.D.  64,  and  restored. 
The  circus  reached  its  greatest  size  and 
splendour  in  the  reconstruction  of  Trajan. 
The  main  structure  was  then  of  masonry, 
covered  both  on  the  inside  and  on  the 
outside  with  marble,  profusely  decorated. 
The  exterior  consisted  of  three  tiers  of 
arches,  like  the  Colosseum.  The  arena  was 
about  600  yards  long  by  100  yards  wide. 
Externally  the  building  was  about  700 
yards  long  and,  if  the  additions  made  in 
imperial  times  on  the  slopes  of  the  adjoin- 
ing hiDs  are  included,  about  200  yards 
wide.  The  east  end  was  semi -circular,  the 
west  end,  where  stood  the  carceres  from 
which  the  chariots  issued,  was  curved. 
The  arena  was  divided  along  its  length  by 
the  spina  (see  Chariot-races),  on  which 
stood  shrines  and  statues.  The  seating 
capacity  has  been  much  discussed.  The 
circus  is  stated  hi  the  4th  c.  to  have  con- 
tamed  385,000  loca,  which  has  been 
variously  interpreted;  it  probably  means 
385,000  running  feet  of  scats,  or  room  for 
about  200,000  spectators. 
ClVis,  a  poem  in  hexameters  doubtfully 
attributed  to  Virgil  (q.v.).  It  contains 
lines  which  appear  also  hi  the  'Eclogues' 
and  '  Georgics  '.  It  may  have  been  written 
by  one  of  the  poets,  such  as  Gallus  (q.v.), 
of  the  circle  to  which  Virgil  belonged,  and 
Virgil  may  have  contributed  to  it  verses 
which  he  subsequently  introduced  into  his 
own  poems. 

The  subject  is  the  infatuation  of  Scylla, 
daughter  of  Nlsus  king  of  Megara,  for 
Minos  of  Crete,  who  is  besieging  her 
father's  city.  Nisus  is  safe  so  long  as  a 
purple  lock  among  his  white  hair  remains 
intact.  To  gain  her  object  Scylla  treacher- 
ously cuts  off  the  lock.  Megara  is  taken 
and  Scylla  is  dragged  through  the  sea 
suspended  from  the  ship  of  Minos.  She 
is  turned  into  a  sea-bird  (ciris),  ever  pur- 
sued with  hatred  by  her  father,  who  is 
turned  into  a  sea-eagle. 

Cistell&'rta  ('The  Casket'),  a  comedy  by 
Plautus,  probably  adapted  from  a  play 
by  Menander.  The  plot  turns  on  the 
discovery  by  means  of  a  casket  of  the  true 
parentage  of  a  foundling  girl,  Selenium, 
who  has  passed  into  the  care  of  a  cour- 
tesan, and  has  become  the  mistress  of  a 
young  man,  Alcesimarchus.  She  is  found 
to  be  the  daughter  of  a  citizen,  Demipho, 
and  is  thereupon  married  to  her  lover. 

Cithae'ron  (Kithairon),  a  mountain  range 
between  Attica  and  Boeotia,  on  which 
Pentheus,  according  to  legend,  met  his 
death  at  the  hands  of  the  Bacchanals.  Seo 

Ci'thara,  see  Music,  §  1. 
City  of  God,  see  Augustine. 
Classic,  a  word,  from  Lat.  classicus, 
meaning  'of  the  highest  class*.  Aulus 
Gellius  has  'classicus  .  .  .  scrip  tor,  non 
proletarius',  where  tho  word  means  'high- 
class',  as  opposed  to  'low*.  Littr6,  how- 
ever, takes  the  Fr.  word  classique  as 
meaning  'used  in  or  belonging  to  the 
classes  of  colleges  and  schools',  and  it  is 
probable  that  this  notion  has  influenced 
the  word  in  its  extension  from  the  stan- 
dard authors  to  tho  ancient  authors 
generally,  together  with  the  associated 
languages,  literature,  &c.  The  word 
'classic*  has  become  synonymous  with 
'ancient  Greek  and  Roman'.  In  the 
narrower  sense  the  classical  age  of  Greek 
literature  is  generally  regarded  as  having 
ended  about  325  B.C.,  when  the  conquests 
of  Alexander  the  Great  brought  about  the 
changes  described  under  Hellenistic  Age. 
Similarly  the  classical  age  of  Latin  litera- 
ture may  be  said  to  have  ended  with  the 
close  of  the  reign  of  Augustus.  But  it 
must  be  remembered  that  in  both  lan- 
guages there  were  writers  of  almost  the 
first  rank  after  the  classical  period,  such 
as  Theocritus  and  Tacitus. 

Classicia'nus,  JtJLius,  see  Britain,  §  2. 
Clau'dia  Quinta,  see  Cybele. 

Clau'dian  (Claudius  Claudianus),  the  last 
great  poet  of  the  heathen  world,  a  pagan 
at  heart  though  perhaps  nominally  a 




Christian.  He  was  a  Greek,  spent  his  child- 
hood at  Alexandria,  was  at  Rome  from 
about  A.D..  395  to  404,  and  wrote  in  Latin 
a  number  of  official  poems  in  hexameters, 
some  in  praise  of  the  young  emperor 
HonOrius,  of  his  ministers,  and  especially 
of  the  great  general  StilichS  (see  Gibbon, 
'Decline  and  Fair,  c.  xxix);  others  in 
abuse  of  their  enemies,  in  particular  of 
Ruf  mus  (the  guardian  at  Constantinople  of 
Arcadius,  brother  of  Honorius),  and  of  the 
eunuch  Eutrflpius,  the  successor  of  Ruflnus 
in  the  favour  of  Arcadius.  He  also  wrote 
epics  on  the  wars  against  the  Goths  and 
against  the  usurper  Gildo  in  Africa ;  these 
are  in  effect  eulogiums  of  Stilicho.  These 
poems  show  sincere  enthusiasm  for  the 
Roman  empire,  great  technical  and 
rhetorical  skill,  and  a  vigour  at  times 
reaching  high  eloquence,  though  both  his 
panegyric  and  his  invective  are  extrava- 
gant. He  makes  abundant  use  of  allegory 
and  mythological  episode  and  allusion. 
He  was  honoured  for  his  work  with  a 
bronze  statue  erected  in  the  Forum  of 
Trajan.  In  addition  to  the  above  political 
poems,  Claudian  wrote  an '  Epithalamium* 
on  the  marriage  of  Honorius,  an  unfinished 
mythological  poem  'Do  Raptu  Proser- 
pinae*  (which  contains  picturesque  de- 
scriptive passages),  and  a  number  of  short 
pieces,  idylls  and  epigrams,  mostly  in 
elegiacs,  on  a  great  variety  of  subjects — 
the  Nile,  the  Phoenix,  a  porcupine,  a 
lobster,  a  statue,  a  landscape,  &c.  The 
best-known  is  the  idyll  on  the  '  Old  Man 
of  Verona',  imitated  from  Virgil's  descrip- 
tion of  the  old  gardener  of  Tarentum 
(Georg.  iv.  125  et  seq.).  It  was  translated 
by  Cowley. 

Clau'dius  (Tlbtrius  Claudius  Drusus  N&ro 
Oermdnicus),  Roman  emperor  A.D.  41-54, 
the  nephew  of  Tiberius  and  younger 
brother  of  Germanicus  (see  Julw-Claudian 
Family,  and  Rome,  §  10).  He  wrote  an 
autobiography,  which  is  not  extant,  more 
elegant  in  stylo  than  sensible,  according 
to  Suetonius.  He  was  an  antiquarian  and 
historian  of  no  mean  authority.  He  wrote 
a  history  of  the  reign  of  Octavian  from 
27  B.C.  to  A.D.  14,  and  a  shorter  history 
from  the  death  of  Julius  Caesar ;  and  in 
Greek  twenty  books  of  'Tyrrhenica*  (a 
history  of  the  Etruscans)  and  eight  books 
of  *Carchedonica*  (a  history  of  Carthage). 
None  of  these  works  has  survived.  His 
learning,  combined  with  a  certain  un- 
gainliness  and  dullness  of  wit,  has  caused 
him  to  be  compared  to  James  I. 

Clau'sula,  hi  Latin  rhetoric,  the  closing 
words  of  a  period.  The  rhythm  of  the 
dausulae  of  Cicero's  speeches  has  been 
carefully  studied,  and  it  has  been  found 

that  the  majority  of  his  clausulae  conform 
to  a  definite  type,  in  which  a  cretic  (—  v— 
or  sometimes  a  molossus  (  ---  )  Is  followed 
by  two  or  more  syllables  trochaic  or  cretio 
in  their  rhythm.  Thus: 

Non  haberemus  —  u—  1—  w 
Cessit  audaciae  —  w—  |—  w— 
(In)commodo  civitatis  —  w—|—  w—  v^ 

Quintilian  (x.  2.  18)  says  that  an  orator 
thinks  it  a  capital  imitation  of  the  style 
of  Cicero  to  close  a  period  with  'esso 
videatur*.  This  is  a  variety  of  the  above, 
in  which  two  short  syllables  are  substi- 
tuted for  the  second  long  of  the  cretic, 

Clea'nthes  (KleantJies),  of  Assos  in  the 
Troad  (c.  330-c.  231  B.C.),  the  successor  of 
Zeno  as  head  of  the  Stoic  (q.v.)  school.  He 
was  author  of  a  noble  hymn  to  Zeus, 
which  survives.  The  thought  is  pantheis- 
tic, and  in  the  poem  Zeus  is  not  the  god  of 
mythology  but  the  spirit  that  permeates 
and  rules  the  universe.  Cleanthes  em- 
phasized the  religious  side  of  the  Stoic 

Clei'sthenes  (Kleisthents),  (1)  the  founder 
of  Athenian  democracy,  son  of  Mcgacles 
the  Alcmaeonid  (q.v.),  who  married 
Agariste  the  daughter  of  Cleisthenes, 
tyrant  of  SIcyon  (see  (2)  below.  After  the 
fall  of  the  tyrant  Hippias  (510)  there 
was  an  oligarchic  movement  in  Athens 
headed  by  Isagoras  and  supported  by 
Sparta.  Cleisthenes  put  himself  forward 
as  the  champion  of  democracy  and  over- 
threw the  aristocrats.  He  completely  re- 
organized the  State  on  a  democratic 
basis.  He  broke  up  what  remained  of 
the  old  organization  based  on  family 
groups  and  substituted  a  new  system 
based  on  topography.  He  divided  the 
territory  of  Attica  into  demes  (demoi)  or 
parishes,  of  which  the  city  of  Athens 
comprised  five  (he  may  have  taken  exist- 
ing demes  as  the  basis).  All  citizens  were 
inscribed  on  the  register  of  one  or  other  of 
the  demes,  and  many  metics  (q.v.)  and 
freedmen  were  admitted  to  the  citizenship. 
Each  deme  had  its  own  finances  and  its 
demarch,  elected  by  its  assembly  (agora), 
which  dealt  with  local  affairs.  Cleisthenes 
further  divided  the  population  of  Attica 
into  ten  tribes  (phulai),  distributed  over 
the  demes  so  that  no  tribe  had  a  con- 
tinuous territory,  or  represented  a  local 
interest;  on  the  contrary,  in  each  tribe 
were  comprised  areas  In  the  districts  of 
the  city,  the  shore,  and  the  interior.  The 
tribes  were  named  after  Attic  heroes  (with 
whom  they  had  in  fact  no  special  con- 
nexion) and  were  thus  given  a  fictitious 
blood-relationship.  The  phratriai  (q.v.) 




survived  in  the  constitution  of  Cleisthenes 
as  a  kind  of  religious  community  for 
carrying  out  certain  cults,  but  were  re- 
organized so  that  no  citizen  could  be 
excluded  from  them.  Each  tribe  furnished 
annually  fifty  members  to  the  Council  of 
State  (Boule),  taken  from  the  denies  of  the 
tribe  by  lot  proportionately  to  their  popu- 
lation. These  groups  of  fifty  exercised  in 
turn  the  Prytany  (prutaneia)  or  function 
of  executive  committee  of  the  Boule,  each 
group  holding  office  for  one  tenth  of  the 
year.  Each  tribe  furnished  its  military 
contingent  of  a  regiment  of  hoplites  and 
a  squadron  of  cavalry. 

Cleisthenes  subordinated  the  Boule  and 
the  Areopagus  (q.v.)  to  the  supreme 
authority  of  the  Ecclesia  or  assembly  of 
all  the  citizens,  which  met  regularly  at 
least  once  in  the  period  of  each  prytany, 
and  might  deal  with  any  important  State 
question.  In  one  respect  Cleisthenes  was 
conservative:  the  existing  magistracies 
were  retained,  and  the  archons  could  be 
chosen  only  from  the  two  wealthiest 
classes  of  the  population.  The  Eupatrids 
(q.v.)  retained  the  priestly  offices.  See 
also  Strategus. 

Cleistheues  sought  to  safeguard  his  con- 
stitution by  the  institution  of  ostracism 

(2)  Of  Sicyon,  tyrant  in  the  early  6th  c. 
His  policy  was  consistently  anti-  Dorian 
and  in  particular  anti-Argive.    In  this  he 
was  only  carrying  on  the  policy  of  earlier 
Orthagoridao     (descendants     of     Ortha- 
goras,  reputed  founder  of  the  dynasty). 
He  would  not  allow  rhapsodes  to  recite 
Homeric  poems  (because  of  their  frequent 
references  to  Argives)  and  attempted  to 
expel  the   worship   of   the   Argive   hero 
Adrastus  (q.v.).    This,  together  with  his 
abandoning  of  the  Dorian  tribe-names  at 
Sicyon,  seems  to  have  led  up  to  open  war 
with  Argos,  in  which  the  latter  State  had 
the  bettor.  Earlier,  Cleisthenes  had  taken 
part  hi  the  Sacred  War  (q.v.)  of  c.  590. 
His  reign  is  said  to  have  lasted  31  years. 
For  the  story  of  the  wooing  of  his  daughter 
Agaristo,  see  under  Hippocleides. 

(3)  A   character  ridiculed   by   Aristo- 
phanes in  his  'Birds',  *  Knights',  'Clouds', 
and  '  Thesmophoriazusao  '.   We  know  from 
Lysias  (xxv.  25)  that  he  was  a  professional 

Clei'tus  (Kleitos),  brother  of  the  foster- 
mother  of  Alexander  the  Great  and  ono 
of  his  cavalry  commanders.  He  saved 
Alexander's  life  at  the  Granicus,  and  was 
subsequently  killed  by  him  in  a  drunken 
brawl  (see  Alexander  the  Great,  §  6). 

Clement  of  Alexandria  (c.  A.D.  160- 
c.  215)  was  not  only  one  of  the  early  Greek 

Fathers,  but  also  conspicuous  for  his  wide 
knowledge  of  Greek  literature,  especially 
of  Greek  philosophy.  His  writings  abound 
in  quotations  and  anecdotes,  and  contain 
passages  of  interest  to  Greek  scholarship ; 
he  has  preserved  many  details  concerning 
the  Orphic  and  Eleusinian  Mysteries.  He 
was  probably  born  at  Athens,  and  studied 
and  taught  at  Alexandria.  His  principal 
works  were  '  Protreptikos '  or  an '  Exhorta- 
tion* to  the  Greeks  (an  attack  on  pagan 
religion  and  philosophy),  'Paidagogos'  (a 
course  of  religious  instruction),  and  'Stro- 
mateis'  or  'Miscellanies'  (in  which  he  aims 
at  reconciling  Christian  faith  with  reason 
and  philosophy). 

Cle'obis  and  Bi'ton,  two  Argives  who, 
according  to  a  story  placed  by  Herodotus 
in  the  mouth  of  Solon,  drew  their  mother 
in  a  chariot  a  distance  of  45  stadia  to  the 
Heraeum  (q.v.)  to  attend  a  festival  of 
Hera.  The  men  of  Argos,  who  stood  near, 
commended  the  strength  of  the  youths, 
and  the  women  blessed  their  mother.  But 
the  mother  herself  prayed  the  goddess  to 
grant  her  sons  the  greatest  blessing  that 
man  could  receive.  Thereafter  the  youths 
fell  asleep  in  the  temple  of  the  goddess 
and  died  as  they  slept;  the  goddess  thus 
showing  that  it  is  better  for  a  man  to  die 
than  to  live.  An  inscription  on  a  statue 
of  Cleobis  and  Biton  has  been  discovered 
at  Delphi. 

Cleo'menes  (Kleomenes).  (1 )  Cleomenes  I, 
King  of  Sr>arta  (c.  520-c.  490  B.C.).  He  freed 
Athens  (q.v.)  from  the  tyranny  of  Hippias. 
He  subsequently  supported  the  aristo- 
cratic reaction  in  that  city  headed  by 
Isagoras  against  Cleisthenes,  and  was 
besieged  in  the  Acropolis  with  Isagoras 
and  obliged  to  capitulate.  When,  before 
the  Persian  War,  Aegina  was  suspected 
of  favouring  the  Persians,  he  forced  the 
Aeginetans  to  give  hostages  for  their  good 
conduct  to  Athens. 

(2)  Clcomenes  III,  the  last  great  king  of 
Sparta  (236-222  B.C.).  Following  his  pre- 
decessor Agis  IV,  he  attempted  to  restore 
Spartan  power  by  a  series  of  reforms 
designed  to  rehabilitate  the  constitution 
of  Lycurgus.  Ho  proposed  to  abolish  the 
ephorate,  extend  the  powers  of  the  kings, 
free  helots,  and  make  a  new  distribution 
of  the  land.  This  was  in  226-5.  Before 
that,  Cleomenes  had  built  up  a  strong 
position  in  the  State  by  his  successful  wars 
against  the  Achaean  League  (q.v.).  The 
reforms  were  in  part  carried  out;  but  in 
222  (or  223)  Cleomenes  was  defeated  at 
Sellasia  by  the  Achaeans  under  Aratus  of 
Sicyon  and  fled  to  Egypt,  where  he  was 
put  to  death  soon  afterwards.  His  ideas 
(and  those  of  Agis)  may  have  influenced 




the  Gracchi  (q.v.)  at  Home.  There  is  a 
life  of  Cleomenes  by  Plutarch.  For  an 
imaginative  modern  reconstruction,  see 
Mrs.  Mitchlson's  'Corn  King  and  Spring 

Cle'on  (Klton)  (d.  422  B.C.),  an  Athenian 
demagogrue  prominent  at  the  time  of  the 
Peloponnesian  War,  by  trade  a  tanner, 
violent  and  dominating  by  character, 
determined  to  win  power  by  his  ascen- 
dancy over  the  people.  It  must  be  remem- 
bered that  he  is  known  to  us  chiefly 
through  the  writings  of  his  enemies  (nota- 
bly Aristophanes,  q.v.).  He  was  not  a 
coward,  as  Aristophanes  suggests,  but  he 
may  have  been  venal.  Ho  was  in  favour 
of  an  imperialist  policy,  and  of  a  ruthless 
conduct  of  the  war,  by  sea  and  land,  until 
complete  victory  was  obtained,  at  what- 
ever cost,  for  it  would  pay  the  Athenians  in 
the  end.  In  427  it  was  he  who  proposed, 
after  the  suppression  of  the  revolt  of 
Mytilene,  the  execution  or  enslavement  of 
the  inhabitants.  He  attacked  unsuccessful 
generals,  and  his  complaints  of  the  slow- 
ness of  the  operations  against  Sphacteria 
led  Nicias  to  propose  to  hand  over  charge 
of  them  to  Cleon.  By  luck  and  shrewdness 
Cleon  was  able  to  make  good  his  promise 
to  take  Sphacteria  and  bring  home  the 
prisoners  within  twenty  days.  This  achieve- 
ment made  frl™  all-powerful  at  Athens. 
But  the  vigorous  operations  that  followed 
proved  unfortunate;  among  other  disas- 
ters Amphipolis  and  other  towns  hi  Chal- 
cidice  fell  into  the  hands  of  Brasidas  (q.v.). 
Cleon  was  elected  strategus,  and  com- 
manded the  expedition  for  their  recon- 
quest.  He  met  with  some  successes,  but 
was  repulsed  from  Amphipolis  and  killed 
(422).  His  death  and  that  of  Brasidas, 
mortally  wounded  in  the  same  engage- 
ment, removed  the  principal  obstacles  to 
the  Peace  of  Nicias.  See  also  Aristophanes 
and  Knights. 

Cleopa'tra  VII  (68-30  B.C.),  daughter  of 
Ptolemy  Auletes,  king  of  Egypt  (d.  51 
B.C.),  appointed  by  him  as  his  successor 
jointly  with  her  younger  brother.  She 
was  famous  for  her  beauty  and  charm, 
which  she  exercised  on  Julius  Caesar  (who 
restored  her  to  her  throne  in  47  B.C.  after 
her  expulsion  by  Pothinus,  and  had  by 
her  a  son  named  Caesarion),  and  later  on 
Mark  Antony  (q.v.)  whose  evil  genius, 
according  to  the  generally  accepted  view, 
she  became.  (For  the  political  aspect  of 
their  relations,  see  under  Antony.)  She 
took  her  own  life  when  Antony's  cause 
became  desperate  in  30  B.C.  The  true 
character  of  Cleopatra,  behind  the  roman- 
tic tales  about  her,  we  do  not  know,  except 
that  she  had  personal  courage  and  was 

feared  by  the  Romans;  there  may  have 
been  something  of  the  true  patriot  in  her. 
It  is  the  romantic  portrait,  based  on 
Plutarch,  which  Shakespeare  presents  in 
his  'Antony  and  Cleopatra*.  See  C.  A.  H., 
vol.  x,  for  an  interesting  reconstruction. 
Cleopatra  was  a  very  ancient  Greek 
name,  in  Homer  (II.  ix.  556)  that  of  the 
wife  of  Meleager,  and  in  the  legend  of  the 
Argonauts  that  of  the  wife  of  Phineus. 
Cleopatra  VII  was  by  descent  a  Mace- 
donian; it  is  a  mistake  to  think  of  her 
as  an  Egyptian. 

Cle'ophon  (Kleophdn),  an  Athenian  dema- 
gogrue prominent  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
Peloponnesian  War  and  in  the  restoration 
of  democratic  rule  after  the  battle  of 
Cyzicus  (see  Athens,  §  5).  Ho  was  tried  and 
put  to  death  in  404  by  the  oligarchs. 

Gle'psydra  (Klepsudrd),  see  Calendar,  §  4. 

Cle'ruch  (KUrouchos),  an  Athenian  citi- 
zen who  held  an  allotment  of  land  (kUros) 
in  a  foreign  country.  A  cleruchy  (klerou- 
chid)  or  group  of  such  cleruchs  differed 
from  a  colony  in  that  the  cleruchs  retained 
their  rights  of  Athenian  citizenship,  and 
did  not  necessarily  reside  in  their  allot- 
ments. The  system  was  introduced  in  the 
last  years  of  the  6th  c.  B.C.,  but  was  much 
developed  in  the  5th  c.  when  it  became  an 
important  feature  in  the  Athenian  im- 
perial system,  by  providing  a  sort  of  per- 
manent garrisons  in  foreign  lands  and  in 
the  countries  of  the  subject-allies.  It  was 
also  a  means  of  making  provision  for  the 
poorer  and  landless  citizens  of  Athens, 
whose  economic  position  was  a  constant 
problem.  The  leader  of  a  cleruchy  was 
known  as  the  oecist  (oikistes).  Important 
cloruchies  were  founded  by  Cimon  and 
Pericles  (qq.v.),  notably  in  the  Thraoian 
Chersonese,  Lemnos,  Euboea,  and  Aegina. 

Client,  at  Rome,  in  republican  times, 
signified  a  dependant  on  a  patrician,  or 
more  generally  on  a  powerful  or  wealthy 
patron,  to  whom  he  rendered  services  and 
from  whom  he  received  protection.  The 
relation  of  client  to  patron  resembled  that 
of  vassal  to  chief,  dignified  by  mutual 
loyalty.  Under  the  empire  the  relation 
became  degraded.  The  clients  were  then 
merely  hungry  hangers-on  of  some  rich 
patron,  attending  his  receptions,  walking 
behind  him  about  the  city,  running  his 
errands,  in  return  for  a  scanty  dole  of 
food  or  money.  This  relation  is  especially 
illustrated  by  Martial's  poems. 

Cli'max  (Gk.  for  'ladder',  L.  gradMiS),  a 
rhetorical  figure  in  which  successive  notions 
are  arranged  in  order  of  increasing  impres- 
siveness.  Quintilian  quotes  as  an  example 
(from  the  'Ad  Herennium')  'Africano 



Clothing  and  Toilet 

vlrtutem  industria,  virtus  gloriam,  gloria 
aemulos  comparavit'. 

An  anticlimax  (a  word  apparently  first 
found  In  Pope's  'Art  of  Sinking',  1727)  is 
the  opposite  of  a  climax;  the  addition  of 
a  particular  which,  instead  of  heightening 
the  effect,  lowers  it  or  makes  it  ludicrous. 
Of.  Bathos. 

Cli'o  (Kletfy,  see  M uses. 

Cloa'ca  Ma'xima,  a  great  sewer  at  Rome, 
ascribed  to  the  Tarquins,  but  probably 
dating  from  early  republican  times,  and 
reconstructed  under  Augustus.  Starting 
from  the  valley  of  Subura  it  drained  the 
marshy  ground  at  the  foot  of  the  Capitol 
and  so  made  possible  its  use  as  the  Roman 
Forum.  It  was  vaulted  and  paved,  and 
whore  it  emptied  into  the  Tiber  it  was 
about  10  ft.  wide  and  12  ft.  high.  The 
system  of  sewers  of  which  it  formed  part 
was  regarded,  with  the  aqueducts  and 
roads,  as  among  the  most  wonderful  con- 
structions of  ancient  Rome.  The  Cloaca 
Maxima  still  forms  part  of  the  drainage 
system  of  the  modern  city.  See  PI.  14. 

Cloa'nthus,  in  the  *  Aeneid',  a  companion 
of  Aeneas.  He  figures  in  the  boat-race 
(Bk.  V). 

Gld'dia,  the  sister  of  P.  Clodius  (q.v.)  and 
wife  of  the  consul  Q.  Mctellus  Color,  a 
woman  notorious  for  her  profligacy. 
Among  her  lovers  was  Catullus  (q.v.), 
who  celebrated  her  as  'Lesbia'.  She  was 
the  bitter  enemy  of  Cicero  (q.v.),  who 
fiercely  attacked  her  in  his  speech  'Pro 

Clo'dius  Albi'nus,  DECIMUS,  see  Britain, 

Clo'dius  Pulcher,  PUBLIUS,  a  patrician 
of  the  Claudian  gens,  notorious  for  his 
violence  and  profligacy  and  as  the  enemy 
of  Cicero.  His  profanation  of  the  mysteries 
of  the  Bona  Dea  hi  62  B.C.,  the  defeat  by 
Cicero's  evidence  of  his  attempt  to  prove 
an  alibi  (though  in  fact  Clodius  was 
acquitted  at  the  trial),  the  vengeance  he 
took  as  tribune  hi  58  by  driving  Cicoro 
into  exile,  his  feud  with  Milo  carried  on 
by  street  fights  between  gangs  of  ruffians, 
and  his  death  in  52  in  one  of  these  riots, 
are  related  under  Cicero,  §§  3  and  4.  Ho 
was  brother  of  Clodia  (q.v.). 

Cloe'lia,  according  to  legend,  a  Roman 
maiden  who  was  one  of  the  hostages  given 
to  the  Etruscan  king  Porsena  in  the  course 
of  his  war  with  the  newly  founded  Roman 
republic.  She  escaped,  and  swimming  the 
Tiber  returned  to  Rome.  She  was  again 
surrendered  to  Porsena,  who  in  admira- 
tion of  her  courage  released  her  together 
with  some  of  her  companions. 

Clothing  and  Toilet. 

§  1.  Greek  clothing 

The  dress  of  the  Athenians  of  the  5th 
and  4th  cc.  consisted  normally  of  two  gar- 
ments, each  composed  of  an  oblong  piece 
of  woollen  or  linen  cloth :  (a)  the  CHITON 
or  tunic,  worn  next  to  the  skin,  doubled 
round  the  body,  pinned  over  each  shoulder, 
and  held  in  by  a  girdle  at  the  waist,  leav- 
ing the  arms  free.  This  was  worn  by  men 
falling  to  the  knee,  by  women  longer. 
(b)  The  HlMATTON  or  cloak,  worn  by  men ; 
it  was  laid  from  behind  on  the  two 
shoulders,  and  the  right  end  thrown  over 
the  left  shoulder,  but  so  as  to  leave  the 
right  hand  exposed.  It  could  bo  drawn 
over  the  head.  Workmen,  who  could  not 
afford  the  himation  (it  cost  16-20  drach- 
mas), wore  a  single  garment,  known  as  the 
ExOans,  of  coarse  stuff  made  at  Megara, 
with  a  goat-skin  for  cold  weather.  The 
outer  garment  of  women  was  the  ample 
PEPLOS,  pinned  over  the  shoulders,  and 
variously  draped  according  to  the  fashion. 
Horsemen  wore  a  short  mantle  known  as 
the  CHLAMYS.  It  was  usual  for  men  to 
strip  entirely  for  exercise  or  sport.  The 
prevailing  colour  of  Greek  men's  dress  was 
white ;  but  workmen  wore  dark  stuffs,  and 
women  gay -coloured  materials.  Hats  wero 
not  generally  worn,  except  when  travel- 
ling or  hunting ;  the  PETASOS  was  a  broad- 
brimmed  felt  hat,  said  to  have  been, 
introduced  from  Thessaly  with  the  chla- 
mys ;  the  PtLos  was  a  round  felt  cap,  with 
little  or  no  brim,  chiefly  worn  by  workmen. 
Sandals  and  shoes  wore  worn  out  of  doors ; 
tanning  and  shoemaking  were  active  in- 
dustries at  Athens,  and  women's  shoes 
were  often  luxurious  and  highly  decorated. 

§  2.  Greek  ornaments  and  toilet 
Bracelets,  rings,  and  ear-rings  wore  worn. 
Tho  British  Museum  has  a  silver  armlet, 
in  the  form  of  a  coiled  snake,  of  tho  4th  or 
3rd  c.  B.C.,  inscribed  with  the  name  of  its 
owner,  Cletis.  Cosmetics  were  used,  as  we 
know  from  Xenophon's  'Oeconomicus*. 
Greek  men  usually  wore  beards,  but  razors 
are  mentioned  in  Homer.  There  were 
public  baths  attached  to  the  gymnasia, 
but  they  wore  not  of  tho  elaborate  charac- 
ter found  at  Rome ;  bathing  scenes  repre- 
sented on  vases  show  men  standing  about 
a  large  vessel,  into  which  an  attendant 
may  be  pouring  water.  Tho  oil-flask 
(lecythus)  for  anointing  was  an  essential 
requisite  for  a  bath. 

§  3.  Roman  clothes 

Men's  dress  in  republican  times  con- 
sisted of  an  inner  garment,  the  tunica, 
and  an  outer  the  toga.  The  TUNICA  was 
first  introduced  at  Rome  as  a  form  of  dress 

Clothing  and  Toilet 



for  the  poorer  classes.  It  was  then  adopted 
as  an  under-dress,  first  of  all  by  patricians. 
It  was  a  shirt-like  garment,  usually  with 
short  sleeves,  reaching  to  about  the  knee. 
The  TOGA  was  a  white  woollen  garment, 
roughly  semicircular,  sometimes  about 
6  yards  long  by  2  at  its  greatest  width, 
but  of  which  the  size  does  not  seem 
to  have  been  definitely  fixed.  Various 
passages  show  that  it  was  worn  large 
or  small  according  as  one  wanted  to  be 
ostentatious  or  not.  One  end  of  it  nearly 
reached  the  ground  in  front,  while  the 
other  was  thrown  over  the  left  shoulder, 
brought  under  the  right  arm,  and  again 
thrown  over  the  left  shoulder.  It  was 
worn  by  citizens  only  and  was  the  obliga- 
tory dress  on  oflacial  occasions,  even  in 
imperial  times  when  more  convenient  gar- 
ments had  come  into  use.  The  toga  virilis, 
that  worn  by  the  ordinary  citizen,  was 
entirely  white.  The  toga  praetexta,  worn 
by  certain  priests  and  magistrates  and 
also  by  free-born  boys  until  they  reached 
manhood,  was  bordered  with  a  purple 
stripe.  Women  at  first  wore  the  toga, 
later  the  STOLA,  a  garment  with  slits  on 
either  side  for  the  arms,  gathered  up 
below  the  breast  by  a  girdJe.  They  wore 
also  the  PALLA,  a  mantle,  over  the  stola. 
The  LACERN  A  was  a  man's  rough  outer  cloak 
worn  on  journeys  against  the  weather; 
also  later  a  more  elegant  outer  garment- 
worn  in  Homo  at  the  games  and  other 
outdoor  functions  (it  was  prohibited  by 
Augustus  in  the  Forum  and  Circus).  The 
TRABEA  was  a  cloak  worn  by  the  eques- 
trian order,  by  the  consul  at  certain  cere- 
monials, and  by  augurs  and  various  orders 
of  priests.  Suetonius  gives  three  kinds  of 
trabea:  (a)  entirely  of  purple,  (6)  purple 
and  white,  (c)  purple  and  saffron.  Wool 
was  dyed  from  an  early  date  with  saffron, 
indigo,  kermes,  and  the  purple  dye  of  the 
murex  shell-fish.  At  first  it  was  prepared 
by  the  women  of  the  family,  but,  with  the 
growth  of  the  proletariate,  guilds  of  fullers, 
&c.  sprang  up.  The  use  of  linen,  cotton, 
and  silk  came  in  later,  with  the  develop- 
ment of  trade  and  increase  of  wealth. 

§  4.  Roman  head-covering 
In  lieu  of  hats  the  Romans  wore  a  hood 
(CucrjLLUS)  or  drew  their  outer  garment 
over  the  head.  In  the  country  or  on  jour- 
neys, and  also  during  the  Saturnalia  (q.v.), 
they  wore  a  round  felt  cap,  with  little  or 
no  brim,  known  as  the  PILLEUS. 

§  5.  Roman  shoes  and  boots 
The  CALCEUS  was  the  leather  shoe  worn 
in  the  city,  the  PERO  a  high  boot  worn  in 
the  country.   The  calceus  differed  in  pat- 
tern according  to  the  rank  of  the  wearer ; 

e.g.  patrician  magistrates  wore  a  red  high- 
soled  calceus,  senators  a  black  calceus, 
both  with  a  small  crescent  of  ivory. 
Women  wore  it  white  or  coloured.  Under 
the  empire  great  splendour  was  shown  in 
the  colour  and  adornment  of  shoes.  The 
CALIGA  was  a  hob-nailed  boot  worn  by 
soldiers  and  peasants.  Sandals  (SOLEAE) 
were  worn  indoors,  but  were  taken  off 
when  guests  reclined  at  dinner.  To  ask  for 
one's  sandals  (posccre  soleas)  was  the 
signal  that  one  was  going  away. 

§  6.  Roman  toilet,  rings,  <&c. 
Roman  men  at  first  wore  long  hair  and 
beards.  Hair-cutting  and  shaving  were 
introduced  from  Sicily  about  300  B.C. 
Scipio  Aemilianus  (q.v.)  is  said  to  have 
been  the  first  to  shave  daily.  The  custom 
of  shaving  or  wearing  the  beard  short 
continued  under  the  empire.  Roman  ra- 
zors were  made  of  iron  and,  since  they 
were  liable  to  rust,  very  few  survive  (there 
is  one  in  the  British  Museum).  The  head- 
dress of  Roman  women  was  at  first  simple, 
but  became  very  elaborate  under  the 
empire ;  false  hair  was  used,  and  decorated 
ivory  hairpins,  besides  cosmetics.  Combs 
were  of  ivory,  bone,  or  wood.  Mirrors  were 
generally  of  silver-plated  bronze.  Wigs 
and  false  hair  were  hi  use  in  Ovid's  day. 
Martial  refers  to  the  use  of  false  teeth,  and 
the  use  of  gold  in  dental  operations  is 
mentioned  in  an  old  law  quoted  by  Cicero 
(De  leg.  ii.  24,  60).  Senators  and  other 
eminent  persons  wore  a  gold  signet-ring; 
others  a  ring  of  iron.  The  use  of  the  gold 
ring  came  to  be  a  sign  of  free  birth,  and 
was  granted  even  to  freedmen  and  later 
to  soldiers  irrespective  of  their  rank  in  the 
army.  Betrothal  rings  were  used  (there 
is  a  gold  one  in  the  British  Museum).  The 
BULLA  was  a  small  box  containing  an 
amulet  worn  by  free -born  Roman  children 
round  the  neck ;  it  was  of  gold,  bronze,  or 
leather  according  to  the  wealth  of  the 
parents.  It  was  worn  by  boys  till  they 
assumed  the  toga  virilis,  by  girls  probably 
till  they  married.  See  also  under  Baths; 
hi  this  connexion  mention  may  be  made 
of  the  STRIGIL,  a  curved  scraper,  generally 
of  bronze,  used  for  scraping  the  body  after 
exercise,  or  in  the  bath,  or  after  anointing. 

CIS'tho,  see  Fates. 

Clouds,  The  (Nephelai,  L.  Nubes),  a 
comedy  by  Aristophanes  on  the  subject 
of  Socrates  and  the  New  Learning,  pro- 
duced in  its  original  form  at  the  Great 
Dionysia  of  423  B.C.  It  was  unsuccessful, 
being  perhaps  considered  too  subtle  or  too 
favourable  to  Socrates,  and  was  rewritten 
by  Aristophanes  in  the  form  in  which  we 
have  it ;  we  know  that  he  substituted  two 




scenes  In  which  hostility  to  the  new  school 
is  manifested.  In  the  second  edition  the 
play  was  not  produced  at  either  of  the 
great  festivals. 

Strepsiades  ('Twister'),  an  elderly  dis- 
honest farmer,  has  been  ruined  by  his 
fashionable  wife  and  horse-loving  son 
Pheidippides.  Ho  has  heard  of  Socrates, 
a  man  who  can  make  the  Worse  Cause 
appear  the  Better,  and  hopes  by  his 
teaching  to  bo  able  to  defraud  his  credi- 
tors. As  his  son  refuses  to  enter  Socrates' 
school  (the  Phrontisterion,  or  'Thinking- 
shop'),  Strepsiades  decides  to  go  himself. 
He  is  told  that  ho  must  resign  himself  to 
hard  work  and  simple  living,  and  is  intro- 
duced to  the  Clouds,  who  (and  not  Zeus, 
as  had  been  believed)  are  the  deities  who 
produce  thunder  and  rain.  Bnfc  Strep- 
siades  is  too  stupid  and  too  much  con- 
cerned with  his  debts  to  learn  anything, 
and  Pheidippides  has  to  become  the  pupil 
instead  of  him.  Socrates  hands  Pheidip- 
pides over  to  be  instructed  by  the  Just 
Plea  and  the  Unjust  Plea  hi  person.  A 
contest  between  these  two  (one  of  the 
substituted  scenes)  follows,  in  which  the 
Unjust  Plea  is  victorious.  By  the  help  of 
what  Pheidippides  has  learnt,  Strepsiades 
is  able  to  confute  his  creditors.  But  the 
tables  are  turned  on  him  when,  as  a  result 
of  the  same  learning,  Pheidippides  starts 
to  beat  his  father  (and  threatens  to  beat 
his  mother  too)  and  proves  that  he  is 
justified  in  doing  so.  Strcpsiades,  disgusted 
with  the  New  Learning,  sets  fire  to  Socrates' 

Clubs,  see  Guilds. 

Cly'mene  (Klumene),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, (1)  daughter  of  Minyas  (q.v.).  She 
was  beloved  of  the  Sun,  and  to  him  bore 
Phaethon  (q.v.).  (2)  Daughter  of  Oceanus 
and  Tethys,  wife  of  lapotus,  and  mother 
of  Atlas,  Prometheus,  and  Epimetheus 

Clytemne'stra  (Klutaim(n)estrd),  in 
Greek  mythology,  daughter  of  Tyndareus, 
(Tundareos)  king  of  Sparta,  and  Leda 
(q.v.),  and  wife  of  Agamemnon.  See 
JPeZops,  Oresteia,  Orestes,  Electra. 

Cno'ssus  (Knosos  or  Knossos),  see  Crete 
and  Minoan. 

Cock,  The,  see  Lucian. 

Co'cles,  HORATIUB,  a  legendary  Roman 
hero,  said  to  havo  defended,  with  two 
companions,  Sp.  Larcius  and  T.  Hermi- 
nius,  the  bridge-head  leading  to  Rome 
against  the  whole  Etruscan  army  under 
Porsena  (q.v.),  while  the  bridge  behind 
him  was  being  destroyed.  Then  he  sent 
back  his  two  companions  and  held  the 

position  single-handed,  finally  jumping 
into  the  river  and  swimming  back  to  the 
city.  The  exploit  is  the  subject  of  one  of 
Macaulay's  'Lays  of  Ancient  Rome*. 

Cocy'tus  (Kokutos),  In  Greek  mythology 
one  of  the  rivers  of  Hades  (q.v.).  It  waa 
the  name  of  a  tributary  of  the  Acheron  in 

Co'dex,  (1)  see  Books,  Ancient,  §  4;  (2)  seo 

CS'drus  (Kddros),  tho  last  of  the  legen- 
dary kings  of  Athens.  He  is  said  to  have 
sacrificed  himself  for  his  country  when  it 
was  threatened  by  an  invasion  from  the 

Coinage,  see  Money. 

Co'lchis,  a  country  at  the  E.  end  of  the 
Euxine  or  Black  Sea,  bounded  on  the  N. 
by  tho  Caucasus,  famous  in  Greek  legend 
as  the  destination  of  tho  Argonauts  (q.v.) 
and  the  homo  of  Medea. 

Collegia,  see  Guilds. 

Colline  Gate,  at  Rome,  on  the  NE.  side 
of  the  city  (see  PI.  14),  the  scene  of  a  fierce 
battle  in  82  B.C.,  in  which  Sulla  (q.v.), 
after  his  return  from  the  E.,  finally  over- 
came the  Samnito  and  Lucanian  army, 
and  made  himself  master  of  Italy. 

Colo'ni,  farmers  who  tilled,  as  tenants, 
the  land  of  Roman  proprietors.  They 
degenerated  into  serfs,  tied  to  tho  soil. 
See  Agriculture,  §  2,  and  Latifundia. 


§  1.  General  character 
The  great  age  of  tho  expansion  of  Greece 
beyond  Greece  proper  and  the  eastern 
shores  of  the  Aegean  lasted  from  the  middle 
of  the  8th  to  the  early  part  of  tho  6th  c.  B.C. 
This  expansion  by  means  of  colonies  may  be 
regarded  as  a  continuation  of  the  movement 
which  took  Greek  settlers  in  the  period  of 
the  migrations  (q.v.)  across  the  Aegean  to 
the  shores  of  Asia  Minor  and  the  adjoining 
islands.  Its  causes  are  to  be  found  first  in 
the  adventurous  spirit  of  the  Greeks,  which 
we  see  reflected  in  such  myths  as  that  of 
the  Argonauts  (q.v.);  then  in  the  social 
and  political  conditions  which  prevailed 
at  this  time  in  Greek  lands.  The  area  of 
cultivable  land  in  Greece  was  very  limited, 
while  the  land  system  tended  to  exclude 
a  portion  of  the  inhabitants  from  a  share 
in  the  soil  and  converted  them  into  needy 
adventurers.  The  aristocratic  form  of 
government  in  many  States  was  harsh  and 
bred  discontent,  so  that  men  were  encour- 
aged to  seek  happier  conditions  elsewhere. 




As  regards  the  Greek  cities  on  the  coast  of 
Asia  Minor,  the  pressure  of  the  powerful 
peoples  of  the  interior  checked  the  natural 
course  of  expansion  towards  the  inner 
territories  and  favoured  oversea  migra- 
tion. Here  and  elsewhere  trade  no  doubt 
assisted,  and  Greek  merchants  who  ob- 
served favourable  sites  on  their  voyages 
would  recommend  them  to  intending  emi- 
grants. The  colonies  in  turn  were  a  stimu- 
lus to  Greek  trade  and  industry.  The 
colonists  demanded  the  industrial  products 
of  the  metropolis  and  exported  in  ex- 
change food  and  raw  materials.  The 
settlements  were  at  first  private  ventures, 
but  later  were  organized  by  the  States. 
The  emigrants  about  to  found  a  colony 
took  with  them  fire  from  the  sacred  hearth 
of  their  State  (see  Religion,  §2),  and  the 
State  appointed  an  official  oecist  (oikistcs) 
as  head  of  the  venture.  A  Greek  colony 
was  normally  a  sovereign  State,  not  poli- 
tically dependent  on  its  mother-city ;  but 
the  relations  between  colony  and  mother- 
State  remained  as  a  rule  friendly  and 
intimate.  The  Delphic  (q.v.)  oracle  was 
often  consulted  on  questions  of  colonial 

§  2.  Greek  colonization  in  the  north-east 
The  chief  founders  of  colonies  in  this 
direction  were  Euboeans  from  Chalcis  and 
Eretria,  Megarians,  Corinthians,  and  in- 
habitants of  the  islands  and  cities  of  Asia 
Minor,  notably  Miletus.  The  Chalcidians 
of  Euboea  in  the  late  8th  and  early  7th  cc. 
founded  so  many  cities  on  the  three -tongued 
promontory  south  of  Macedonia  that  it 
gained  the  name  Chalcidice.  Here  also 
Corinth  founded  a  century  later  the  import- 
ant town  of  Potidaea.  A  little  to  the  E. 
of  the  Chalcidic  peninsula,  on  the  Strymon, 
Athens  founded  in  the  days  of  Pericles 
the  city  of  Amphipolis,  which  she  was 
destined  soon  to  lose.  Along  the  coast  of 
Macedonia  and  Thrace,  from  the  Euboean 
towns  of  Pydna  and  Methone  eastwards, 
colonizing  enterprise  extended  to  the 
Hellespont,  where  the  Lesbians  founded 
Sestos  and  the  Milesians  Abydos  early  in 
the  7th  c.  On  the  Propontis  the  latter 
established  Cyzicus.  In  the  same  century 
the  Megarians  gained  the  keys  of  the 
Bosporus  by  founding  ChalcedSn  and 
Byzantium  (q.v.).  In  the  time  of  Pisi- 
stratus  Athens  acquired  the  Thracian 
Chersonese  and  sent  settlers  there.  The 
history  of  the  early  colonization  of  the 
Euxine  is  obscure.  The  first  Greek  settle- 
ments on  its  shores  appear  to  have  been 
swept  away  about  the  end  of  the  8th  c. 
by  a  wave  of  Cimmerian  invasion.  In  the 
middle  of  the  7th  c.  colonization  was 
resumed,  principally  by  Milesians,  who 

founded  Sinopfi  and  its  daughter  city 
Trapezus  (Trebizond)  on  the  southern, 
shore,  and,  among  other  settlements  on 
the  western  shore,  the  important  town 
of  Olbia.  In  the  6th  c.  Greek  colonists 
went  farther,  reaching  the  Tauric  Cher- 
sonese and  occupying  Panticapaeum, 
which  became  the  commercial  centre 
of  the  region.  The  Mcgarians  of  Byzan- 
tium founded  Heraclea  on  the  Chersonese. 
The  Greek  colonies  on  the  Euxine  had 
great  economic  importance  as  centres  of 
trade,  for  they  exported  large  quantities 
of  corn  grown  on  the  fertile  Scythian 
plains,  besides  dried  or  salted  fish,  cattle 
and  horses,  slaves,  and  gold;  they  im- 
ported wine  and  oil,  and  articles  needed 
for  civilized  life  in  general.  They  wor- 
shipped in  common  a  sea-god,  Achilles, 
sometimes  identified  with  the  hero  of  the 
Trojan  War,  supposed  to  be  living  immor- 
tal on  the  island  Leuke  in  the  Euxine. 

§  3.  Greek  colonization  in  the  west 
In  this  direction  also  Euboeans  were  the 
pioneers.  They  were  probably  the  first 
settlers  in  Corcyra  (where  they  were  later 
dispossessed  by  Corinthians),  and  they  had 
the  distinction  of  founding  (together  with 
Aoolians  of  Cyme)  at  a  very  early  date 
the  most  distant  outpost  of  Greek  civiliza- 
tion on  the  western  coast  of  Italy,  at 
Cumae  (q.v.),  on  the  promontory  just  N. 
of  the  Bay  of  Naples.  Farther  north  they 
could  not  go  because  of  the  strong  Etrus- 
can power.  From  there  they  exercised  a 
civilizing  influence  on  the  neighbouring 
Italian  peoples,  perhaps  introducing  the 
Greek  alphabet  and  a  knowledge  of  Greek 
religion.  Cumae  became  an  important 
centre  of  trade  not  only  with  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  Italian  peninsula  but  also  with 
the  barbarians  beyond  the  Alps.  It  was 
Euboeans,  together  with  lonians  from 
Naxos,  who  made  the  first  Greek  settle- 
ment in  Sicily,  on  a  little  tongue  of  lava 
jutting  into  the  sea  NE.  of  Etna;  this 
settlement  took  the  name  of  Naxos.  Other 
Euboean  colonies  on  the  E.  coast  of  Sicily 
soon  followed,  including  Zancle,  which 
Messenians  later  transformed  into  Messana 
or  Messene  (Messina).  All  these  settle- 
ments may  be  assigned  to  the  8th  c.  The 
Corinthians,  besides  ousting  the  Eretrians 
from  Corcyra  (which  subsequently  proved 
a  most  rebellious  colony)  and  establishing 
settlements  on  the  neighbouring  mainland, 
founded  in  Sicily  about  734  B.C.  the  colony 
of  Syracuse  (q.v.),  destined  to  be  the  most 
brilliant  and  populous  city  of  the  island. 
Other  important  Dorian  colonies  in  Sicily 
were  the  Megarian  Hyblaea  and  Selinus, 
and  the  Rhodian  Gela  (q.v.)  and  Acragas 
(Agrigentum,  q.v.).  Acragas  and  Selinus 




were  the  most  westerly  points  In  Sicily 
reached  by  Greek  colonization.  Beyond 
these  the  island  was  in  Phoenician  hands. 
All  the  above  colonies  had  been  founded 
by  the  end  of  the  7th  c.  Meanwhile 
Achaeans  from  the  Peloponnese  settled 
on  the  E.  side  of  the  extreme  promontory 
or  too  of  Italy.  Sybaris  and  its  rival 
Croton  (qq.v.),  their  principal  foundations, 
became  extremely  wealthy,  owing  to  their 
fertile  territories.  Moreover,  when  the 
Sicilian  straits  were  in  the  power  of 
Euboean  settlers  and  these  prevented  the 
passage  of  merchants  from  Miletus,  the 
latter  diverted  their  commerce  to  Sybaris, 
which  commanded  the  short  overland  jour- 
ney across  the  peninsula  to  the  Tyrrhenian 
sea;  and  the  prosperity  of  Sybaris  was 
thereby  increased.  Taras  (Tarentum)  at 
the  head  of  the  gulf  which  bears  its  name, 
between  the  toe  and  the  heel  of  Italy, 
appears  to  have  been  founded  by  pro- 
Dorian  inhabitants  of  (ho  Peloponnese; 
but  it  was  subsequently  occupied  by 
Dorians  from  Sparta  (the  only  foreign 
settlement  of  that  State).  To  Tarentum 
and  the  other  Greek  cities  on  the  Taren- 
tine  gulf  and  their  dependencies  across  the 
peninsula  on  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea  was 
given  the  name  of  Magna  Graecia.  See 
also  Thurii.  One  important  venture  in 
the  extreme  west  remains  to  be  mentioned. 
The  lonians  of  Phocaea,  bold  mariners, 
founded  hi  the  7th  c.  Massalia,  in  Latin 
Mnssilia,  the  future  Marseilles;  and  the 
people  of  Massalia  in  turn  established 
settlements  in  many  directions,  inland  at 
the  future  Aries,  along  the  Riviera  (Agathe 
=  Agde,  Antipolis  <=»  Antibes,  Nicaea  <*» 
Nice),  westward  at  Pyrene"  (whence  the 
name  of  the  Pyrenees),  and  at  the  future 
Malaga  on  the  coast  of  Spain. 

§  4.  Greek  colonization  in  the  south 
Under  the  rule  of  Psammetichus  and 
his  successors  (from  the  middle  of  the  7th 
c.  B.C.),  Egypt  was  thrown  open  to  Greek 
commerce  and  to  Greek  settlors.  The 
Milesians  founded  Naucratis  (q.v.)  on  the 
western  or  Canopic  channel  of  the  Nile,  and 
this  was  made  the  centre  for  all  Greek 
traders  in  Egypt,  who  appear  later  to  have 
been  subjected  to  restrictions.  In  the 
latter  part  of  the  7th  c.  Minyans  from  the 
island  of  Thera,  complying  with  an  oracle, 
founded  a  colony  which  was  named 
Gyrene  (q.v.)  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  due 
S.  of  the  Peloponnese.  The  loader  of  the 
settlers  became  their  king  and  took  the 
name  of  Battus,  and  his  son  that  of 
Arcesilaus.  Under  his  grandson,  Battus  II, 
there  was  a  large  influx  of  new  settlers 
from  Crete  and  the  Peloponnese,  and  the 
colony  became  prosperous  and  important. 

§  5.  Result  of  Greek  colonization. 
Hellenistic  colonization 

As  a  result  of  these  various  enterprises, 
the  6th  c.  saw  Greek  colonies  scattered 
along  most  of  the  shores  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean and  the  Euxine,  'like  frogs  round 
a  pond*  (Plat.  Phaed.  109  b),  not  united 
under  any  central  control,  but  at  liberty 
to  work  out  their  own  destinies,  with 
important  consequences  for  the  history 
of  civilization.  They  were  the  means  of 
extending  the  influence  of  Greek  culture 
to  many  peoples;  and  by  their  very 
independence,  by  their  contact  with  a 
variety  of  nations,  they  developed  that 
culture  itself,  by  giving  it  variety  and 
favouring  originality.  This  is  seen  in 
Greek  literature,  philosophy,  and  art. 

Under  Alexander  and  his  successors, 
Greek  colonization  took  a  new  form. 
Alexander  himself  founded  a  large  number 
of  colonies  in  the  territories  he  had  con- 
quered, designed  to  hold  the  natives  in 
subjection,  to  spread  Greek  civilization, 
and  to  foster  trade;  and  his  successors 
followed  his  policy.  Whence  the  numer- 
ous Alexandrias,  Antiochs,  Seloucias,  &c., 
found  in  the  East.  They  were  for  the  most 
part  situated  in  Asia  Minor,  Syria,  and 
Egypt,  but  some  in  more  distant  regions, 
such  as  Iran  and  India. 

See  also  Cleruch. 

§  6,  Early  Roman  colonies 
The  early  colonies  of  Rome,  unlike  those 
of  Greece,  were  founded  by  the  State,  not 
by  private  initiative,  and  during  the  first 
centuries  of  the  republic  were  generally 
designed  for  military  defence  and  limited 
to  Italy  only  (they  occasionally  served  to 
provide  land  and  occupation  for  needy 
members  of  the  Roman  proletariate,  e.g. 
Antium,  founded  in  338  B.C.).  They  were 
fortified  towns,  endowed  with  a  certain 
area  of  the  public  land  (acquired  by 
conquest).  Parma,  Mutina,  Pisaurum  are 
examples.  The  citizens  of  Roman  colonies 
proper  (Coloniae  civium  Romdnorum)  were 
enrolled  in  some  Roman  tribe  and  re- 
tained their  full  civil  rights,  though  owing 
to  distance  they  might  not  bo  able  to 
exercise  them.  The  so-called  Latin  colonies 
(coloniae  Latinae),  originally  colonies  com- 
posed half  of  Romans  and  half  of  Latins 
(e.g.  Ardea),  but  after  the  subjugation 
of  Latium  composed  of  Romans  only  (e.g. 
Venusia,  q.v.),  had  a  different  constitution. 
Their  members  surrendered  their  Roman 
citizenship,  but  had  rights  of  trade  under 
the  protection  of  the  Roman  courts  and 
of  intermarriage  with  Rome,  while  the 
colonies  enjoyed  an  independence  limited 


only  by  Rome's  control  of  their  foreign 
affairs  and  by  their  obligation  to  supply 
contingents  to  the  Roman  army.  See 
Home,  §  4. 

§  7,  Roman  colonies  in  later  republican 
and  imperial  times 

From  about  the  2nd  c.  B.C.  the  charac- 
ter of  Roman  colonization  underwent  a 
change  and  colonies  (some  of  them  over- 
seas) began  to  be  founded  more  frequently 
for  economic  reasons.  Thus  Gracchus's 
abortive  colonies,  e.g.  at  Carthage,  and 
Caesar's  successful  colonies,  notably  at 
Corinth,  were  mostly  designed  to  relievo 
pressure  at  Rome  and  redevelop  derelict 
areas.  Caesar  also  revived  Gracchus's 
plan  for  the  restoration  of  Carthage. 
Other  colonies  (e.g.  Sulla's  and  those  of 
the  triumviral  period)  were  founded  to 
supply  land  for  veterans.  Among  the 
notable  colonies  of  later  republican  times 
may  be  mentioned  Corduba  (Cordova) 
in  Spain,  and  Narbo  (Narbonne),  Aquae 
Sextiae  (Aix),  and  Arelato  (Aries)  in  Gaul. 
Africa  became  an  important  area  of 
Roman  colonization.  Harms  settled  many 
of  his  veterans  there,  and  numbers  of 
Italians  went  to  Cirta  and  other  African 
cities  as  merchants  and  moneylenders. 

The  process  of  colonization  in  outlying 
parts  of  the  empire  was  continued  under 
the  principate,  largely  for  the  purpose  of 
providing  land  for  veterans,  and  many 
cities  were  founded  or  enlarged.  The  im- 
posing ruins  of  some  of  these,  such  as 
Thamugadi  (Timgad)  in  Africa,  remain  to 
this  day.  In  other  cases,  colonies  were  the 
outcome  of  the  military  system  of  station- 
ing legions  in  permanent  fortresses  on  tho 
frontiers.  Semi-civilian  settlements  grew 
up  near  these  fortresses  and  were  the 
origins  of  large  modern  cities,  such  as 
Colonia  Agrippina  (Cologne),  Lindum 
(Lincoln),  and  Eburacum  (York). 

Col5'nus  (Koldnos),  a  demo  of  Attica, 
about  a  mile  NW.  of  tho  Dipylon  gate  of 
Athens,  the  legendary  sceno  of  tho  death 
of  Oedipus  (q.v.),  and  the  birthplace  of 

Colosse'um,  see  Amphitheatre. 

Colume'lla,  LCcius  Jtfxius  MODERI- 
TUS,  who  wrote  c.  A.D.  65,  was  born  at 
Gades  (Cadiz)  hi  Spam,  and  served  in 
Syria  in  Legio  V  Ferrata.  His  treatise 
'De  Re  Rustica',  in  twelve  books,  which 
has  survived,  deals  with  the  various 
aspects  of  a  farmer's  life  and  work,  the 
choice  of  a  farm,  its  cultivation,  live-stock, 
fish-ponds,  bees,  and  gardens,  while  the 
last  two  books  expound  the  duties  of  the 
bailiff  and  his  wife.  Book  X,  which  treats 
of  gardens,  is  in  hexameters  (the  others  in 

115  Comedy 

prose),  and  in  this  book  the  author  takes 
up  the  task  left  by  Virgil  to  posterity — 
Georg.  iv.  147,  whore,  referring  to  horti- 
culture, he  wrote, 
praetereo  atque  aliis  post  me  memoranda 


Columella's  work  shows  a  pleasant 
modesty  and  simplicity,  a  deep  respect 
for  agriculture  and  hard  work,  and 
admiration  for  Virgil,  whom  he  frequently 
quotes.  His  prose  is  simple  and  dignified, 
recalling  that  of  the  Augustan  period,  in 
contrast  to  tho  new  Latinity  of  many  of 
his  contemporaries.  Columella  also  wrote 
a  shorter  manual  of  agriculture,  of  which 
one  book,  'De  arboribus',  is  extant. 



§  1.  The  origin  of  Greek  comedy 
Aristotle  in  his  'Poetics*  says,  substan- 
tially, that  tho  Megarians,  both  of  Sicily 
and  of  tho  Isthmus,  claim  to  have  origi- 
nated comedy;  that  the  word  *  comedy*  is 
derived  from  komS  (village),  because  tho 
comedians,  being  despised  in  tho  towns* 
wandered  about  tho  villages ;  that  comedy 
came  from  'the  leaders  of  the  phallic 
songs'  which  still  survive  as  institutions 
in  many  cities;  that  tho  stages  of  its 
development  are  obscure ;  that  plot-mak- 
ing (as  distinct  from  lampoons)  in  comedy 
originally  came  from  Sicily  [see  Epichar- 
mus] ;  and  that  tho  archon  first  granted  a 
chorus  for  comedy  at  a  late  date  (probably 
486  B.C.).  As  regards  tho  derivation  of  the 
word  there  is  now  general  agreement  that 
Aristotle  was  wrong,  and  that  it  is  to  be 
found  in  komos  t  not  kome.  The  word  komos 
means  revel;  there  were  several  kinds  of 
komoi  and  they  took  place  on  festivals, 
particularly  of  Dionysus,  and  consisted  of 
or  wound  up  with  a  procession  of  revellers, 
singing,  dancing,  and  bantering  the  on- 
lookers ;  there  is  a  part  of  tho  Aribtophanio 
comedy  which  appears  to  represent  a  regu- 
larized form  of  komos.  In  other  respects 
Aristotle's  statements  appear  to  have  some 
foundation.  Comedy  in  Attica  seems  to 
have  originated  in  the  villages ;  it  retained 
for  a  time  a  phallic  (see  Phallus)  charac- 
ter, being  associated  with  the  worship 
of  Dionysus;  and  its  development  may 
have  been  influenced  by  the  independent 
comedy  of  Megara,  though  more  probably 
by  other  Dorian  mimetic  performances. 

§  2.  The  Old  or  Aristophanic  Comedy 
Comedies  were  performed  at  Athens  at 
the  festivals  of  Dionysus,  the  great  Diony- 
sia  and  the  Lenaea.  Five  poets  competed 
on  each  occasion,  each  producing  one 
play.  The  normal  type  of  tho  Old  or 




Aristophanic  Comedy  contained  the  fol- 
lowing parts  (it  must  be  remembered  that 
comedy  was  less  bound  by  rules  than 
tragedy,  that  its  form  constantly  varied 
and  rapidly  developed) : 

(a)  a  Prologue  (prologos)  or  exposition ; 

(6)  a  parodos  or  entry  of  the  chorus ; 

(c)  an  agon  or  dispute  between  two 
adversaries,  the  main  subject  of  the  play; 

(d)  a  parabasis,  in  which  the  chorus 
addressed  the  audience  on  behalf  of  the 
poet.   The  parabasis  consisted  of  an  ana- 
paestic passage  followed  by  a  long  sen- 
tence to  be  uttered  in  one  breath  (pnlgos) ; 
and  then  of  an  ode  or  invocation  to  a  god, 
followed  by  an  epirrhema  or  satiric  speech 
on  current  affairs,  and  by  an  antod&  and 

It  is  probable  that  in  the  parodos,  agon, 
and  parabasis  we  have  an  adaptation  of 
some  kind  of  komos  in  which  a  contest 
arose,  and  which  ended  in  an  address  to 
the  onlookers. 

(e)  A  number  of  episodes  (epeisodia,  in 
iambics)  slightly  separated  by  songs  of 
the  chorus,  sometimes  carrying  on  the 
main  plot,  but  as  a  rule  only  illustrating 
the  conclusion  arrived  at  in  the  agon; 

(/)  the  exodos  or  final  scene,  in  which 
the  predominant  note  is  rejoicing,  gener- 
ally leading  up  to  a  feast  or  wedding. 

The  subject  was  some  simple  story  or 
fable,  imaginary,  novel,  amusing,  and  at 
the  same  time  satirical,  involving  a  dispute 
on  some  subject  of  current  interest,  as  a 
result  of  which  the  poet's  opinion  was 
made  known.  The  role  of  the  chorus  was 
to  excite  rather  than  to  pacify  and  con- 
ciliate (as  in  Tragedy)  the  disputants,  and 
finally  to  side  with  the  victor.  The  charac- 
ters, whether  they  were  taken  from  real 
life  or  were  the  personification  of  abstract 
ideas  (such  as  Peace  or  the  People),  were 
mere  caricatures  or  symbols,  not  morally 
responsible  human  beings.  The  parts, 
both  male  and  female,  were  taken  by 
men.  Their  dress  was  that  of  ordinary 
life  and  they  wore  masks  of  certain  easily 
recognized  typos,  but  more  grotesque  than 
those  of  the  tragic  actors ;  they  were  also 
extravagantly  padded. 

The  comic  chorus  numbered  probably 
twenty -four  and  were  often  divided  into 
two  half-choruses,  e.g.  of  men  and  women. 
They  wore  masks  and  grotesque  dresses 
to  suit  their  parts  (e.g.  as  birds  or  wasps), 
but  took  off  their  outer  cloaks  for  the  pur- 
pose of  their  dances.  Dances,  notably  the 
Cordax  (see  Dances),  were  an  important 
feature  in  the  performance.  Altogether 
the  Old  Comedy  was  a  curious  blend  of 
religious  ceremony,  serious  satire  and 
criticism  (political,  social,  and  literary), 
wit,  and  buffoonery. 

§  3.  Authors  of  the  Old  Comedy 
Of  the  authors  of  the  Old  Comedy,  other 
than  Aristophanes  (q.v.),  we  know  little. 
CRATINUS  (c.  520-c.  423)  was  the  most 
successful.  He  wrote  twenty-one  comedies 
(frequently  attacking  Pericles)  and  won 
the  prize  nine  times.  He  was  a  drunkard, 
and  Aristophanes  in  the  *  Knights'  mocked 
him  in  his  decline.  Cratinus  the  following 
year  (423)  wittily  defended  himself  in  *  The 
Bottle*  (Ptitine)  and  won  the  prize  against 
Aristophanes'  'Clouds'.  CRATES  won  his 
first  victory  in  450  and  was  the  first  to 
substitute  in  comedy  themes  of  a  general 
character  for  lampoons  on  individuals. 
PHERECRATES  was  an  imitator  of  Crates; 
ho  is  known  to  have  twice  won  the  prize 
(once  in  437).  EUPOLIS  (c.  446-£.  411)  was 
the  contemporary  of  Aristophanes  and  for 
a  time  his  friend  and  collaborator  (after- 
wards his  adversary),  and  one  of  the  most 
brilliant  writers  of  the  Old  Comedy.  He 
won  the  prize  seven  times.  His  witty  satire 
and  power  of  Invention  were  especially 
praised  by  the  ancients. 

§  4.  The  Middle  and  the  New  Comedy 
The  Old  Comedy  was  followed  about 
400  B.C.  by  what  is  known  as  the  Middle 
Comedy,  in  which  scurrility  gives  place 
to  parody,  ridicule  of  myths,  and  criticism 
of  literature  and  philosophy.  ANTIPHANES 
and  ALEXIS  were  its  principal  representa- 
tives, and  the  '  Plutus*  of  Aristophanes  ia 
an  example  of  it.  The  New  Comedy  began 
to  prevail  about  336 ;  its  characteristic 
features  are  the  representation  of  contem- 
porary life  by  means  of  imaginary  persons 
drawn  from  it,  the  development  of  plot 
and  character,  the  substitution  of  humour 
for  wit,  and  the  introduction  of  romantic 
love  as  a  theme.  It  resembles  the  tragedy 
of  Euripides  (the  'Ion*  for  example)  more 
than  the  comedy  of  Aristophanes.  Of  the 
chorus  no  more  remains  than  a  band  of 
musicians  and  dancers  whose  performances 
punctuate  intervals  in  the  play.  The 
New  Comedy  is  in  fact  an  obvious  pro- 
genitor of  the  modern  drama.  But  its 
moral  standard  is  surprisingly  low.  It 
holds  up  no  finer  quality  than  good  nature 
to  approval,  while  it  condones  such  things 
as  rape  and  seduction,  Most  of  it  was 
written  at  a  time  of  political  and  moral  dis- 
illusionment, when  Athens  had  ceased  to 
be  a  free  State  and  had  come  under  Mace- 
donian dominion,  with  a  Macedonian  gar- 
rison at  Munychia.  PHILEMON  and  ME^AN- 
DER  were  the  chief  poets  of  the  New 
Comedy.  The  former  (c.  361-263)  was  a 
native  of  Soli  in  Cilicia  or  of  Syracuse,  but 
came  young  to  Athens.  Some  of  his  plays, 
none  of  which  have  survived,  were  utilized 
by  Plautus.  For  Menander,  see  under  his 



Gomitia  Curiata 

name.  DIPHILUS  of  Sinope  was  another 
great  comic  poet  of  this  period;  of  his 
hundred  comedies  we  have  only  the  titles 
of  some  sixty;  Plautus  modelled  several 
of  his  comedies  on  him,  Terence  part  of 
his '  Adelphoo'. 

§  5.  Evolution  and  character 
Roman  comedy  had  its  distant  origin, 
according  to  Livy  (vn.  ii)  in  the  dances, 
accompanied  by  the  flute,  of  players 
brought  from  Etruria  on  the  occasion  of 
a  pestilence  to  propitiate  the  gods.  The 
young  Romans  imitated  these  dances, 
adding  a  dialogue  of  rude  improvised 
verses,  like  the  Fesccnnine  (q.v.).  This 
rude  dialogue  presently  gave  place  to  a 
somewhat  more  developed  but  still  plot- 
less dramatic  performance,  the  satura  or 
medley  (see  Satire),  with  appropriate 
musical  accompaniment.  Livius  Androni- 
cus  (q.v.)>  the  historian  continues,  was 
the  first  to  abandon  the  satura  and  com- 
pose a  play  with  a  plot.  When  this  more 
serious  and  artistic  form  of  drama  became 
established,  the  young  Romans  left  it  to 
professionals,  and  returned  to  the  impro- 
visation of  comic  verses  and  the  acting 
of  Atellan  (q.v.)  farces.  Whether  this  be  a 
correct  account  or  not  (and  Pauly-Wis- 
eowa  regard  such  theories  with  suspicion ; 
see  under  Fescennine  Verses),  we  may  con- 
clude that  several  elements  probably  went 
to  the  development  of  Roman  comedy: 
from  the  north,  Etrurian  mimetic  dances 
and  perhaps  Fescennino  dialogue;  from 
the  south,  at  a  later  period,  Atellan  farce ; 
and  the  medley  or  satura.  Alongside  of 
the  Atellan  play  mention  should  be  made 
of  the  Mime  (q.v.),  probably  adopted  from 
Magna  Graecia.  In  a  soil  prepared  by  these 
primitive  dramatic  forms,  Greek  comedy, 
first  introduced  by  Livius  Andronicus, 
gained  a  temporary  hold.  This  found,  in 
the  3rd  c.  B.C.,  its  first  important  Roman 
exponent  in  Naevius  (q.v.),  who  appears 
to  have  imitated  the  Attic  Old  Comedy  hi 
his  criticisms  of  political  personages.  He 
was  followed  by  Plautus,  Caecilius  Statius, 
and  Terence  (qq.v.),  professed  imitators 
of  the  Attic  New  Comedy ;  their  plays  were 
known  in  consequence  as  faJbulae  pallia- 
toe  (q.v.).  Plautus,  in  broad  strokes  of 
humour,  caricature,  and  farce,  wrote  for 
the  Roman  crowd.  Terence,  with  a  more 
delicate  art  and  refined  wit,  wrote  for  a 
more  cultivated  audience.  But  Greek 
themes  made  no  permanent  appeal  to  the 
Romans.  The  faJbulae  togatae  (q.v.),  hi 
which  characters  and  scones  were  Italian 
though  the  structure  was  that  of  the 
Attic  New  Comedy,  were  rather  more 
popular  (see  Afranius).  A  frequent  feature 

in  them  was  ridicule  of  the  'country 
cousin',  the  inhabitant  of  the  country 
towns.  But  the  fabula  togata  degenerated 
into  farce,  and  Roman  comedy,  which  had 
never  established  itself  in  public  favour, 
practically  ceased  to  be  written  in  the 
1st  c.  B.C.  Volcatius  Sedigitus  (/?.  c.  100 
B.C.)  wrote  in  verse  a  short  'canon*  (see 
Texts  and  Studies,  §  2)  of  the  Roman  comic 
writers,  placing  Caecilius  first  in  order  of 
merit,  Plautus  second,  Naevius  third,  and 
Terence  sixth.  Varro  (q.v.)  placed  Caeci- 
lius first  for  plots,  and  Plautus  for  dia- 
logue. Horace  in  Ep.  n.  i.  50  et  seq.  has  a 
passage  on  the  contemporary  estimation 
of  Roman  comic  writers. 

Roman  comedies  comprised  spoken  dia- 
logue and  portions  that  were  declaimed 
and  sung.  The  scenes  written  hi  iambic 
scnarii  (sec  Metre)  were  called  diverbium, 
designated  by  DV  in  the  margin.  This  was 
the  spoken  dialogue.  All  other  portions 
are  usually  called  cantica,  designated  by 
C  and  including  (a)  trochaic  and  iambic 
septenarii,  forming  melodramatic  recitals, 
declaimed  by  the  actor  or  actors  to  a  musi- 
cal accompaniment,  (6)  the  lyric  or  sup- 
posedly lyric  parts,  sung  by  the  actor  or 
a  concealed  substitute,  with  a  flute  accom- 
paniment, either  as  a  song  or  as  a  recita- 
tive. The  chorus  has  practically  dis- 
appeared in  Roman  comedy  (there  is  a 
chorus  of  fishermen  in  the  'lindens'  of 
Plautus  and  pieces  for  the  whole  com- 
pany at  the  end  of  the  'Asinaria'  and 
the  'Cistcllaria').  The  cantica  might  bo 
declaimed  or  sung  by  a  single  actor,  or  by 
two  or  more  actors  hi  dialogue.  For  the 
metre  of  Roman  comedy,  see  Metre,  §  4. 

See  also  Drama,  Theatre,  Pantomime. 

Comi'tia  Centuria'ta,  the  assembly  of 
the  Roman  people  in  'hundreds',  military 
divisions  attributed  to  Servius  Tullius  (see 
Rome,  §  2).  This  assembly  was  organized 
so  as  to  give  the  preponderance  of  power 
to  the  wealthy  classes.  It  elected  the 
chief  magistrates  hi  the  republic,  had  the 
power  of  legislation,  and  heard  appeals  hi 
capital  cases. 

As  a  legislative  body  it  could  only  give 
assent  or  dissent  to  measures  proposed  by 
magistrates  who  were  at  first  patrician; 
and  these  measures  had  to  receive  the 
sanction  of  the  Senate.  In  339  a  measure 
was  passed  by  Publilius  Philo  that  the 
sanction  of  the  Senate  had  to  be  given 
before  a  proposal  was  put  before  the 
comitia.  This  sanction  later  became  a 
mere  formality. 

Comi'tia  Curia'ta,  the  assembly  of  the 
cftriae  or  wards  at  Rome,  the  primitive 
assembly  of  the  Roman  people.  It  elected 
the  kings  and  is  said  (though  this  Is 

Comitia  Tributa 



doubted)  to  have  voted  on  questions  of 
war  and  peace.  In  early  times  it  had  the 
function  of  confirming  wills.  During  the 
republic  it  ratified,  by  the  formal  lex  curi- 
ata  de  imperfo,  the  conferment  of  power 
(imperium)  on  the  newly  appointed  chief 
magistrates.  It  also  dealt  with  cases  of 
adoption,  and  of  the  transference  of  a 
patrician  to  a  plebeian  family,  election  to 
certain  priesthoods,  and  other  religious 
matters.  In  late  republican  times  meet- 
ings of  the  Comitia  Curiata  were  purely 
formal:  an  assembly  of  thirty  lictors  was 
a  sufficient  quorum. 

Comi'tia  Tribu'ta,  the  assembly  of  the 
Roman  people,  voting  by  tribes;  it  had 
legislative  powers  and  elected  the  minor 
magistrates.  It  could  receive  appeals  in 
cases  of  lesser  gravity.  It  was  summoned 
by  the  consuls  or  praetors.  See  also 
Concilium  plebis. 

Comi'tium,  'meeting-place',  at  Rome,  a 
paved  area  about  80  yards  square  on  the 
NW.  side  of  the  Roman  Forum.  It  was 
a  templum  or  inaugurated  area  (see 
Temples,  §  2)  and  hero  in  early  republican 
times  took  place  the  assemblies  of  the 
Roman  people  for  purposes  other  than 
elections  (see  Campus  Martins).  On  the 
N.  side  of  it  stood  the  Curia,  on  the  S. 
stood  the  Rostra  (qq.v.)  and  see  PI.  14. 

Commentaries  on  the  Gallic  War  and 
on  the  Civil  War  (' Common  tarii  de  bello 
Galileo'  and  'Commontarii  de  bello  clvl- 
li'),  memoirs  by  C.  Julius  Caesar  (q.v.)  con- 
cerned respectively  with  his  campaigns 
from  58  to  52  B.C.,  and  with  the  Civil 
War  which  culminated  in  the  battle  of 
Pharsalua  (48). 

§  1.  'The  Gallic  War* 
In  the '  Gallic  War',  Caesar,  after  a  brief 
geographical  description  of  Gaul,  plunges 
at  once  into  an  account  of  the  migration 
of  the  Helvetii  into  Gaul,  of  their  pursuit 
and  repulse  by  the  Romans,  and  of  their 
resettlement  in  their  old  homes.  Book  I 
then  relates  the  increasing  invasion  of 
Gaul  by  Germans,  Caesar's  decision  to  put 
an  end  to  it,  the  fruitless  negotiations  with 
their  king  Ariovistus,  and  the  great  battle 
NE.  of  Vesontio  (Besancon)  hi  which  the 
Germans  were  routed  (58  B.C.).  See  PI.  11. 
Book  II.  The  Belgic  tribes,  threatened 
by  the  Roman  advance  and  incited  by  dis- 
contented Gauls,  combine  for  war  against 
Rome.  The  prompt  movement  of  Caesar 
against  them  disconcerts  their  plans,  and 
a  series  of  engagements  culminates  in  a 
critical  battle  against  the  Nervii  on  the 
Sambre  and  their  virtual  extermination. 
An  expeditionary  force  under  P.  Crassus 
meanwhile  subdues  the  tribes  on  the 

Atlantic  seaboard,  and  the  whole  of  Gaul 
is  temporarily  reduced  to  quiet  (57  B.C.). 

Book  III.  Some  predatory  Alpine  tribes 
are  subdued  by  Servius  Galba.  Certain 
Armorican  tribes  led  by  the  Veneti  revolt, 
and  in  spite  of  Roman  inexperience  of 
their  kind  of  naval  warfare  are  defeated 
by  the  improvised  fleet  and  novel  tactics 
of  the  Romans.  Their  allies  are  dealt  with 
in  subsidiary  campaigns  (56). 

Book  IV.  The  Usipetes  and  Tencteri, 
German  tribes,  invade  Gaul,  and  are 
crushed  by  Caesar  near  the  Meuso.  Caesar 
follows  up  this  success  by  crossing  the 
Rhine  as  a  demonstration.  Ho  makes 
his  first  expedition  to  Britain,  which  had 
supported  Gaul  against  the  Romans.  A 
small  force  lands  in  Kent  hi  face  of 
fierce  opposition.  Caesar's  fleet  at  anchor 
suffers  severely  from  a  storm,  and  the 
British  manner  of  chariot-fighting  is  dis- 
concerting to  his  troops.  He  withdraws 
his  force  from  Britain  in  September  (55). 

Book  V.  The  second  invasion  of  Britain 
with  a  larger  force.  After  its  landing,  a 
storm  again  destroys  many  of  the  trans- 
ports. Caesar  reaches  and  fords  the 
Thames,  captures  the  stronghold  of  the 
chief  Cassivcllaunus,  and  obtains  his  sur- 
render. Caesar  takes  hostages,  fixes  the 
tribute  payable  by  Britain,  and  withdraws 
to  the  continent.  The  Book  includes  a 
geographical  description  of  Britain.  Dur- 
ing the  winter  the  Gauls  take  advantage  of 
the  dispersion  of  the  legions  to  revolt.  The 
Kburones  under  Ambiorix  annihilate  the 
Roman  garrison  of  Aduatuca  (Tongres  (?)) 
and  then,  with  their  confederates,  subject 
the  camp  of  Q.  Cicero  (q.v.)  in  the  terri- 
tory of  the  Nervii  to  a  determined  siege. 
Cicero  is  rescued  from  a  most  perilous 
position  onyi  by  the  rapid  advance  of 
Caesar  himself  with  two  legions  from 
Amiens.  The  whiter  passes  amid  symp- 
toms of  further  revolt.  Indutiomarus, 
leader  of  the  insubordinate  Treveri,  is 
killed  in  a  surprise  attack  (54). 

Book  VI.  Various  punitive  expeditions 
in  the  NE.,  the  chief  of  them  directed 
against  Ambiorix  (the  Eburonian  leader 
in  the  capture  of  Aduatuca).  His  kingdom 
is  ravaged,  but  ho  himself  escapes.  A  body 
of  German  horsemen  cross  the  Rhine  to 
share  in  the  plunder  of  his  territory,  but, 
at  the  suggestion  of  a  Gaul,  attack  instead 
Aduatuca,  where  the  baggage  of  the 
Roman  army  is  stored.  They  nearly  suc- 
ceed in  carrying  the  fort  by  their  surprise 
attack,  but  are  driven  off.  The  Book  con- 
tarns  an  account  of  the  customs  of  the 
Gauls  and  Druids,  and  of  the  Germans  (53). 

Book  VII.  The  disturbed  state  of  Italy 
(Clodius  was  murdered  early  in  52)  en- 
courages the  Gauls  to  a  general  revolt, 




begun  by  the  Canmtes,  who  massacre  the 
Roman  residents  in  Genabum  (Orleans). 
A  coalition  of  the  principal  tribes  is  formed 
under  Vercingetorix  the  Arvernian  ( Auver- 
gne)  and  threatens  the  frontier  of  the 
Roman  province.  Caesar  hastens  back 
from  Italy,  makes  the  province  secure, 
and  crosses  the  Cevonnes  in  mid-winter, 
drawing  Vercingetorix  south  to  the  de- 
fence of  Auvergne.  Leaving  D.  Brutus  to 
keep  him  occupied,  Caesar  himself  rapidly 
travels  to  the  legions  at  Langres  and 
effects  a  concentration  of  the  Roman 
army.  He  recaptures  Orleans  and  besieges 
Avaricum  (Bourges),  capital  of  the  Bitu- 
riges.  In  spite  of  the  attempts  of  Vcrcinge- 
torix  to  relievo  the  place,  and  much 
Buffering  from  cold  and  scarcity  of  sup- 
plies, the  town  is  carried  and  the  inha- 
bitants are  indiscriminately  butchered. 
Caesar  moves  to  tho  attack  of  Gergovia, 
capital  of  tho  Arverni.  During  the  siege  of 
this  very  difficult  position,  tho  rashness 
of  some  of  the  Roman  troops  in  the  course 
of  a  carefully  planned  attack  on  an  out- 
work loads  to  heavy  loss.  This  and  news 
of  tho  defection  of  the  Aedui,  hitherto 
faithful  to  the  Roman  cause,  induce  Caesar 
to  abandon  the  siege.  Unmolested  by 
Vercingetorix  he  moves  to  rejoin  Labienus 
in  tho  north.  That  officer  had  been  sent 
against  the  Senoncs  (Sens)  and  the  Parisii, 
but  a  rising  of  tho  Bellovaci,  following 
news  of  the  retreat  of  Caesar  from  Gor- 
govia,  had  imperilled  his  position.  He 
extricates  his  force  by  a  skilful  manoeuvre 
and  joins  Caesar  at  Sens.  Tho  united  army 
moves  against  Vercingetorix,  who  is  again 
threatening  tho  Roman  province,  follows 
him  to  his  stronghold  AlSsia  (Auxois  in 
the  Cdte  d'Or),  invests  the  place,  and  in 
spite  of  tho  efforts  of  a  great  army  of 
Gauls  to  relieve  it,  captures  it  and  Ver- 
cingetorix after  desperate  fighting. 

Book  Fill,  a  continuation  of  the  above, 
was  written  by  A.  Hirtius  (q.v.).  Caesar's 
work  was  published  in  51  B.C. 

§  2.  4  The  Civil  War9 
Book  I  narrates  the  opening  of  the  war, 
after  Caesar  had  crossed  the  Rubicon ;  his 
rapid  advance,  under  pressure  of  which 
Pompey  retires  to  Brundisium  and  with- 
draws to  Epirus  before  Caesar's  works  for 
closing  the  entrance  of  the  harbour  are  com- 
pleted. Caesar  passes  to  Massilia  (Mar- 
seilles), of  which  he  starts  the  siege,  and 
thence  to  Spain,  where  his  strategy  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ilerda  (Lerida)  secures 
the  surrender  of  Afranius  and  Petreius,  the 
Pompeian  leaders. 

Book  II  relates  the  continuation  of  the 
siege  of  Massilia  and  its  capitulation; 
the  subjugation  of  Western  Spain ;  and  the 

disastrous  campaign  of  Caesar's  lieutenant, 
C.  Curio,  in  North  Africa,  where  his  rash- 
ness brings  about  the  annihilation  of  his 
force  by  King  Juba.  All  the  above  events 
belong  to  the  year  49  B.C. 

Book  III  relates  the  operations  of 
Caesar  in  48  against  Pompey  in  Epirus, 
the  unsuccessful  attempt  to  blockade  the 
latter  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dyrrha- 
chium,  Caesar's  withdrawal  to  Thessaly, 
the  battle  of  Pharsalus  (a  simple,  lucid 
account),  and  Pompey 's  flight  to  Egypt, 
where  he  is  murdered.  The  work  ends 
with  an  account  of  tho  political  situation 
in  Egypt,  Caesar's  proceedings  there,  and 
the  grave  peril  to  which  he  and  his  force 
are  exposed. 

Commerce,  see  Athens,  §  10,  and  Rome, 

Co'mos  (Komos),  see  Comedy,  §  1. 

Companions  of  the  King,  in  the  political 
system  of  early  Greece,  retainers  attached 
to  tho  king  by  personal  ties  of  service. 
Tho  institution  survived  in  the  Mace- 
donian monarchy,  and  tho  'Companions' 
of  Philip  of  Macedon  and  Alexander  the 
Great  follow  them  in  their  campaigns. 

Compita'lia,  at  Rome,  the  festival  of  the 
Lares  (q.v.)  of  the  cross-roads  (compita). 
Tho  festival  was  a  movable  one,  its  date 
being  announced  by  tho  praetor.  Cakes 
were  offered  by  every  family,  and  woollen 
effigies  of  men  and  women  and  woollen 
balls  (representing  slaves)  were  hung  up 
at  tho  cross-roads,  or  at  the  doors  of 
private  houses,  in  the  hope  that  the  spirits 
would  spare  the  living  and  bo  content  with 
tho  effigies  (Frazer  on  Ov.  Fast.  ii.  615). 
Slaves  exceptionally  had  a  share  in  the 
festival  and  were  allowed  much  licence  (as 
at  the  Saturnalia,  q.v.).  Tho  festival  was 
said  to  have  been  instituted  by  long 
Servius  Tullms,  himself  the  son,  according 
to  legend,  of  a  slave-woman  by  the  Lar 

Concepti'vae,  Feriae,  see  Festivals,  §  7. 

Conci'lium  plebis,  at  Rome,  the  as- 
sembly of  the  plebeians  alone,  summoned 
by  the  tribunes.  Voting  by  tribes  it 
elected  the  plebeian  magistrates  (tribunes, 
aediles) ;  and  its  decisions  (pUbi  scita)  had 
full  legislative  authority  if  approved  by 
the  Senate,  and  after  the  lex  Hortensia 
of  287  B.C.  even  without  this  approval. 
Some  authorities  do  not  admit  any  dis- 
tinction between  tho  Concilium  plebis  and 
the  Comitia  tribute,  (q.v.).  The  actual 
composition  of  the  two  bodies  must  have 
been  very  similar. 

Concord,  TEMPLE  OF.  The  original 
Temple  of  Concord  at  Rome  was  vowed 



Constantino  the  Great 

by  M.  Furms  Camillus  (q.v.)  in  367  B.C. 
to  celebrate  the  end  of  civil  strife  on  the 
passing  of  the  Licinian  Rogations  (q.v.). 
The  second  temple,  perhaps  a  restoration 
of  the  first,  was  built  after  the  death  of 
C.  Gracchus  (q.v.).  The  temple  was  re- 
built by  Tiberius  (before  his  accession) 
from  the  spoils  of  his  German  campaigns. 
It  stood  in  an  elevated  position  at  the  west 
end  of  the  Forum.  The  Senate  often  met 
there  and  some  of  Cicero's  great  political 
speeches  were  delivered  there.  It  was 
there  too  that  Sejanus  was  condemned  to 

Confarrea'tio,  at  Rome,  the  most  solemn 
form  of  marriage.  Servius  the  commenta- 
tor states  hi  a  note  on  Virgil  that  bride  and 
bridegroom  sat  on  two  chairs  which  were 
covered  with  the  skin  of  a  sheep  which 
had  been  sacrificed.  At  this  ceremony  the 
sacred  spelt-cake  (panis  farrcus  as  it  was 
usually  called)  was  offered  to  Jupiter 
Farreus.  The  ceremony  was  performed 
in  the  presence  of  the  Pontifex  Maximus, 
the  Flamen  Dialis  (qq.v.),  and  other  wit- 
nesses. It  was  hi  fact  a  State  ceremony. 
See  Women  (Position  of),  §  2. 

Confessions,  see  Augustine. 

Go'non  (K&non),  one  of  the  Athenian  com- 
manders at  Aegospotami  (405  B.C.,  see 
Peloponnesian  War),  whence  he  escaped 
with  eight  ships.  Ho  was  subsequently 
appointed  with  Pharnabazus  to  command 
the  Persian  fleet  against  Sparta,  and  in  394 
defeated  Peisander  at  Cnidus,  destroying 
the  naval  power  of  Sparta,  and  avenging 
the  defeat  of  Aegospotami.  He  returned 
to  Athens,  and  with  the  help  of  the  Per- 
sian fleet  completed  the  rebuilding  of  the 
Long  Walls.  There  is  a  life  of  him  by 

Consola'tio  ad  Liviam,  a  poem  in  Latin 
elegiacs,  incorrectly  attributed  to  Ovid, 
probably  written  In  the  last  years  of  the 
1st  c.  B.C.  It  is  addressed  to  the  empress 
Livia  on  the  death  of  her  son,  the  elder 

Cona6ldrtiS  ad  Mar  darn,  ad  Helvtam, 
ad  Polybium,  see  Seneca  (the  Philo- 

Constantino  the  Great  (Fldvius  Valerius 
Constantmus  Augustus)  (c.  A.D.  274-337), 
eon  of  the  Roman  emperor  Constantius, 
caused  himself  to  be  proclaimed  Caesar  by 
his  troops  at  Eburacum  (York)  on  the 
death  of  his  father  in  A.D.  306.  This  was 
the  period  when,  under  an  arrangement 
made  by  Diocletian  about  A.D.  293,  the 
Roman  empire  was  governed  by  four  rulers, 
two  August!  and  two  Caesars,  their  sub- 
ordinates. In  308  Constantino  was  raised 
by  the  troops  to  the  dignity  of  Augustus. 

A  complicated  struggle  followed  between 
rival  claimants  for  imperial  power.  In 
312  Constantino  marched  boldly  against 
Maxentius,  who  held  an  apparently  im- 
pregnable position  in  Rome,  and  com- 
pletely defeated  him  near  the  Milvian 
Bridge,  thus  establishing  his  position  as 
Augustus  hi  the  West.  The  precise  rela- 
tions of  Constantino  with  Christianity 
have  been  the  subject  of  much  contro- 
versy, duo  in  part  to  doubts  as  to  the 
genuineness  of  the  various  documents, 
including  Constantino's  own  letters  and 
edicts,  which  have  come  down  to  us.  The 
following  brief  summary  is  based  on  the 
view  of  a  recent  authority  (see  N.  H. 
Baynes,  'Constantino  the  Great  and  the 
Christian  Church',  Raleigh  Lecture  for 
1929).  In  303  Galerius  had  forced  upon 
Diocletian  the  policy  of  persecuting  the 
Christians  and  had  continued  it,  as  Augus- 
tus in  the  East,  nearly  until  his  death  in 
311.  Constantius  in  the  West  had  refused 
to  follow  his  eastern  colleague's  policy,  and 
under  him  the  West  had  continued  to 
enjoy  religious  peace.  In  Rome,  Maxen- 
tius, when  Constantine  marched  against 
him,  was  supported  by  the  leaders  of  the 
pagan  religion.  According  to  the  state- 
ment of  Eusebius  (q.v.),  Constantine  told 
Eusebius,  years  later,  that  in  the  course 
of  this  march  on  Rome  he  had  seen  a 
vision  of  the  cross  athwart  the  sun,  and 
beneath  it  the  words  'In  this  conquer*. 
Before  the  walls  of  Rome  Constantine  saw 
a  further  vision,  bidding  him  place  the 
Christian  monogram  on  the  shields  of  his 
soldiers.  This  was  done,  and  the  troops 
were  victorious.  Shortly  afterward  an  edict 
of  toleration  of  the  Christians  was  issued 
by  Constantine,  and  various  instructions 
were  sent  for  the  relief  of  the  Christians 
in  Africa.  Licinius  was  now  emperor 
in  the  East.  In  313  Constantine  and 
Licinius  met  at  Milan  and  a  policy  of  com- 
plete religious  freedom  was  agreed  upon. 
But  in  314  and  again  in  323  war  broke  out 
between  them.  In  324  Licinius  surren- 
dered, and  Constantine  became  sole  master 
of  the  Roman  empire.  He  had  already 
exerted  himself  hi  vain  to  secure  a  settle- 
ment of  the  conflict  between  the  Catholics 
and  the  Donatists.  In  the  East  he  found 
the  Church  rent  by  the  Arian  controversy. 
Once  more  he  strove  to  secure  unity.  His 
efforts  were  in  great  measure  rewarded  at 
the  Council  of  Nicaea  (325),  over  which  he 
presided,  and  Arius  himself  was  before 
long  converted  to  the  Catholic  doctrine. 
But  Athanasius,  patriarch  of  Alexandria, 
refused  to  receive  Arius  back  into  the 
Church  and  remained  obdurate  in  face 
of  the  emperor's  threat  of  deprivation. 
He  was  finally  banished  by  Constantine 

Constitution  of  the  Athenians 



to  Gaul,  where  he  remained  until  the 
emperor's  death.  In  330  Constantino 
transferred  the  seat  of  government  to 
Byzantium,  which  was  renamed  Con- 
stantinople ;  and  died  in  337,  having  been, 
according  to  Eusebius,  baptized  a  Chris- 
tian shortly  before  his  death.  But  he  had 
long  before  this  identified  himself  with  the 
Christian  Church  and  creed.  It  appears 
from  his  acts  and  letters  that  he  believed 
himself  entrusted  with  a  personal  mission 
by  the  Christian  God,  and  that  he  thought 
the  prosperity  of  the  Roman  State  bound 
up  with  the  cause  of  unity  hi  the  Catholic 
Church.  He  was  probably  familiar  with, 
and  impressed  by,  the  *  De  Mortibus  Per- 
secutorum*  of  Lactantius  (q.v.),  whom  he 
appointed  tutor  to  his  son. 

Constitution  of  the  Athenians  (Athe- 
naion  Poltteia),  (1)  see  Aristotle,  §§  2  and  3. 

(2)  A  short  pamphlet  (often  referred  to  as 
'De  Re  Publica  Athcniensium')  attributed 
to  Xcnophon  but  almost  certainly  written 
by  an  Athenian  oligarch  about  425  B.C. 
Beneath  an  apparent  admiration  for  the 
Athenian  constitution  is  concealed  a  bitter 
criticism  of  the  democracy  and  all  its 
works,  and  in  particular  of  the  Athenian 
empire.  The  work,  which  is  sometimes 
ascribed  to  an  *  Old  Oligarch ',  is  extremely 
valuable  as  expressing  a  contemporary 

Constitution  of  the  Lacedaemonians 
(Lakedaimonion  PolUeid),  a  minor  work 
of  Xenophon. 

Xonophon  attributes  the  power  of 
Sparta  to  the  institutions  of  Lycurgus, 
which  he  describes :  the  marriage  system, 
the  physical  training  of  both  sexes,  the 
strange  education  of  the  young,  the  public 
messes,  the  discouragement  of  private 
property,  the  preference  of  an  honourable 
death  to  a  disgraceful  life,  the  army 
system,  the  position  and  functions  of  the 
kings.  In  one  chapter  (xlv)  he  interrupts 
the  description  to  lament  the  falling  away 
of  the  Spartans  from  these  institutions. 
Of  the  Lacedaemonian  constitution,  in 
spite  of  the  title,  he  tells  very  little. 

Consua'lia,  see  Consus. 
Consul  suffe'ctus,  see  Consuls. 

Consuls  (Consumes),  at  Rome,  originally 
called  Praetors,  were  two  in  number  and 
elected  annually  by  the  people.  On  the 
expulsion  of  the  kings  the  consuls  received 
the  imperium,  the  military  and  judicial 
authority  formerly  wielded  by  the  kings 
(but  not  their  religious  authority,  which 
passed  to  the  Rex  Sacrorum  and  Pontifex 
Maximus,  qq.v.).  This  power  was  in 
course  of  time  reduced  by  the  creation  of 
new  magistracies,  notably  the  Censorship 

(see  Censors).  The  chief  functions  retained 
by  the  consuls  were  those  of  military  com- 
mand. Later  they  received  as  proconsuls 
an  extension  of  their  authority  after  the 
termination  of  their  year  of  office,  to 
enable  them  to  carry  on  a  military  com- 
mand or  govern  a  province.  In  dating,  the 
year  was  expressed  by  naming  the  consuls. 
Under  the  empire  the  consulate  became 
more  and  more  a  mainly  honorary  office ; 
consuls  were  appointed  as  a  rule  for  only 
six  months  or  for  an  even  shorter  period. 
They  retained  some  judicial  functions  and 
introduced  cases  before  the  Senate.  The 
consuls  appointed  to  succeed  those  who 
had  held  office  during  the  early  months 
of  the  year  were  called  consules  suffccti. 
See  also  Cursus  honorum. 

Co'nsus,  in  Roman  religion,  an  ancient 
god,  of  uncertain  attributes,  perhaps  ori- 
ginally an  agricultural  deity,  guardian  of 
the  garnered  harvest;  sometimes  identi- 
fied in  antiquity  with  Poseidon  (q.v.)  on 
account  of  the  connexion  of  each  with 
horses.  Consus  was  celebrated  on  21 
August  in  a  harvest  ceremony,  by  an 
offering  made  by  the  Flamen  (q.v.)  Quiri- 
nalis  and  the  Vestals,  at  an  underground 
altar  in  the  Circus  Maximus.  It  was  at 
this  festival,  the  Consudlla,  that  the  Rape 
of  the  Sabines  (q.v.)  took  place.  Consus 
was  also  associated  with  horses;  there 
were  chariot-races  at  the  Consualia,  and 
horses  had  a  holiday  on  that  day  and 
were  crowned  with  flowers.  There  was 
another  festival  of  Consus  on  15  December. 

Contra  RuIZtim,  see  De  Lege  Agrarla. 

Controve'rsiae,  see  Seneca  the  Elder  and 

Co'pa,  a  short  poem  in  elegiacs,  doubt- 
fully attributed  to  Virgil,  describing  the 
hostess  of  a  tavern,  who  dances  to  cas- 
tanets to  entertain  her  customers. 

Co'rax  (Korax),  a  Sicilian  rhetorician  of 
the  5th  c.  B.C.  See  Oratory ;  §  1. 

Co'rdax  (Kordax),  a  licentious  dance, 
associated  with  drunkenness,  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  Attic  comedies,  though 
Aristophanes  claims  to  have  excluded  it 
from  his  plays.  It  appears  to  have  origi- 
nated in  the  Peloponnese,  where  it  was 
danced  hi  honour  of  Artemis. 
Co're  (KorS),  see  Persephone. 
Cori'nna  (Korinna),  (1)  of  Tanagra  OP 
Thebes  hi  Boeotia,  a  lyric  poetess  of  the 
6th  c.  B.C.,  of  whose  work  few  fragments 
survive.  She  wrote  in  the  Boeotian  dialect, 
in  a  simple  style,  poems  on  the  legends  of 
her  native  country.  Tradition  relates  that 
she  instructed  Pindar  (q.v.)  hi  poetical 
composition.  According  to  an  anecdote 


she  criticized  the  absence  of  myths  from 
one  of  his  early  poems;  when  Pindar 
thereupon  went  to  the  other  extreme,  she 
remarked  that  one  should  'sow  by  hand- 
fills,  not  with  the  whole  sack',  an  expres- 
sion that  became  proverbial. 
(2)  See  Amorcs. 

Corinth  (Korinthos),  mentioned  as  Ei)hyre 
in  the  'Iliad',  a  city  connected  in  mytho- 
logy with  the  legend  of  Sisyphus  (q.v.), 
and  according  to  tradition  occupied  by  the 
Dorians  at  the  time  of  the  Dorian  invasion 
(see  Migrations).  Although  its  territory 
was  particularly  unfertile,  its  position  on 
the  isthmus  commanding  the  land-route 
between  Central  Greece  and  the  Pelopon- 
nese,  and  giving  access  to  two  seas,  offered 
great  advantages  (see  PL  8).  It  was  pre- 
eminent in  Greece  as  an  industrial  centre, 
and  shipbuilding  was  one  of  its  chief 
trades.  Amcinocles,  the  first  shipbuilder 
known  to  history,  lived  there,  and  the  first 
triremes  were  designed  at  Corinth.  For 
long  it  was  the  chief  commercial  town  in 
Europe.  Both  Homer  and  Pindar  speak 
of  'wealthy  Corinth*.  Its  position  also 
gave  it  a  cosmopolitan  character.  Cypsclus 
and  Periander  (qq.v.)  were  famous  tyrants 
of  Corinth  from  c.  655  to  585  B.C.  It  was 
at  the  Isthmus  of  Corinth  that  in  481  a 
congress  of  representatives  of  Greek  States 
met  to  concert  measures  against  the  Per- 
sian invasion.  The  chief  colonies  founded 
by  Corinth  were  Potidaea,  Corcyra,  and 
Syracuse.  All  three  figured  prominently 
in  the  Peloponnesian  War:  the  first  re- 
volted from  the  Delian  Confederacy  just 
before  the  war;  the  assistance  given  by 
Athens  to  Corcyra  against  Corinth  was 
one  of  the  immediate  causes  of  the  war; 
and  Syracuse  was  the  objective  of  the 
Sicilian  Expedition.  In  this  war,  Corinth 
was  one  of  the  most  active  and  persistent 
of  the  opponents  of  Athens.  But  later, 
Corinth  joined  Athens,  Thebes,  and  Argos 
to  throw  off  the  Spartan  supremacy  (the 
'Corinthian  War',  394-387).  Her  position 
at  the  base  of  the  Isthmus  made  her 
hostility  a  source  of  grave  danger  to 
Sparta,  and  the  struggle  centred  round 
Corinth,  which  endeavoured  to  close  the 
Isthmus  passage  against  Sparta.  The  war 
terminated  in  387  in  the  Peace  of  Antal- 
cidas,  dictated  by  the  Persian  king  at  the 
instance  of  Sparta.  In  the  war  against 
Macedon,  Corinth  joined  Athens  hi  the 
cause  of  Hellenic  freedom.  After  the 
defeat  of  Chaeronea  (338)  it  was  at 
Corinth  that  Philip  summoned  a  congress 
of  Greek  States  to  form  a  confederacy 
under  Macedonian  supremacy.  Later, 
Corinth  became  one  of  the  principal 
strongholds  of  the  Achaean  League  (q.v.) 

122  Corn  Supply 

and  was  destroyed  by  Mummius  in  146 
B.C.  and  its  territory  confiscated.  It  was 
refounded  by  Julius  Caesar  under  the 
name  of  Laus  Julii,  and  Augustus  made 
it  the  capital  of  the  Roman  province 
of  Achaia.  Hadrian  visited  it  and  con- 
structed baths  there,  and  an  aqueduct  to 
bring  water  from  Lake  Stymphalus. 

Corinth  is  connected  with  the  early  his- 
tory of  Greek  literature  through  Arion 
(q.v.).  Its  pottery  was  especially  famous 
from  about  650  to  550  B.C.  ;  and  Corinth 
gave  its  name  to  one  of  the  three  Grecian 
orders  of  architecture  (q.v.,  §  2).  It  also 
gave  its  name  to  'Corinthian  bronze',  an 
alloy,  it  is  said,  of  gold,  silver,  and  copper, 
employed  in  costly  ornaments.  Corinth 
became  notorious  for  luxury  and  pro- 
fligacy, and  the  word  'Corinthian*  is  used 
frequently  in  English  literature  with  allu- 
sion to  this. 

Corinth,  ISTHMUS  OF.  The  Isthmus  of 
Corinth  is  about  3^  miles  wide  at  its 
narrowest.  Ships  used  to  be  dragged  across 
this,  if  it  was  desired  to  avoid  the  long 
voyage  round  the  Peloponnese.  We  hear 
of  this  being  done  in  the  Peloponnesian 
War  (Thuc.  viii.  7),  and  it  was  done  with 
the  fleet  of  Octavian  when  he  pursued 
Antony  and  Cleopatra  after  Actium.  Nero 
undertook  the  work  of  cutting  a  canal 
through  the  Isthmus  (the  project  had 
occurred  to  others  before  him)  and  actu- 
ally started  it  with  his  own  hands  and  a 
golden  pickaxe ;  but  it  was  discontinued 
after  a  considerable  amount  of  excavation 
had  been  done. 

Corinthian  War,  see  Corinth. 

Coriola'nus,  GAIus  MARCIUS,  according 
to  tradition,  a  Roman  patrician  and  a 
gallant  general  of  the  first  half  of  the  5th 
c.  B.C.,  who  earned  the  name  Coriolanus 
for  the  capture  of  Corioli  from  the  Vol- 
scians.  He  was  prosecuted  by  the  tribunes 
on  the  charge  of  aspiring  to  become  tyrant, 
and  exiled ;  whereupon  he  betook  himself 
to  his  old  enemies  the  Volscians,  led  them 
against  Rome,  occupied  a  number  of  towns 
in  Latium,  and  approached  within  five 
miles  of  the  city.  But  yielding  to  the  en- 
treaties of  his  mother,  Veturia,  and  his 
wife  Volumnia,  ho  drew  off  his  army  and 
returned  to  Antium,  where  he  was  put  to 
death  by  the  Volscians.  The  story  is  told 
by  Plutarch  and  is  the  subject  of  one  of 
Shakespeare's  Roman  plays. 

Corn  Supply.  (1)  AT  ATHENS.  Great 
care  was  taken  to  maintain  the  supply  of 
this  essential  foodstuff.  At  the  beginning 
of  each  prytany  (see  Cleisthenes)  a  report 
on  the  stock-in-hand  was  made  to  the 
Assembly.  In  war-time  special  attention 




was  paid  to  the  security  of  the  imports 
from  the  Euxine.  The  transactions  of 
merchants,  millers,  and  bakers  were  rigor- 
ously controlled  by  law  and  supervised  by 
sUophulakes  to  prevent  irregularities.  But 
no  maximum  price  was  ever  fixed.  For 
prices  of  wheat,  see  Athens,  §  10.  The 
principal  sources  of  the  foreign  supply 
were  the  Euxine,  Egypt,  and  (in  the  4th 
c.)  Sicily. 

(2)  AT  ROME,  see  Annona. 

Corne'lia,  MOTHER  OF  TDE  GRACCHI,  see 

Corne'lius  Ga'llus,  see  Gallus. 
Corne'lius  Seve'rus,  see  Epic,  §  2. 

Cornu'tus,  LCcius  ANNAEUS,  a  Stoic 
philosopher;  see  Lucan  and  Persius. 

Corone'a  (Koroncia)  in  Bocotia,  the 
scene  (1)  of  the  battle  in  447  B.C.  in  which 
the  Athenians  under  Tolmidcs  were  de- 
feated by  tho  Boeotians;  (2)  of  the  battle 
in  394  B.C.  in  which  the  Spartans  under 
Agesilaus  (q.v.)  defeated  tho  Athenians 
and  Boeotians. 

Coro'nis  (Koronis),  see  Asclepius. 
Corpus  Juris  Clvilis,  see  Justinian. 

Cortese,  GIACOMO,  Italian  scholar,  in  1884 
described  a  page  of  a  palimpsest  fragment 
which  he  had  found  in  the  binding  of 
Ovid's  'Metamorphoses'.  He  gave  a  re- 
production of  tho  page,  and  attributed  tho 
fragment  to  Cornelius  Nepos.  The  attribu- 
tion and  date  were  actively  discussed  by 
scholars,  and  the  piece,  which  contained  a 
reference  to  Ennius,  passed  into  the  his- 
tories of  Latin  literature  as  'Anonymus 
Cortesianus'.  In  1904  L.  Traube  showed 
that  Cortese  (by  this  time  professor  of 
classical  philology  at  Rome)  had  invented 
the  text  and  fabricated  tho  reproduction 
by  taking  all  the  letters  from  Angelo  Mai's 
plate  of  a  palimpsest  of  a  part  of  Cicero's 
•de  Ropublica',  published  in  1822. 

Coryba'ntes  (Korubantes),  tho  com- 
panions of  the  goddess  Cybele  (q.v.), 
who  followed  her  with  wild  dances  and 
music.  Also  the  eunuch  priests  of  the 
goddess.  But  some  ancient  authorities 
associate  them  with  the  Curetes  (q.v.)  in 
the  ritual  of  Zeus. 

Cory'cian  Cave  (Kdrukion  antron),  a 
cavern  on  Mt.  Parnassus  above  Delphi, 
sacred  to  Pan  and  the  Nymphs. 

se'nex,  the  old  gardener,  a 
charming  description  of  whom  is  given  by 
Virgil  in  Georg.  iv.  125  et  seq. 

Corypha"e'us  (Koruphaios),  see  Chorus. 

Cos  (£T6s),  one  of  the  Sporades  islands, 
opposite  Halicarnassus.  In  the  Hellenistic 
Age  it  was  a  favourite  place  of  abode  of 
men  of  letters.  Philitas  (q.v.)  was  born 
there,  perhaps  Ptolemy  II,  and  perhaps 
also  Theocritus,  who  appears  to  have  spent 
part  of  his  life  there.  It  was  also  the  birth- 
place of  Hippocrates  (q.v.),  and  the  centre 
of  the  medical  school  of  the  Asclepiadae, 
who  claimed  descent  from  Asclepius  (q.v.). 
'Coan  vestments'  (Coae  vestes)  were  light 
transparent  garments  for  tho  manufacture 
of  which  Cos  was  famous  in  tho  days  of 
the  Roman  empire. 

Cost  of  Living,  see  Athens,  §  10,  and 
Rome,  §  13. 

Cothu'rnus  (Kothornos),  the  thick-soled 
boot  worn  by  the  Greek  tragic  actor  (see 
Tragedy,  §  2). 

Co'tta,  Gllus  AunfiLius,  consul  in  75  B.C. 
and  subsequently  proconsul  in  Gaul,  a 
distinguished  orator;  one  of  the  inter- 
locutors in  Cicero's  *De  Natura  Deorum'. 
He  figures  also  in  his  '  De  Oratore '. 

Co'ttabus  (Kottabos),  a  game  popular  at 
Greek  banquets,  in  which  the  player, 
reclining  on  a  couch,  throw  a  little  wine 
from  his  cup  at  a  mark,  a  small  saucer  with 
an  image  of  Hermes  above  it. 

Co'ttus  (Kottos),  see  Giants  (Hundred- 

Coty'tto  (Kotut(t)o),  a  Thracian  goddess, 
whose  cult  spread  over  Greece  and  Italy. 
She  was  associated  with  the  Phrygian 
Great  Mother  or  Cybele  (q.v,),  and  was 
worshipped  with  licentious  orgies. 

Cra'sis  ('mixing'),  the  running  together 
of  tho  vowel  or  diphthong  at  the  end  of  a 
word  with  tho  vowel  or  diphthong  at  the 
beginning  of  the  word  immediately  follow- 
ing, e.g.  KaXoKayaQla,  from  KoAos  KayaOos 
for  KO.L  dya0o?.  The  first  syllable  of  Kaya- 
06s,  it  should  be  noted,  is  long,  instead  of 
short  as  it  would  bo  if  the  diphthong  of 
KQ.L  could  be  elided. 

Cra'ssus,  Lucius  LIciNius  (140-91  B.C.), 
one  of  the  great  Roman  orators  of  his  day 
(see  Oratory,  §  2),  a  strong  supporter  of  the 
aristocracy.  He  Is  one  of  the  principal 
interlocutors  hi  the  *Do  Oratore  *  (q.v.) 
of  Cicero. 

Cra'ssus,  MARCUS,  praetor  in  105  B.C., 
grandfather  of  the  triumvir,  known  as 
dye'AaCTTOs  because  he  never  laughed.  He 
is  said,  however,  to  have  laughed  on  one 
occasion,  on  hearing  some  one  say,  at  the 
sight  of  an  ass  eating  thistles,  'Similem 
habent  labra  lactucam',  'like  lips,  like 
lettuce '. 




Cra'ssus,  MARCUS  LICINIUB  (d.  53  B.C.), 
one  of  Sulla's  lieutenants,  and  a  man  of 
great  wealth,  who  as  praetor  In  71  B.C. 
defeated  the  insurrection  of  Spartacus 
(q.v.).  He  was  consul  with  Pompey  in  70, 
and  combined  with  him  in  abolishing 
Sulla's  constitution  and  diminishing  the 
power  of  the  Senate.  During  Pompoy's 
absence  in  the  East  he  joined  Caesar 
in  the  lead  of  the  popular  party,  and 
in  60  with  Caesar  and  Pompey  formed  the 
coalition  known  as  the  'first  triumvirate*. 
He  chose  the  province  of  Syria  in  54,  as 
an  easy  way  of  acquiring  wealth  and  glory, 
but  was  defeated  by  the  Parthians  at 
Carrhae  in  53  and  subsequently  murdered 
by  them.  There  is  a  life  of  him  by  Plu- 
tarch, who  relates  that  he  owned  silver 
mines,  purchased  confiscated  estates  dur- 
ing Sulla's  proscriptions,  and  also  made  a 
practice  of  buying  houses  in  Rome  when 
they  were  on  fire  and  consequently  cheap, 
thus  coming  to  own  a  large  part  of  the 
city.  He  made  himself  popular  by  his 
general  affability  and  his  good  offices  to  all. 

Cra'tes  (Krates),  (1)  a  comic  poet,  see 
Comedy,  §  3 ;  (2)  a  Cynic  philosopher  (fl.  c. 
325  B.C.),  author  of  parodies  (including 
one  in  Homeric  style  on  the  'Beggar's 
Wallet*  (P&rd)  which  Cynics  carried),  ele- 
giacs, and  plays,  of  which  fragments  sur- 
vive, containing  many  Cynic  maxims.  He 
was  the  teacher  of  Zeno  the  Stoic,  and  gave 
up  much  wealth  to  take  up  the  life  of  a 
preacher  and  beggar.  One  of  his  pupils, 
Hipparchia,  married  him  and  shared  his 
life.  (3)  A  Greek  philosopher  (fl.  270  B.C.), 
the  last  leader  of  the  Old  Academy  (q.v.). 
(4)  Of  Hallos  in  Cilicia,  the  head  of 
the  Pergamene  library  (see  Pergamum) 
under  Eumenes  II  (2nd  c.  B.C.),  and  a 
commentator  on  Homer.  He  was  sent  as 
an  envoy  to  Rome,  where,  having  been 
detained  through  breaking  his  leg,  he  gave 
lectures  and  aroused  an  interest  in  literary 
study  (see  Texts  and  Studies,  §  5). 

Crati'nus  (Kratinos),  see  Comedy,  §  3. 

Cra'tylus  (Kratulos),  a  dialogue  by  Plato 
on  the  origin  of  language.  Cratylus  was 
a  philosopher  of  the  school  of  Heraclitus 
(q.v.)  and  a  friend  or  teacher  of  Plato. 
According  to  the  views  put  into  the  mouths 
of  Cratylus  and  Socrates,  language  is 
natural,  in  the  sense  that  words  are  imita- 
tions of  things;  but  there  are  also  in  it 
elements  of  chance,  of  design,  and  of 
convention;  and  foreign  speech  also  has 
an  Influence  on  its  development.  The 
etymologies  given  in  the  dialogue  are 

Cremation,  see  Buried. 
Cremu'tius  Co'rdus,  AULUB,  a  Roman 

historian  of  the  Civil  Wars,  put  to  death  by 
Tiberius  because,  it  is  said,  he  called 
Cassius  the  last  of  the  Romans.  His  his- 
tory has  not  survived. 
Cre'on  (Kredn)>  (1)  legendary  king  of 
Thebes,  see  Oedipus^  (2)  legendary  king 
of  Corinth,  see  Argonauts. 

Crepida'ta,  FIBULA,  a  term  applied  to 
Roman  tragedies  on  Greek  themes,  such 
as  the  tragedies  of  Pacuvius  and  Accius 
(qq.v.);  from  crepida,  the  cothurnus  or 
tragic  buskin. 

Crete.  The  researches  of  archaeologists 
have  shown  that  there  existed  in  various 
places  in  and  around  the  Aegean  a  bril- 
liant civilization  before  the  advent  of  the 
Greeks  into  those  parts  (see  Migrations 
and  Dialects}.  The  centre  of  that  civiliza- 
tion has  been  proved  to  be  Crete.  For  its 
chronology  see  Minoan.  It  is  impossible 
to  say  to  what  race  the  early  inhabitants 
of  Crete  belonged,  but  there  is  evidence 
that  they  were  neither  Indo -Europeans 
nor  Semites.  The  island  attained  to  great 
prosperity  and  a  dominating  position  in 
the  Aegean  from  the  period  known  as  the 
Middle  Minoan  III  to  the  Late  Minoan  II 
(2400-1400  B.C.).  This  position  was  based 
partly  on  the  geographical  situation  of  the 
island,  which  was  highly  favourable  for 
commerce  and  also  for  the  exercise  of  sea- 
power,  and  partly  on  the  industry  and 
craftsmanship  of  its  inhabitants,  who  ex- 
celled in  the  working  of  bronze  and  tho 
manufacture  of  pottery.  The  products  of 
these  industries  were  carried  by  their  com- 
merce to  Greece,  Egypt,  Cyprus,  Syria, 
Sicily,  and  the  Cyclades.  The  early  Cretans 
were  a  highly  artistic  people  and  produced 
works  of  great  beauty  and  originality, 
especially  in  wall-painting,  the  decoration 
of  vases,  and  the  sculpture  of  statuettes. 
Not  only  did  the  Cretans  carry  on  an 
active  commerce  with  other  countries,  but 
they  appear  in  Middle  and  Late  Minoan 
times  to  have  exerted  so  powerful  an 
influence  at  certain  places  in  Greece,  of 
which  Mycenae,  Tiryns,  and  Thebes  are 
the  most  important,  as  to  cause  them  to 
adopt  a  civilization,  known  as  Mycenaean, 
which  was  substantially  the  same,  though 
with  local  modifications,  as  that  of  Crete. 
In  the  view  of  some  authorities,  these 
places  were  actual  Cretan  settlements.  It 
was  this  Mycenaean  civilization  that  the 
Dorian  invaders  overthrew  when  at  a  later 
period  they  came  to  the  Peloponnese  (see 
Migrations  and  Dialects).  A  number  of 
considerable  cities  had  grown  up  in  Crete 
itself,  of  which  Cnossus  and  Phaestus  were 
the  most  important.  At  some  time  about 
the  17th  c.  B.C.,  a  great  catastrophe 
occurred,  perhaps  an  earthquake,  or  a 




foreign  invasion,  or  an  internal  revolu- 
tion, and  the  palaces  of  these  cities  were 
destroyed.  But  prosperity  returned  to 
Crete  and  reached  its  height  in  the  16th 
and  15th  cc.  Cnossus  became  the  leading 
city  and  its  king  was  ruler  of  the  whole 
island.  There  are  several  mentions  of 
Minos  of  Crete  in  Greek  legend.  There  was 
the  Minos  who  from  being  a  just  king 
became  a  judge  in  Hades,  Minos  the  son 
of  Europa,  Minos  the  grandfather  of 
Idomeneus,  Minos  the  husband  of  Pasi- 
phae,  the  besieger  of  Megara  in  the  legend 
of  Scylla  (q.v.),  the  pursuer  of  Britomartis 
(q.v.).  The  name  may  have  been  that  of 
several  Cretan  kings,  or  a  title.  In  any 
case,  the  end  of  Cnossus  and  its  kings 
appears  to  have  come  about  1400,  when 
a  sudden  destruction  came  upon  the 
palace  of  Cnossus,  probably  as  the  result 
of  an  invasion  from  Greece.  Attica,  in  its 
legend  of  Theseus  and  the  Minotaur,  claims 
the  honour  of  this  victory.  It  may  have 
been  in  consequence  of  it  that  the  Cad- 
means  loft  Crete  and  occupied  part  of 
Boeotia.  Other  Cretans  migrated  to  Asia 
Minor,  Syria,  or  Egypt.  The  island  under 
its  new  rulers  never  recovered  its  former 
prosperity,  and  Cretan  art  after  1400 
shows  degeneration.  About  1200  came 
the  further  invasion  of  the  Dorians  (see 
Migrations),  which  destroyed  any  monu- 
ments of  the  Minoan  civilization  that  had 

For  the  association  of  Crete  with  the 
worship  of  Zeus,  see  Zeus,  Dicte,  and 
Ida  (2). 

Cre'tic,  see  Metre,  §  1. 

CrSu'sa  (Kreousa),  in  Greek  mythology, 
daughter  of  Erechtheus  and  mother  of 
Ion  (qq.v.). 

Crlmi'sus,  a  river  in  the  W.  of  Sicily, 
near  which  Timoleon  defeated  the  Cartha- 
ginians in  339  B.C.  (see  Syracuse,  §  3). 

Crina'goras  (Krlnagoras)  of  Mytilene 
(fl.  c.  20  B.C.),  a  Greek  writer  of  elegiac 
poetry,  of  which  specimens  are  preserved 
in  the  Palatine  Anthology  (q.v.). 

Crisae'an  (or  Crissae'an)  Plain,  some- 
times called  the  'Cirrhaean  Plain',  see 
Sacred  Wars. 

Cri'tias  (Kritias)  (c.  460-403  B.C.),  an 
oligarchical  politician  at  Athens,  the  mas- 
ter spirit  among  the  Thirty  (see  Athens, 
§5).  He  led  the  extreme  section  of  the 
tyrants  against  Theramenes  (q.v.)  and 
caused  him  to  be  put  to  death.  Critias  was 
killed  at  Munychia  hi  the  civil  war  that 
brought  about  the  downfall  of  the  Thirty. 
He  associated  at  one  time  with  Socrates 
and  figures  in  Plato's  dialogues,  'Prota- 

goras', 'Timaeus'  (qq.v.),  and  'Critias' 

(see  Plato.  §  2.) 

Critias,  a  dialogue  by  Plato  (q.v.,  §  2). 

Cri'td  (KrUon),  a  dialogue  by  Plato. 

Socrates  is  in  prison,  awaiting  the  hour, 
now  near,  when  he  is  to  take  the  poison. 
His  friend  Crito  comes  to  him  and  proposes 
a  means  of  escape,  urging  his  duty  to  his 
children.  Socrates  replies  that  the  only 
question  is  whether  an  attempt  at  escape 
would  be  a  just  act ;  evil  must  not  be  done 
in  return  for  evil  suffered.  Suppose  the 
laws  of  Athens  should  remonstrate  with 
him  and  ask  why  he,  who  was  born  and 
has  lived  under  them,  should  now  try  to 
overturn  them.  Moreover,  how  will  he 
be  a  gainer  by  a  life  of  exile  ?  The  laws  ex- 
hort him  to  justice  first,  and  afterwards 
to  think  of  life  and  children.  That  is  what 
the  divine  voice  is  murmuring  to  him. 

Critola'us  (Kritoldos),  see  Philosophy,  §  2. 

Croe'sus  (Kroisos),  the  last  king  of  Lydia 
(q.v.)  (560-546  B.C.).  He  subdued  the 
Greek  cities  of  Aeolia  and  Ionia  (except 
Miletus)  and  the  Dorian  States  of  Caria. 
His  wealth  became  proverbial,  and  he  sent 
rich  offerings  to  the  sanctuaries  of  Greece, 
especially  to  Delphi.  Misled  by  an  ambi- 
guous oracle,  he  crossed  the  Halys,  the 
boundary  of  his  empire,  in  an  expedition 
against  the  Persian  king,  Cyrus,  who 
had  driven  Astyages  (brother-in-law  of 
Croesus)  from  the  throne  of  Media. 
Croesus  was  utterly  defeated,  and  his 
capital  Sardis  taken.  His  life  was  spared 
by  Cyrus.  According  to  the  story  of 
Herodotus  (which  is  chronologically  im- 
possible), Croesus  had  been  visited  by 
Solon  and  had  asked  him  whom  he 
thought  the  happiest  of  men.  Solon  had 
named  some  humble  Greeks  who  had 
ended  their  lives  happily,  and  when  Croesus 
showed  vexation  at  their  being  preferred 
before  him,  Solon  had  warned  him  of  the 
uncertainty  of  life  and  the  jealousy  of  the 
gods.  When  Croesus  was  about  to  be 
burned  alive  by  Cyrus,  he  called  thrice  on 
the  name  of  Solon,  remembering  his  warn- 
ing. Cyrus  enquired  on  whom  he  was 
calling,  and  when  he  heard  the  story, 
reflected  on  the  possibilities  of  his  own 
fate  and  set  Croesus  free  (Hdt.  i.  29  et  seq. 
and  86-7 ).  See  also  Ephesus. 

Crd'nus  (Kronos),  according  to  Hesiod 
one  of  the  Titans  (q.v.);  Uranus  (q.v.) 
his  father  had  confined  his  children  in 
Tartarus,  the  nether  world,  immediately 
after  then*  birth.  Cronus,  at  his  mother's 
instigation,  rose  against  Uranus  and  cas- 
trated him  (a  widely  diffused  cosmogonic 
myth;  see  A.  Lang,  'Custom  and  Myth'). 
According  to  one  legend  the  period  of  the 




rule  of  Cronus,  when  he  had  overthrown 
Uranus,  was  a  Golden  Age  on  earth. 
According  to  another,  he  had  been  warned 
that  one  of  his  children  would  overthrow 
him.  He  therefore  swallowed  them  when 
they  were  born.  Zeus,  the  youngest  child 
(eldest  In  Homer),  was  saved  by  a  wile  of 
his  mother  Rhea,  and,  with  the  aid  of  the 
Cyclopes  and  the  Hundred-handed  Giants 
(qq.v.),  waged  from  Mt.  Olympus  a  long 
war  against  Cronus  supported  by  the  other 
Titans  (except  Themis  and  her  son  Prome- 
theus, q.v.).  Zeus  finally  defeated  them 
with  his  thunderbolts  and  the  stones 
hurled  by  the  giants,  and  imprisoned  them 
in  Tartarus.  According  to  Pindar  and 
Aeschylus,  Zeus  afterwards  released  the 
Titans.  The  children  of  Cronus  and 
Rhea  were  Zeus,  Hestia,  Demetcr,  Hera, 
Poseidon,  and  Hades.  Cronus  was  also 
father  of  Chiron  (q.v.). 

Cronus  is  probably  a  pro-Hellenic  deity, 
and  the  myth  points  to  the  supersession  of 
the  religion  of  an  earlier  population  by  the 
Olympian  cult  of  the  invading  Greeks,  with 
perhaps  some  reference  to  earthquakes 
and  volcanic  eruptions.  The  Romans 
identified  Cronus  with  Saturn  (q.v.). 

Cro'ton  (Krdton,  L.  Crotona  or  Cortona), 
a  Greek  settlement  on  the  W.  coast  of  the 
Gulf  of  Tarentum  in  S.  Italy,  somewhat 
south  of  its  rival  Sybaris  (q.v.).  It  was 
founded  by  Achaeans  about  700  B.C.  It 
was  a  prosperous  place  and  derived 
celebrity  from  Pythagoras,  who  settled 
there  at  the  end  of  the  6th  c.  and  founded 
his  school.  The  Pythagoreans  became  in- 
volved in  local  politics  on  the  aristocratic 
and  conservative  side,  and  were  over- 
thrown in  a  democratic  movement  about 
450  B.C.  Croton  was  also  famous  as  the 
home  of  the  great  athlete  Milo  (q.v.).  Ho 
is  said  to  have  led  the  army  of  Croton  at 
the  Crathis  when  it  defeated  the  Sybarites 
and  destroyed  Sybaris  about  510  B.C. 
Croton  was  conquered  by  Dionysius  I  (see 
Syracuse*  §2),  and  suffered  severely  in  the 
Roman  wars  with  Pyrrhus  and  Hannibal. 
It  was  re-colonized  by  the  Romans  in 
194  B.C. 

Crotcn,  On  the,  a  speech  by  Demosthenes 
in  reply  to  Aeschines*  general  indictment 
of  his  policy.  See  Demosthenes  (2),  §  5  (h). 

Cte'sias  (Ktesids),  of  Cnldos  in  Asia 
Minor,  a  Greek  physician  of  the  early  part 
of  the  4th  c.  B.C.,  who  lived  for  a  number 
of  years  at  the  Persian  court.  He  wrote 
'Persica',  a  history  of  Persia  in  23  books, 
of  which  we  have  an  abstract,  and  'In- 
dica',  of  which  only  fragments  survive. 

Gucu'llus,  see  Clothing,  §  4. 

Cu'lex  ('The  Gnat'),  a  poem  In  hexa- 

meters doubtfully  attributed  to  Virgil.  It 
is  known  that  Virgil  wrote  a  poem  of  this 
name,  probably  about  44  B.C.,  but  ques- 
tionable, on  internal  evidence,  whether 
the  poem  wo  have  was  that  which  he  wrote. 
The  story,  told  with  abundance  of 
mythological  allusion,  is  that  of  a  shep- 
herd who,  menaced  in  his  sleep  by  the 
approach  of  a  serpent,  is  awakened  by  the 
sting  of  a  gnat.  The  shepherd  crushes 
the  gnat  and  kills  the  serpent.  The  follow- 
ing night  the  ghost  of  the  gnat  visits  tho 
shepherd  and  reproaches  him  for  his  in- 
gratitude. Thereafter  the  shepherd  raises 
a  rustic  memorial  to  the  gnat. 

Cu'mae  (Gk.  Kttme),  on  a  promontory  in 
Campania,  the  earliest  Greek  colony 
(founded  about  tho  middle  of  the  8th  c. 
B.C.),  and  the  farthest  Greek  outpost,  to 
Italy  (see  Colonization,  §3).  It  was  named 
after  the  Aeolian  city  of  Cyme  in  Asia 
Minor,  from  which  (and  also  from  Chalcis 
and  Eretria  in  Euboea)  the  original 
colonists  had  come.  Hero  was  the  grotto 
of  the  Cumaean  Sibyl  (q.v.),  the  'antrum 
immane'  described  by  Virgil,  which  has 
recently  been  excavated.  Cumae  was 
taken  by  the  Romans  in  338  B.C. 

Cunobeli'nus,  see  Britain,  §  2. 

Cu'pid  (Cupido),  In  Roman  religion,  the 
boy-god  of  love,  son  of  Venus ;  an  adapta- 
tion from  tho  Greek  Eros  (q.v.),  of  no 
great  importance  in  tho  Roman  pantheon. 
In  literafrtre  his  most  important  appear- 
ance is  in  the  first  book  of  tho  'Aeneid', 
where  Venus  sends  him  to  take  the  placo 
of  Ascanius  and  to  excite  the  love  of  Dido 
for  Aeneas. 

Cupid  and  Psyche,  see  Psyche. 
Curcu'lio  ('The  Weevil'),  a  comedy  by 
Plautus.  Phaedromus  is  in  love  with 
Planesium,  a  slave-girl,  but  has  not  the 
means  of  buying  her.  Curculio,  a  parasite 
of  Phaedromus,  steals  a  ring  from  the 
braggart  soldier  Therapontigonus,  who 
has  deposited  with  a  banker  tho  money 
wherewith  he  intends  to  buy  Planesium 
for  himself.  By  means  of  a  letter  sealed 
with  this  ring,  Curculio  secures  the  girl  for 
Phaedromus.  Therapontigonus  is  furious 
at  the  fraud,  but  the  ring  reveals  the  fact 
that  Planesium  is  his  sister,  and  so  all 
ends  well. 

Guretes  (Kour&ea),  according  to  Hesiod, 
demigods,  'lovers  of  sport  and  dancers'. 
They  are  associated  with  the  Cretan  Zeus 
(q.v.)  and  the  myth  relates  that  the  infant 
Zeus  was  entrusted  to  them  by  Rhea  for 
protection  against  Cronus  (q.v.);  to  con- 
ceal the  child,  they  drowned  its  cries  with 
the  clashing  of  their  weapons.  Tho  word 




Kovpos  means  a  youth,  and  the  Curetes 
may  have  been  Cretan  youths  who  cele- 
brated the -worship  of  the  boy-Zeus.  An 
inscription  has  been  found  at  Palaiokastro 
in  Crete  containing  the  Hymn  of  the 
Curetes  in  honour  of  Zeus  Kouros. 

Cu'ria,  at  Rome,  the  Senate-house.  It 
stood  in  the  centre  of  the  N.  side  of  the 
Comitium  (q.v.),  which  itself  was  on  the 
NW.  side  of  the  Forum  (See  PI.  14).  Its 
erection  was  attributed  to  Tullus  Hostilius 
and  it  was  known  as  Curia  Hostilia.  A  new 
curia  (known  as  Curia  Julia)  was  built  by 
Julius  Caesar  close  to  the  old  one,  which 
was  burnt  at  the  funeral  of  Clodius. 

Cu'rius  (Curius)  Denta'tus,  MINIUS, 
famous  as  a  type  of  ancient  Roman  virtue 
and  frugality,  lived  in  the  early  part  of 
the  3rd  c.  B.C.  As  consul  in  290,  275,  and 
274,  he  defeated  the  Samnites  (who  had 
in  vain  tried  to  bribe  him  with  gold),  and 
brought  the  Samnite  War  to  a  close, 
defeated  Pyrrhus  at  Benevcntum,  and 
once  again  defeated  the  Samnites.  He 
then  retired  to  his  farm,  having  rejected 
all  share  of  booty. 

Cursus  honorum,  at  Rome,  the  order  in 
which  the  various  political  offices  could  be 
held  and  the  period  that  must  elapse  be- 
tween successive  offices.  It  was  deter- 
mined by  custom  at  an  early  date,  and 
was  fixed  by  law  in  180  B.C.  The  quaestor- 
ehip  was  the  first  office  to  be  held.  It  was 
preceded,  according  to  Polybius,  by  ten 
years'  military  service  and  therefore  could 
not  be  held  before  the  age  of  twenty -eight. 
It  was  followed  at  intervals  of  two  years 
between  the  tenures  by  the  curule  aedile- 
ship,  praetorship,  and  consulship.  Men 
sometimes  passed  from  the  quaestorship 
to  the  praotorship,  but  not  earlier  than 
they  would  have  done  had  they  held  an 
aedileship  between  the  two.  The  consul- 
ship was  held  about  a  man's  fortieth  year 
(about  the  forty-third  after  Sulla  had 
raised  the  minimum  age  for  the  holding  of 
the  quaestorship  to  thirty).  The  holding 
of  the  offices  of  aedile  and  tribune  of  the 
plebs  does  not  appear  to  have  been  simi- 
larly regulated.  By  a  law  of  342  the  same 
office  might  not  bo  held  twice  within  a 
space  of  ten  years.  But  this  and  other 
conditions  were  often  relaxed  in  times  of 
emergency,  as  during  the  Hannibalic  War. 

Cu'rtius,  LACUS,  in  the  Forum  at  Rome. 
The  name  is  variously  explained  by  three 
stories:  (a)  Mettius  Curtius,  hard  pressed 
when  checking  the  Sabines  single-handed 
in  a  battle,  urged  his  horse  into  the  lake 
which  afterwards  bore  his  name  and  suc- 
ceeded in  reaching  the  farther  shore ;  (6)  a 
soldier,  Marcus  Curtius,  leaped,  armed  and 

on  his  horse,  into  a  chasm  which  had 
opened  in  the  Forum  (the  soothsayers  had 
declared  that  the  chief  strength  of  Rome 
must  be  sacrificed  before  the  chasm  would 
close,  meaning,  in  the  opinion  of  Curtius, 
arms  and  valour) ;  (c)  C.  Curtius  Chilo  (his 
name  is  uncertain,  variants  are  P.  Curatius 
andT.  Curatius),  consul  hi  445,  consecrated 
a  spot  which  had  been  struck  by  lightning 
and  which  was  afterwards  known  by  his 
name  (this  does  not  explain  locus). 

Cu'rtius  Ru'fus,  QUINTUS,  wrote,  prob- 
ably under  Claudius  or  Vespasian,  hi  Latin, 
a  history  of  Alexander  the  Great  in  ten 
books,  of  which  the  first  two  are  lost.  The 
extant  books  start  with  Alexander's  march 
through  Phrygia  and  the  cutting  of  the 
Gordian  knot.  The  author  is  an  excellent 
story-teller  and  makes  the  most  of  many 
thrilling  or  picturesque  incidents  in  the 
Asiatic  expedition;  but  he  shows  little 
critical  sense  or  grasp  of  Alexander's 
place  in  the  history  of  civilization.  It  is 
with  the  romantic  side  of  his  career  that 
he  is  concerned. 

Curule  magistracies,  in  Rome,  those 
whose  holders  were  entitled  to  use  the 
sella  curulis,  an  ivory  folding  chair,  some- 
thing like  a  camp-stool.  The  magistrates 
in  question  were  consuls,  praetors,  censors, 
and  curule  acdiles;  the  dictator,  if  there 
was  one,  and  his  master  of  the  horse ;  also 
the  Flamen  Dialis  (q.v.). 
Cy'bele  (Kubele  or  Kub€b£),  an  Asiatic 
goddess,  the  'Great  Mother',  a  goddess  of 
the  powers  of  nature,  identified  by  the 
Greeks  with  Rhea  (q.v.).  The  centre  of 
her  cult  was  Pessinus  in  Phrygia,  where 
she  was  worshipped  under  the  guise  of  a 
block  of  stone.  Her  worship  was  intro- 
duced at  Athens  about  430  B.C.,  when  a 
temple  (the  Metroum,  q.v.)  was  built  to 
atone  for  the  murder  of  one  of  her  priests 
and  so  that  the  great  plague  which  was 
thought  to  be  the  consequence  might  be 
stayed.  Her  cult  and  the  sacred  stone 
above  referred  to  were  introduced  into 
Rome  hi  204  B.C.  in  the  stress  of  the  Punic 
War.  The  stone  was  fetched  from  Perga- 
mum  by  a  mission  of  distinguished  Romans 
in  a  squadron  of  five  quinqueremes.  It 
was  related  that  when  the  ship  that  bore 
it  stuck  in  the  Tiber,  a  noble  Roman  lady, 
Claudia  Quinta,  was  able  to  tow  the  ship 
with  her  girdle.  The  temple  built  for  the 
goddess's  reception  stood  on  the  Palatine. 
The  cult  never  became  thoroughly  Roman. 
Citizens  were  forbidden  to  take  part  in 
the  rites  of  the  Phrygian  goddess  or  wear, 
the  Phrygian  dress,  but  processions  of  the 
priests  of  Cybelo  were  allowed  in  Rome 
(they  are  described  by  Lucretius,  ii.  600 
et  seq.),  and  the  festival  of  the  MeqaUsia 




or  Megalensia  was  held  in  her  honour  on 
the  4th  April.  The  priests  of  Cybele  were 
eunuchs  and  were  called  Galli  or  Cory- 
bantes.  See  also  Attis. 

Cy'clades  (Kfiklades),  a  group  of  islands 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  Aegean  Sea. 
They  were  so  called  because  they  formed 
roughly  a  circle  (kuklos).  Their  inhabi- 
tants spoke  the  Ionian  dialect.  They 
included  Delos,  Ceos,  Naxos,  Pares,  An- 
dros,  and  Tenos  (see  PI.  8). 

Cyclic  Poems,  see  Epic  Cycle. 

Gyclo'pes  (Kuklopes),  one-eyed  giants 
according  to  Homer,  dwelling  in  an  island 
afterwards  identified  with  Sicily  (see 
Monsters).  According  to  Hesiod  they  were 
the  sons  of  Uranus  and  Go  (qq.v.),  three 
hi  number,  Brontes,  Steropes,  and  Argos 
(Pyracmon  hi  Virgil),  and  made  thunder- 
bolts for  Zeus.  See  also  Asclepius,  Poly- 
phemus, and  Cyclops. 

Cy' clops  (Kuklops),  a  satyric  (q.v.)  drama 
by  Euripides,  of  uncertain  date,  the  only 
extant  example  of  this  type  of  play. 

Dionysus  (q.v.)  having  been  captured 
by  pirates,  Silenus  has  set  out  in  pursuit, 
accompanied  by  his  Satyrs,  and  has  fallen 
into  the  power  of  the  Cyclops  Polyphemus. 
Odysseus  and  his  crew  arrive,  and  bargain 
with  Silenus  for  food  in  exchange  for  wine. 
Polyphemus  returns  and  makes  prisoners 
of  Odysseus  and  his  men.  The  blinding 
of  Cyclops  and  escape  of  Odysseus  are  told 
much  as  in  the  'Odyssey*  (q.v.).  The 
whole  subject  is  dealt  with  humorously. 

Gy'cnus  (Kuknos),  see  Heracles  (ad  fin.), 
and  Shield  of  Heracles. 

Cy'lon  (Kulon),  see  Alcmaeonidae. 

Cy'me  (Kume),  see  Cumae.  See  also 

Cyn€ge'ticat  see  Oppian  and  Orattius. 

Cyn&ge'ticus  (Kunegetikos),  *  Hun  ting', 
a  treatise  attributed  to  Xenophon,  but  it 
is  doubtful  whether  he  wrote  it,  at  any 
rate  hi  the  form  in  which  we  have  it. 

After  an  exordium,  exceptional  in  Xeno- 
phon's  works,  tracing  game  and  hounds 
to  Apollo  and  Artemis,  who  gave  the 
invention  to  Chiron  (q.v.),  the  author 
urges  all  young  men  to  take  up  hunting — 
i.e.  hunting  hares  and  deer  on  foot.  Ho 
begins  to  describe  the  necessary  outfit,  the 
nets,  the  hounds  and  their  points,  but 
wanders  off  to  the  question  of  scent  and 
the  habits  of  the  hare.  He  then  returns 
to  the  trappings  of  the  hounds,  the  proper 
way  to  fix  the  nets,  and  the  actual  hunt, 
where  the  author  shows  his  enthusiasm. 
A  passage  follows  on  the  breeding,  tram- 
ing,  and  naming  of  hounds.  The  author 

next  describes  the  hunting  of  deer  (for 
which  hounds  and  snares  were  used)  and 
of  boars  (with  hounds,  nets,  javelins,  and 
spears) ;  and  gives  a  short  chapter  to  the 
hunting  of  big  game  in  foreign  countries. 
He  then  enumerates  the  benefits  of  hunt- 
ing, in  respect  of  health,  military  service, 
and  moral  education.  The  treatise  winds 
up  with  an  attack  on  sophists,  whom  he 
regards  as  a  set  of  useless  humbugs.  See 
also  Arrian. 

Cynic  school  of  philosophy,  founded  at 
Athens  by  Antisthenes  (b.  c.  440  B.C.),  a 
pupil  and  friend  of  Socrates.  Antisthenes 
was  interested  principally  in  the  practical 
side  of  morality  and  regarded  virtue  as  the 
sole  basis  of  happiness,  to  be  sought  in 
freedom  from  wants  and  desires.  Ho  held 
up  Heracles,  an  example  of  sturdy  endur- 
ance, as  a  model.  He  established  his  school 
in  the  gymnasium  of  Cynosarges  (q.v.), 
whence  its  name  'Cynic* ;  but  this  alterna- 
tively may  be  derived  from  kuon  (a  dog), 
a  nickname  given  to  Diogenes  (q.v.),  the 
chief  representative  of  the  school  at  a 
later  date,  when  its  doctrine  had  been 
exaggerated  into  a  general  contempt  of 
knowledge  and  of  current  morality. 

Cynosa'rges  (Kunosarges),  a  place  out- 
side the  walls  of  Athens  on  the  east,  con- 
taining a  sanctuary  of  Heracles  and  a 
gymnasium.  In  the  latter  was  founded 
the  Cynic  (q.v.)  school  of  philosophy. 

Cynosce'phalae  in  Thessaly,  the  scene 
of  tho  defeat  in  197  B.C.  of  Philip  V  of 
Macedon  by  Q.  Flamininus  (see  Mace- 
donia, §3).  See  also  Alexander  of  Pherae. 

Cy'nthia,  Cy'nthius,  names  given  to 
Artemis  (Diana)  and  Apollo,  derived  from 
Cynthus,  a  mountain  in  their  native  Delos. 

Cy'pria  (Kuprid),  a  lost  poem  of  the  Epic 
Cycle  (q.v.),  which  dealt  with  the  events 
leading  up  to  the  siege  of  Troy  and  some 
early  incidents  of  the  war.  The  reason  for 
the  name  of  the  work  ('Poem  of  Cyprus') 
is  not  known. 

Cyprian,  ST.  (Thascius  Caecilius  Cypri- 
dnus)  (c.  A.D.  200-258),  bishop  of  Carthage, 
an  African  by  birth,  of  pagan  family,  tho 
first  of  the  Latin  Christian  writers  to  hold 
high  official  position  hi  the  Church.  He 
escaped  from  the  persecution  of  Decius  by 
hiding  himself,  but  in  257  under  Valerian 
was  summoned  for  examination  and  exiled, 
and  hi  258  put  to  death.  In  strong  con- 
trast to  Tertullian  (q.v.)  his  writings  show 
him  gentle,  charitable,  a  lover  of  peace; 
yet  firm  and  wise,  an  earnest  worker  for 
the  unity  of  the  Church,  and  a  skilful 
diplomatist.  He  was  not  a  man  of  great 
erudition,  and  he  lacked  the  intellectual 


force  and  eloquence  of  Tertullian.  He 
wrote  many  exhortations  and  theses, 
dogmatic  and  moral,  animated  by  earnest 
conviction  and  abundantly  illustrated  by 
quotations  from  the  Scriptures.  A  body 
of  81  letters  survives,  some  by,  some  to 
Cyprian,  valuable  as  sources  for  ecclesias- 
tical history. 

Gy'prus  (L.  Cyprus,  Gk.  Kupros),  a  large 
island  in  the  NE.  of  the  Mediterranean, 
which  in  the  Bronze  Age  supplied  copper 
in  large  quantities,  whence  Lat.  cuprum, 
copper.  Later  it  was  occupied  by  Greek 
settlers  from  the  Peloponnese  (perhaps  as 
a  result  of  the  Dorian  invasion,  see  Migra- 
tions) and  also  by  Phoenicians.  These  two 
races  intermingled  and  influenced  the  re- 
sulting civilization.  They  found  there  a 
mode  of  writing  in  which  signs  were  used 
to  represent  syllables,  and  this  was  adopted 
for  writing  Cypriot  Greek.  The  worship  of 
Aphrodite  (q.v.)  became  especially  preva- 
lent there,  so  that  the  goddess  is  frequent- 
ly referred  to  as  the  Cyprian  Aphrodite 
or  the  Paphian,  in  allusion  to  a  legend 
that  she  landed  at  Paphos  in  Cyprus 
when  she  emerged  from  the  sea  (cf. 
Ciithera).  Cyprus  became  part  of  the 
Iloman  province  of  Cilicia  in  58  B.C. 

Cy'pselus  (Kupselos),  the  founder  of  the 
Cypsclid  dynasty  of  tyrants  at  Corinth. 
He  overthrew  the  oligarchy  of  the  Bac- 
chiadae  and  ruled  Corinth  from  c.  655 
to  c.  625  B.C.,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  Periander  (q.v.).  He  established 
Corinth  as  the  chief  power  in  Greece  at 
the  time,  maintaining  peace  at  homo 
(where  his  methods  do  not  seem  to  have 
been  very  tyrannical)  and  carrying  out 
successful  colonizations  in  the  NW.  It 
was  in  his  reign  that  the  silver  mines  at 
Damastium  were  first  exploited,  and  to- 
wards the  close  of  it  Corcyra,  long  rebelli- 
ous, was  subdued  and  brought  under  the 
control  of  the  mother-city. 

The  origin  of  the  name  Cypsclus  was 
explained  by  a  legend,  suggested  by  the 
similarity  of  the  name  to  KVI/J€\I],  a 
vessel  or  chest.  Eetion,  father  of  Cypsc- 
lus, a  man  of  humble  station,  had  married 
Labda,  one  of  the  Bacchiadae,  who  being 
lame  had  been  obliged  to  wed  beneath  her. 
A  Delphic  oracle  foretold  that  their  son 
would  oust  the  Bacchiadao  from  power, 
and  the  Bacchiadae  consequently  endea- 
voured to  have  the  child  killed.  From  this 
fate  his  mother  saved  him  by  hiding  him 
in  a  chest.  (A  magnificent  sculptured 
chest  purporting  to  be  that  in  which 
Cypselus  was  hidden  was  dedicated  by 
the  Corinthians  at  Olympia  (q.v.),  and 
was  there  seen  many  centuries  later  by 

4339  i 

129  Cyrus 

Gyrena'ic  school  of  philosophy,  see 

Gyre'ne  (KurenS),  a  city  a  few  miles  inland 
from  the  coast  of  what  is  now  Libya, 
originally  founded  by  Greek  colonists  (see 
Colonization,  §4).  It  stood  on  a  high 
plateau  within  sight  of  the  sea,  occupying 
a  large  area,  supplied  with  water  from 
the  Fountain  of  Apollo  and  other  springs 
breaking  from  the  cliffs,  the  '  place  among 
waters'  indicated  by  the  oracle  which  led 
to  its  foundation.  The  colony  attained 
great  prosperity,  both  as  a  centre  for  trade 
with  the  Libyan  natives,  and  by  reason 
of  the  Cyrenao'an  export  of  silphium, 
a  plant  possessing  medicinal  properties 
and  growing  abundantly  in  the  region. 
Between  about  630  B.C.  and  450  B.C.  eight 
kings  of  Gyrene  bore  alternately  the  names 
of  Battus  (the  founder  of  the  colony)  and 
Arcesilaus.  Cyreno  was  the  birthplace  of 
Aristippus,  Callimachus,  and  Carneadea 

Cy'ropaedl'a  (Kurou  Paideia,  'Educa- 
tion of  Cyrus'),  a  narrative  by  Xenophon, 
in  eight  books,  of  the  career  of  Cyrus  the 
Great  (q.v.),  in  which  characters  and  his- 
torical facts  are  modified  to  suit  the 
author's  didactic  purpose,  viz.  an  exposi- 
tion of  the  ideal  ruler  and  form  of  govern- 
ment. The  work  is  in  fact  a  historical 
novel  with  a  moral  purpose.  Cyrus  him- 
self is  an  idealized  character,  the  perfect 
statesman,  ruler,  and  general,  drawn  partly 
from  the  younger  Cyrus  of  the  'Anabasis' 
(q.v.).  The  constitution  of  Persia  and  the 
method  of  education  similarly  represent 
Xenophon's  ideals  (based  in  part  on  the 
institutions  of  Sparta).  The  military  pre- 
cepts, the  tactics  described,  are  Xeno- 
phon's own.  There  are  a  number  of  minor 
characters,  kings,  soldiers,  councillors, 
among  them  the  Indian  tutor  of  Tigranes, 
unjustly  put  to  death — a  portrait  of  So- 
crates. The  tedium  of  the  work  (for  most 
modern  readers)  is  somewhat  relieved  by 
the  romantic  episode  of  the  farewell  of 
Abradatas  (who  is  about  to  die  in  battle) 
and  his  wife  Panthea.  After  the  conclu- 
sion of  Cyrus's  military  campaigns  by  the 
capture  of  Sardis  and  Babylon,  the  work 
ends  with  a  description  of  the  organization 
of  the  Persian  empire  and  the  death  of 
Cyrus.  The  'Cyropaedia*  was  translated 
into  English  by  Philemon  Holland  (1632). 

Cy'rus  (Kuros)  THE  GREAT,  of  the  Persian 
family  of  the  Achaemcnids  (q.v.),  the 
founder  of  the  Persian  empire.  He  drove 
Astyages  from  the  throne  of  Media  and  by 
547  B.C.  had  extended  the  Persian  realm 
to  the  Halys.  He  then  overthrew  and 
captured  Croesus  (q.v.),  king  of  Lydia, 
subdued  the  Greek  cities  of  Asia  Minor, 




and  conquered  the  Babylonians,  capturing 
Babylon.  He  died  in  529. 

Cyrus  THE  YOUNGER  was  the  second  son 
of  Darius  II,  king  of  Persia.  As  satrap 
of  the  western  part  of  Asia  Minor  he  in 
407-5  B.C.  rendered  active  help  to  the 
Peloponnesians  in  their  war  with  Athens. 
His  attempt,  after  the  death  of  his  father, 
to  oust  his  elder  brother  Artaxerxes  from 
the  throne,  and  his  own  death  at  the  battle 
of  Cunaxa  (401),  are  related  by  Xenophon 
in  his  'Anabasis'  (q.v.). 

Cythera  (Kuthera),  an  island  off  the  S. 
coast  of  Laconia.  According  to  one  legend, 
Aphrodite  (q.v.)  was  said  to  have  landed 
on  it  after  her  birth  in  the  sea;  hence  her 
frequent  title  'Cythcre'an'. 


Da'ctyl  (Daktulos).  (1)  See  Metre,  §  1. 
(2)  The  JJaktuloi  Idaioi,  or  Dactyls  of 
Mt.  Ida  in  Crete,  were  legendary  beings 
to  whom  the  infant  Zeus  was  said  to  have 
been  entrusted ;  perhaps  the  same  as  the 
Curetes  (q.v.). 

Da'ctylo-e'pitrite  (-cit),  see  Metre,  §  3. 
Dae'dala  (Daidala),  see  Hera. 

Dae'dalus  (DairfaJoi*  •  cunning  worker')* 
a  legendary  Athenian  craftsman  of  great 
skill,  son  of  Metion  and  descended  from 
Hephaestus  (q.v.).  It  was  said  that  Ms 
statues  could  move  themselves.  Being 
afraid  that  his  nephew  and  pupil,  Talus, 
would  outdo  him  in  ingenuity  (for  he 
invented  the  saw  and  the  potter's  wheel), 
Daedalus  threw  him  down  from  the  Acro- 
polis (his  grave  at  Athens  was  shown  in 
the  time  of  Pausanias)  or  into  the  sea, 
whereupon  Talus  was  changed  into  a 
partridge  (Perdix,  by  which  name  Talus 
is  also  known).  Daedalus  was  condemned 
for  his  crime  by  the  Areopagus  and  fled 
to  Crete,  where  he  constructed  the  Laby- 
rinth for  Minos  (q.v.).  To  prevent  him 
from  leaving  Crete,  or  because  he  had 
given  Theseus  (q.v.)  the  clue  to  the 
maze,  Daedalus  was  himself  confined  in 
the  maze,  together  with  his  son  Icarus. 
Thereupon  with  wax  and  feathers  he  made 
wings  for  himself  and  his  son,  and  they 
flew  away.  But  Icarus  flew  too  near  the 
sun,  so  that  the  wax  of  his  wings  melted 
and  he  fell  into  the  sea  and  was  drowned 
(hence  the  name  Icarian  Sea  given  to  the 
part  of  the  Aegean  Sea  near  Crete). 
Daedalus  escaped  to  Sicily,  where  Minos 
pursuing  him  met  with  a  violent  death. 

Dai'mones,  powers  or  spirits  which,  in  an 
early  stage  of  Greek  religion,  were  thought 

to  people  the  world,  occupying  trees, 
rivers,  springs,  mountains,  giving  rise  to 
everything  that  affects  man.  Cf.  Numen. 
In  Homer  daimon  is  divine  power  genera- 
lized, not  individualized  in  a  particular 
deity.  Later,  the  sense  of  the  word 
changes,  and  it  is  generally  used  for  a 
man's  fate,  the  spirit  that  guides  him  in 
life,  something  intermediate  between  gods 
and  men.  (To  daimonion  was  the  name  by 
which  Socrates  called  his  genius  or  the 
spirit  within  him.)  Or  a  man  is  sometimes 
thought  to  have  a  good  and  an  evil  daimon ; 
his  good  daimon  becomes  his  protect- 
ing spirit  and  in  Stoic  philosophy  is  held 
equivalent  to  the  divine  spark  in  his 
nature.  The  subject  of  daimones  was  dis- 
cussed by  Plutarch  (q.v.,  §  3)  in  one  of 
his  Moralia. 

Damas'tes,  see  Procrustes. 

Da'mocles  (Damokles),  a  flatterer  who 
pronounced  Dionysius  I,  tyrant  of  Syra- 
cuse, the  happiest  of  men.  Thereupon 
Dionysius  invited  him  to  experience  the 
happiness  of  a  monarch.  He  placed  him 
at  a  banquet  where  presently  Damocles 
observed  a  naked  sword  hanging  over  his 
head  by  a  single  hair. 

Da'nae,  in  Greek  mythology,  daughter  of 
Acrisius,  king  of  Argos  and  brother  of 
Prootus  (see  Bcllerophon).  An  oracle  fore- 
told that  Acrisius  would  be  killed  by  his 
daughter's  son,  and  he  therefore  confined 
Danae  in  a  brazen  tower,  so  that  no  one 
might  approach  her.  But  Zeus  loved  her, 
and  visited  her  in  a  shower  of  gold.  Their 
son  was  Perseus  (q.v.).  Acrisius  placed 
Danae  and  the  child  in  a  chest  and  cast 
them  adrift  in  the  sea.  (A  portion  of 
a  beautiful  poem  by  Simonides  on  this 
incident  is  preserved  by  Dionysius  of 
Halicarnassus.)  They  were  borne  to  the 
island  of  Serlphos,  where  they  received 
shelter  from  Dictys,  brother  of  Polydectes, 
king  of  the  island.  For  their  further  story 
see  Perseus. 

Da'naids  (Danaides),  daughters  of  Danaus 

Da'naus  (Danaos),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  descendant,  with  his  brother  Aegyptus, 
of  lo  (q.v.).  Aegyptus  had  fifty  sons, 
Danaus  fifty  daughters.  Aegyptus  and 
Danaus  quarrelled,  and  Danaus  and  his 
daughters  fled  from  their  home  in  Egypt 
to  Argos,  of  which  Danaus  became  king 
and  of  which  the  inhabitants  were  called, 
it  was  said,  Danaoi  after  him.  The  sons 
of  Aegyptus  pursued  the  daughters  of 
Danaus  to  Argos  to  marry  them.  Danaus 
was  forced  to  consent,  but  ordered  his 
daughters  to  stab  their  husbands  on  the 



De  Amicitia 

wedding  night.  Tills  they  all  did,  except 
Hypermnestra,  who  spared  her  husband 
Lynceus.  Another  daughter,  Amymone 
(q.v.),  was  loved  by  Poseidon  and  became 
mother  of  Nauplius,  legendary  founder  of 
Nauplia.  Those  who  had  killed  their  hus- 
bands wore  condemned  in  Hades,  for  their 
bloody  deed,  to  try  for  ever  to  fill  with  water 
a  jar  with  holes  in  the  bottom.  The  story 
of  the  daughters  of  Danaus  is  the  subject  of 
the  'Suppliants'  (q.v.)  of  Aeschylus.  Pindar 
(Pyth.  ix.  193  et  seq.)  tells  how  Danaus, 
in  order  to  select  other  husbands  for  his 
daughters,  set  these  at  the  end  of  a  race- 
course and  let  their  suitors  run  for  them. 
Dancing,  both  among  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  was  largely  ceremonial  and 
associated  with  religion,  as  for  instance 
in  the  dances  of  the  Greek  dramatic 
choruses,  and  in  those  of  the  Roman  Salii 
or  priests  of  Mars  (see  also  Cordax;  Tragedy, 
§  2,  for  Emmelciai  and  Satyr ic  Drama  for 
SiJdnnis).  Plato  thought  that  all  dancing 
should  have  this  religious  character.  Pri- 
vate dancing,  among  tho  Greeks,  was  in 
general  a  performance  by  professionals 
hired  for  tho  entertainment  of  guests,  and 
dancing  girls  were  trained  for  the  purpose. 
In  so  far  as  practised  by  private  persons 
it  was  regarded  chiefly  as  an  exercise  to 
develop  grace  and  beauty.  Grown-up  men 
and  women  did  not  danco  together,  but 
there  were  dances  such  as  the  Hormos  or 
chain-dance,  performed  by  strings  of 
youths  and  maidens  holding  hands.  Tho 
Romans  had  a  low  opinion  of  dancing  for 
other  than  religious  purposes,  and  Cicero 
in  one  of  his  speeches  observes  that  no  one 
except  a  madman  dances  when  sober. 
This  explains  the  disgust  felt  by  decent 
Romans  at  Nero's  partiality  for  dancing. 
Ancient  statuettes  show  that  gesture  and 
the  management  of  the  drapery  played  an 
important  part  in  dancing;  Ovid  in  the 
'Ars  Amatoria'  (i.  595)  remarks: 
Si  vox  est,  canta ;  si  mollia  brachia,  salta. 

Da'phne  (Daphne),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  nymph,  daughter  of  a  river  (the  Peneus 
or  the  Ladon),  who  was  loved  by  Apollo 
and  the  mortal  Leucippus.  Tho  latter 
followed  her  disguised  as  a  woman,  but 
was  discovered  and  slain  by  the  nymphs. 
Apollo  still  pursued  her,  and  she,  at  her 
own  entreaty,  was  changed  into  a  bay- 
tree,  which  became  sacred  to  Apollo. 
Da'phnis,  a  legendary  Sicilian  shepherd, 
eon  of  Hermes  and  a  nymph.  He  was 
loved  by  a  Sicilian  nymph,  and  because 
he  did  not  return  her  love  or  was  unfaith- 
ful, was  blinded  by  her.  He  thereafter 
spent  his  life  composing  mournful  songs 
on  his  unhappy  fate,  the  supposed  origin 
of  pastoral  poetry.  According  to  the  first 

Idyll  of  Theocritus  the  story  is  different ; 
Daphnis  refused  to  love,  and  was  punished 
by  Aphrodite  with  a  longing  for  some  one 
unattainable,  whereof  he  pined  and  died. 

Daphnis  and  Chlo'S,  see  Novel. 

Da'rdanus  (DemZanos),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, son  of  Zeus  and  Electra,  daughter 
of  Atlas  (q.v.).  He  was  the  ancestor  of  the 
kings  of  Troy  (see  genealogy  under  Troy} 
and  tho  fact  of  their  descent  from  a  rival 
of  Hera  was  in  part  the  origin  of  the  latter 
goddess's  hatred  of  the  Trojans. 

Da'res  in  the  Aeneid,  a  companion  of 
Aeneas;  he  figures  in  tho  boxing-match 
(Bk.  v). 

Da'res  Phry'gius,  in  Homer's  'Iliad'  the 
priest  of  Hephaestus  in  Troy,  was  sup- 
posed to  have  written  a  poem  on  the  siege 
of  Troy.  A  Latin  work  of  the  5th  c.  A.D., 
'  Daretis  Phrygii  do  Excidio  Troiae  Histo- 
ria%  purported  to  bo  a  translation  of  it. 
It  was  fathered  on  Cornelius  Nepos  be- 
cause it  is  prefaced  by  a  forged  letter  of 
Nepos  to  Sallust,  explaining  how  he  had 
discovered  the  work  at  Athens.  Medieval 
writers  on  the  story  of  Troy  made 
much  use  of  this  ridiculous  work,  and  of 
tho  companion  piece  attributed  to  Dictys 
Cretensis  (q.v.).  There  was  an  English 
translation  by  Thomas  Payncll  in  1553. 

Dari'us  (Ddreios)  I,  an  Achaemenid  (q.v.), 
tho  son  of  Hystaspes.  With  six  conspira- 
tors ho  overthrew  in  521  B.C.  tho  usurper 
(Pscudo-Smerdis)  who  had  passed  himself 
olt  as  the  son  of  Cyrus,  and  obtained  tho 
Persian  throne.  See  Persian  Wars. 

Darius  III  (Codomdnus)  was  tho  king  of 
Persia  whom  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.) 

Da'vus,  tho  cunning  slave  in  Terence's 
'Andria'  (q.v.).  Davus  is  also  the  slave 
who  lectures  Horace  in  Sat.  II.  vii. 

DC  Agri  Cultu'ra  or  De  Re  Rustica,  a 
treatise  by  M.  Porcius  Cato  the  Censor 
(q.v.)  on  agriculture.  It  is  a  concise  prac- 
tical handbook,  without  literary  adorn- 
ment. It  deals  with  the  purchase  of  a 
farm ;  the  duties  of  owner,  overseer,  house- 
keeper, and  slaves;  tho  tilling  of  the  soil; 
the  care  of  live  stock,  and  a  few  minor 
matters,  such  as  a  prescription  for  treating 
a  sick  ox,  and  recipes  for  curing  hams  and 
making  cheese-cakes.  It  is  written  in  a 
curt,  abrupt  style,  and  constantly  enjoins 
a  harsh  economy. 

De  Amtd'tia,  also  known  as  Laelius,  a 
dialogue  by  Cicero  (q.v.),  composed  in 
44  B.C.  and  addressed  to  Atticus  (q.v.). 
Tho  dialogue  is  supposed  to  take  place 
in  129  B.C.,  shortly  after  the  death  of 

De  Architecture 


De  Divinatione 

Scipio  Aemilianus  (q.v.).  The  interlocutors 
are  Laelius  (q.v.),  the  intimate  friend 
of  Scipio,  and  his  two  sons-in-law,  one 
of  whom  is  the  augur  Qulntus  Mucius 
Scaevola.  Cicero  in  his  youth  had  sat  at 
the  feet  of  Scaovola  and  had  heard  him, 
he  tells  us,  repeat  the  conversation. 

Laelius  in  his  discourse  discusses  the 
nature  of  friendship  and  the  principles  by 
which  it  should  he  governed.  The  con- 
clusion is  that  friendship  is  founded  on, 
and  preserved  by,  virtue;  for  it  owes  to 
virtue  the  harmony,  permanence,  and 
loyalty  that  are  its  essential  features. 
This  is  one  of  the  most  admired  of  Cicero's 
dialogues  for  its  dignity  and  calm  and  for 
the  melodious  quality  of  its  prose.  It  was 
one  of  the  two  books  in  which  Dante  found 
*  consolation  for  the  death  of  Beatrice. 

De  Architects,' ra,  see  Vitruvius. 

De  Bella  Clvl'li  and  De  Hello  Ca'llico, 

see  Commentaries. 

De  Benefl'ciis,  a  treatise  in  seven  books 
by  Seneca  the  Philosopher,  addressed  to 
Aebutius  Liberalis,  issued,  the  first  four 
books  about  A.D.  54,  and  the  rest  later. 
The  work  deals  with  the  nature  of  benefit, 
gratitude,  and  ingratitude,  and  various 
problems' connected  with  the  conferring 
and  receiving  of  benefits,  and  shows 
insight  into  human  conduct.  Some  in- 
teresting examples  are  given  of  heroic 

De  Brevit&'te  Vltae  ('  On  the  Shortness 
of  Life'),  a  dialogue  by  Seneca  the  Philo- 
sopher addressed  to  Paulmus,  an  official, 
probably  written  about  A.D.  49.  It  urges 
the  value  of  time,  and  the  need  for  the  wise 
and  thrifty  use  of  it  on  self -improvement, 
philosophy,  communion  with  the  great 
thinkers  of  old,  not  on  luxury  and  vice. 
One  of  the  best  of  Seneca's  essays. 

De  Causis  PlontaVum,  see  Theophrastus. 
De  Claris  OrfftS'rtbus,  see  Brutus. 

De  Clvita'te  Dei  ('The  City  of  God'),  a 
religious  treatise  by  St.  Augustine  (q.v.) 
in  twenty-two  books,  written  in  the  last 
years  of  his  life. 

The  decadence  of  Roman  institutions, 
ending  hi  the  deep  humiliation  of  the  cap- 
ture of  Rome  by  Alaric  in  A.D.  410,  was 
attributed  by  many  to  the  influence  of 
Christianity.  Augustine  in  this  treatise 
set  about  the  refutation  of  the  charge. 
But  the  work  developed  into  something 
far  greater,  a  •  complete  theory  of  the 
spiritual  evolution  of  humanity.  In  a 
survey  of  the  history  of  the  ancient  world 
he  shows  the  vanity  of  human  glory  and 
ambition.  He  then  attacks  with  ridicule 
the  remains  of  the  old  Roman  religion; 

and  criticizes  the  doctrines  of  the  best  of 
the  pagan  philosophies,  the  Stoic,  Platonic, 
and  Neoplatonic  schools,  as  incapable  of 
yielding  complete  happiness,  for  lack  of 
the  promise  of  eternal  life.  Finally  he  sets 
forth  the  allegory  of  two  cities  or  com- 
munities, a  heavenly  city  comprising  the 
righteous  on  earth  and  the  saints  in 
heaven,  living  in  accordance  with  God's 
will;  and  an  earthly  city,  guided  by 
worldly  and  selfish  principles.  He  traces 
their  evolution  on  earth  in  the  history  of 
the  Jews,  through  the  Christian  revelation, 
to  the  final  Judgement  and  the  future  life. 

De  Cl&me'ntia,  a  treatise  by  Seneca  the 
Philosopher  in  three  books,  of  which  the 
first  and  part  of  the  second  survive,  on 
the  need  of  clemency  in  a  ruler.  Its  theme 
was  suggested  by  an  exclamation  of  Nero's 
when  unwillingly  signing  a  death  warrant 
in  his  early  days, '  would  that  I  had  never 
learnt  to  write'.  The  praise  of  Nero  that 
it  contains  must  be  judged  in  connexion 
with  the  comparative  mildness  of  his  rule 
in  the  first  years.  The  work  was  probably 
written  about  A.D.  55-6. 

De  Compendia' sa  Doctrl'na,  see  Nonius 

De  Consolatio'ne  ad  Marciam,  ad 
Polybium,  ad  Helviam,  see  Seneca  (the 
Philosopher),  §  2. 

De  Consta'ntia  Sapie'ntis,  see  Seneca 

(the  Philosopher),  §  2. 

De  Cor&na,  see  Demosthenes  (2),  §  5  (h). 

De  Dlvindtiofnef  'concerning  Divina- 
tion', a  dialogue  by  Cicero  composed  as 
supplement  to  his  'De  Natura  Deorum'. 
Its  date  is  probably  44  B.C.,  when  the  work 
was  revised  and  published  after  Caesar's 

The  dialogue  takes  place  at  Cicero's 
villa  at  Tusculum,  and  the  interlocutors 
are  his  brother  Quintus  and  himself. 
Quintus  expounds,  with  a  wealth  of  illus- 
tration and  quotations  from  the  Stoics 
(and  also  from  Cicero's  own  writings)  his 
reasons  for  believing  in  certain  forms  of 
divination.  Marcus  explodes  the  belief  in 
divination  in  general  by  this  dilemma: 
future  events  are  either  at  the  mercy  of 
chance  or  are  foreordained  by  fate.  If  the 
former,  no  one,  even  a  god,  can  have  fore- 
knowledge of  them ;  if  the  latter,  there  is 
no  room  for  divination  (an  investigation 
of  the  future  in  order  to  avoid  unpleasant 
events),  for  what  is  foreordained  cannot 
be  avoided.  He  thinks  that  divination  by 
augury  should  be  maintained  for  reasons 
of  public  expediency,  but  proceeds  with 
a  good  deal  of  humour  to  show  its  absurd- 
ity, quoting  incidentally  the  saying  of  old 

De  Domo  Sua 


De  Laude  Pisonls 

Cato  that  he  wondered  that  a  soothsayer 
did  not  laugh  when  he  met  another  sooth- 
sayer. Cicero  recognizes  an  art  of  augury, 
but  denfea  a  science  of  divination.  He 
similarly  demolishes  other  methods  of  pre- 
diction, by  dreams,  portents,  astrology, 
and  vaticination. 

De  Domo  Sua,  a  speech  delivered  by 
Cicero  hi  57  B.C.  before  the  College  of 
Pontiffs.  Its  genuineness  has  been  con- 
tested, but  is  now  generally  accepted. 

When  Cicero  was  exiled,  Clodius  (q.v.) 
had  destroyed  his  house,  consecrated  the 
site,  and  erected  thereon  a  monument  to 
Liberty.  Cicero  asks  the  College  of  Pon- 
tiffs to  annul  the  consecration  on  the 
grounds  that  Clodius's  tribunate  was 
irregular,  that  his  law  banishing  Cicero 
was  unconstitutional,  and  that  the  dedica- 
tion was  unjust  and  impious.  The  College 
decided  in  Cicero's  favour. 

De  Falsa  LGgatio'ne,  see  Demosthenes  (2), 
§  5  (e). 

De  Ffito,  a  treatise  by  Cicero,  written  in 
44  B.C.,  in  which  at  the  request  of  llirtius 
(consul  in  43)  he  discusses  whether  our 
actions  are  determined  by  fate.  Only  part 
of  the  work  has  survived. 

De  Fi'nibus  Bono' rum  et  MaZo'rum, 

'On  [the  different  conceptions  of]  the 
Chief  Good  and  Evil ',  a  treatise  by  Cicero 
in  five  books,  addressed  to  M.  Brutus 
(q.v.),  in  which  he  sets  forth  and  criticizes 
the  ethical  systems  of  the  Epicurean  and 
Stoic  schools,  and  of  the  Old  Academy. 
It  was  written  in  45  B.C. 

The  treatise  takes  the  form  of  three 
dialogues,  each  dealing  with  one  of  the 
above  systems.  In  the  first  the  Epicurean 
view  is  put  forward  by  L.  Manlius  Tor- 
quatus  (q.v.),  the  scene  being  Cicero's 
villa  near  Cumae  in  50  B.C.  In  the  second, 
M.  Cafco  of  Utica  (q.v.)  puts  forward  the 
Stoic  view,  and  the  scene  is  Cicero's  villa 
near  Tusculum  in  52  B.C.  In  the  third  the 
view  of  the  Old  Academy  is  expounded  by 
M.  Pupius  Piso  Calpurnianus,  and  the 
scene  is  Athens  in  79  B.C.,  when  Cicero 
was  studying  philosophy  there.  In  each 
case  the  criticism  is  supplied  by  Cicero 
who,  it  must  be  remembered,  detested 
the  Epicureans  and  accepted  in  a  large 
measure  the  ethical  doctrines  of  the  Old 
Academy  and  Stoics. 

Book  I  opens  with  a  defence  by  Cicero 
of  the  task  he  has  undertaken  of  reproduc- 
ing Greek  philosophical  thought  in  Latin 
dress.  Manlius  Torquatus  expounds  and 
defends  the  view  that  the  chief  good  is 
pleasure  in  the  sense  of  absence  of  pain. 
This  Cicero  demolishes  in  Book  II.  In 
Book  III  Cato  defends  the  view  that  the 

chief  good  consists  in  living  in  agreement 
with  nature,  that  is  to  say,  substantially 
in  virtue  and  wisdom.  In  Book  IV  Cicero 
criticizes  this  as  not  sufficiently  taking 
into  account  the  lower  faculties  of  man. 
Book  V  opens  with  a  remarkable  descrip- 
tion of  the  Athenian  scene  with  its  histori- 
cal and  literary  associations.  The  opinion 
of  the  Old  Academy  (as  revived  by  the 
philosopher  Antiochus)  is  sot  forth,  that 
the  chief  good  is  the  perfection  of  the 
whole  self,  and  that  virtue  alone  gives 
happiness,  a  view  largely  coincident  with 
that  of  the  Stoics.  It  is  criticized  by  Cicero 
on  the  ground  that  virtue  alono  cannot 
give  happiness;  for  the  virtuous  man  is 
not  always  happy,  if  pain,  as  is  admitted, 
is  an  evil.  But  the  last  word  is  left  with 
Piso,  who  holds  that  the  virtuous  man,  if* 
not  supremely  happy  (owing  to  pain),  is 
yet  on  balance  happy;  for  virtue  out- 
weighs everything  else. 

De  Gente  Po'puli  Roma'ni,  see  Varro 


De  Gramma*  ticis,  see  Suetonius. 

De  Hani'spicum  Respo'nso  ('Concern- 
ing the  answers  of  the  Soothsayers'),  a 
speech  delivered  by  Cicero  before  the 
Senate  in  56  B.C. 

The  soothsayers  had  attributed  some 
mysterious  noises  heard  near  Rome  to  the 
anger  of  the  gods,  aroused  by  certain 
impieties,  among  others  the  profanation 
of  consecrated  sites.  Clodius  (q.v.)  had 
interpreted  this  as  applying  to  the  rebuild- 
ing of  Cicero's  house  on  the  site  which 
Clodius  had  consecrated.  Cicero  now  re- 
torts against  Clodius,  claiming  that  the 
impieties  referred  to  were  all  of  them  acts 
of  Clodius. 

De  Histo'ria  Conscribe'nda,  see  Lucian. 

De  Impe'rio  Cn.  Pompeii,  see  Pro  Lege 


De  Intcrprctatio'ne,  see  Aristotle,  §  3. 

De  Inventio'ne,  see  Cicero,  §  5. 

De  Ira,  a  treatise  in  dialogue  form  on 
Anger,  by  Seneca  the  Philosopher,  ad- 
dressed to  his  brother  Novatus.  Of  the 
three  books,  the  first  two  were  perhaps 
written  in  A.D.  41,  just  before  Seneca's 
banishment,  and  tho  last  at  a  later  date. 
The  work  deals  with  tho  nature  of  anger, 
shows  that  it  can  bo  controlled,  discusses 
the  means  of  restraining  it,  and  refers  to 
instances  of  Caligula's  furies  and  cruelties. 
The  plan  of  the  work  is  defective. 

De  Ira  Dei,  see  Lactantius. 
De  iMude  Plso'nte,  a  poem  in  261  hexa- 
meters by  an  unknown  author  (perhaps 
Calpurnius  Siculus,  q.v.)  in  praise  of  a 

De  Lege  Agraria 


De  Opificio  Dei 

Piso,  probably  the  Calpurnius  Piso  who 
headed  the  conspiracy  against  Nero. 

De  L&ge  Agr&'ria  or  Contra  Rullum,  three 
speeches  delivered  by  Cicero  in  the  first 
days  of  his  consulship  (63  B.C.),  the  first 
to  the  Senate,  the  second  and  third  before 
the  people,  against  the  proposed  agrarian 
law  of  the  tribune  P.  Servilius  Rullus. 
Cicero  appears  to  have  delivered  a  fourth 
speech,  which  is  lost,  on  the  same  subject. 
Kullus  proposed  the  appointment  of  ton 
commissioners  (decemviri)  authorized  to 
sell  all  the  property  of  the  Iloman  People 
acquired  outside  Italy  since  88,  and  also 
the  remaining  property  of  the  People  in 
Italy,  and  to  acquire  land  in  Italy  for 
distribution  and  the  foundation  of  colonies. 
Cicero  attacks  the  proposal  as  giving  the 
commissioners  what  were  in  effect  un- 
limited powers;  as  being  directed  against 
Pompey;  as  being  cruelly  unfair  to  the 
foreign  peoples  and  allies  concerned ;  and 
as  likely  to  bring  no  benefit  to  the  Iloman 
public.  The  Bill,  of  which  the  real  author 
was  probably  Caesar,  was  defeated. 

De  Lie' gibus  ('On  Laws'),  a  dialogue  by 
Cicero,  a  sequel  to  the  'De  Re  Publica* 
(q.v.),  probably  begun  about  52  B.C.  The 
date  of  its  completion  (if  it  ever  was  com- 
pleted) and  publication  is  unknown.  The 
first  three  books  survive  in  great  part;  it 
is  doubtful  of  how  many  books  the  work 

The  interlocutors  are  Cicero,  his  brother 
Quintus,  and  Atticus  (q.v.);  the  scene  is 
Cicero's  estate  at  Arpinum.  The  First 
Book  is  a  discussion  of  the  origin  and 
nature  of  Justice  and  Law,  the  latter 
being  defined  as  right  reason  in  ordering 
and  forbidding.  In  the  Second  Book  Cicero 
sets  forth  and  explains  the  religious  laws 
of  an  ideal  commonwealth,  that  is  to  say 
those  dealing  with  the  worship  of  the  gods, 
priests  and  augurs,  sacrifices,  sacrilege, 
and  the  rites  to  the  dead.  In  the  Third 
Book  he  similarly  sets  forth  and  discusses 
laws  relating  to  the  constitution  of  the 
commonwealth,  and  the  appointment  and 
functions  of  the  magistrates. 

De  Lingua  Latt'na,  see  Varro  (M.T.). 
De  Merce'de  Conduct  is,  see  Lucian. 

De  Mo'rtibus  Persecuto'rttm,  see  Lac- 

De  N&tu'ra  Deorum,  a  philosophical 
dialogue  in  three  books  by  Cicero,  written 
in  45  B.C.  after  the  death  of  his  daughter, 
in  which  he  sets  out  the  theological  tenets 
of  the  three  principal  Greek  schools  of 
philosophy  of  his  day,  the  Epicurean, 
Stoic,  and  Academic.  The  work  is  ad- 
dressed to  M.  Brutus. 

The  scene  is  laid  at  Rome  about  76  B.C. 
and  the  interlocutors  are  C.  Velleius  the 
Epicurean,  Q.  Lucilius  Balbus  the  Stoic, 
and  C.  Aurelius  Cotta  (q.v.)  the  Academic. 
The  first  two  are  known  only  from  Cicero's 
writings.  Vellcius,  after  attacking  the  cos- 
mogonies and  theologies  of  the  ancient 
philosophers  from  Thales  to  Plato,  ex- 
pounds the  Epicurean  notion  of  the  gods, 
anthropomorphic  beings  living  a  life  of 
blissful  inactivity.  Cotta  replies,  ridicul- 
ing this  conception  and  criticizing  the 
arguments  in  support  of  it.  Next  Balbus 
sots  forth  in  the  Second  Book  the  Stoic 
view  of  a  world  governed  by  a  divine 
active  and  intelligent  providence,  a  uni- 
verse which  hi  the  last  resort  is  God. 
Cotta  in  turn  criticizes  this  doctrine, 
maintaining  the  Academic  attitude  of 
suspended  judgement.  See  also  De 

De  Offi'ciis,  a  treatise  'on  Duties'  by 
Cicero,  his  last  work,  written  in  44  B.C., 
in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  his  son  Marcus, 
then  studying  philosophy  at  Athens.  It 
consists  of  three  books,  the  first  two  of 
which  are  based,  as  he  states,  largely  on 
the  teaching  of  Panaetius  (q.v.);  the  third 
on  that  of  Posidonius  (q.v.)  and  others. 

The  First  Book  deals  with  the  four  car- 
dinal virtues,  Wisdom,  Justice,  Fortitude, 
and  Temperance,  develops  the  various 
duties  that  emanate  from  these,  and 
passes  to  their  application  in  the  case  of 
individual",  who  vary  in  endowments,  age, 
position,  &c.  The  Second  and  Third  Books 
treat  of  the  application  of  the  above  prin- 
ciples to  the  pursuit  of  success  in  life — the 
reconciliation  of  expediency  with  virtue. 
The  two  are  shown  to  be  in  reality  identi- 
cal, even  in  cases  of  apparent  conflict ;  for 
material  gain  cannot  compensate  for  the 
loss  of  the  sense  of  honour  and  justice. 
Cicero's  doctrine  is  illustrated  throughout 
with  a  wealth  of  illustrations  from  Greek 
and  Roman  history.  Noteworthy  are  the 
highly  practical  character  of  his  precepts, 
his  condemnation  of  abstention  from  pub- 
lic activities  (m  opposition  to  the  Stoics), 
his  insistence  on  the  social  character  of 
man  and  the  duty  of  humanity  to  one's 
fellow  beings,  something  beyond  patriot- 
ism. The  work  received  high  praise  in 
later  ages  from  very  various  quarters,  from 
St.  Ambrose  and  Petrarch,  from  Erasmus 
and  Frederick  the  Great.  H.  E.  P.  Platt 
('Byways  in  the  Classics')  describes  it  as 
'  the  source  in  great  measure  of  European 
notions  of  what  becomes  a  gentleman'. 

De  O'ptivno  Oe'nere   OrGt&'rum,  see 

Cicero,  §  5. 

De  Opift'cio  Dei,  see  Lactantius. 

De  Oratore 


DC  Rcrum  Natura 

De  Or&t5're,  a  didactic  treatise  on  oratory 
in  three  books  by  Cicero,  written  in  55  B.C. 
and  addressed  to  his  brother  Quintus.  The 
dialogues  of  which  it  is  composed  are  sup- 
posed to  take  place  in  91  B.C.  and  the  chief 
interlocutors  are  the  eminent  orators  L. 
Licinius  Crassus  and  M.  Antonius  (qq.v.) ; 
Q.  Muciue  Scaevola,  the  great  lawyer,  is 
also  present;  and  after  the  first  dialogue, 
Q.  Catulus  the  colleague  of  Marius,  and 
C.  Julius  Caesar  Strabo  the  orator.  The 
scene  of  the  dialogues  is  the  villa  of 
Crassus  at  Tusculum. 

In  Book  I  Crassus  discusses  the  qualifi- 
cations of  the  good  orator ;  these  include, 
in  his  opinion,  a  wide  knowledge  of  the 
sciences  and  philosophy,  and  especially  of 
civil  law.  Antonius  disagrees,  narrowing 
the  orator's  requirements  to  the  faculty 
of  pleasing  and  persuading,  without  special 
knowledge.  In  Book  II  he  develops  in 
detail  the  methods  of  conciliating,  instruct- 
ing, and  moving  the  judges;  Caesar  is 
induced  to  give  a  dissertation  on  the  use 
of  wit  and  humour  (of  which  he  was  re- 
garded as  a  master)  with  many  illustra- 
tions (including  the  well-known  anecdote 
of  Ennius  calling  on  Scipio  Nasica,  11.  68). 
In  Book  III  Crassus  discusses  styles, 
adornments,  and  delivery. 
De  & tio,  see  Seneca  (the  Philosopher),  §  2. 
De  Philoso'phia,  see  Varro  (M.T.). 

De  Provide'ntia,  a  dialogue  by  Seneca 
the  Philosopher,  addressed  to  his  friend 
Lucilius  (q.v.),  in  which  ho  discusses  the 
question  why  good  men  meet  with  mis- 
fortune when  there  exists  a  Providence. 
The  answer  is  that  misfortune  serves  a 
useful  purpose:  it  is  a  school  of  virtue. 
The  theme  was  perhaps  suggested  by 
Seneca's  own  exile.  The  date  of  composi- 
tion is  uncertain. 

De  Provi'nciis  Consula'ribus,  see 
Cicero,  §  4. 

De  He  Eque'stri,  see  Horsemanship. 
De  Re  Pu'blica,  a  dialogue  in  six  books 
on  political  science,  by  Cicero,  begun  in 
54  B.C.  and  published  about  51.  We  possess 
the  greater  part  of  the  first  three  books, 
and  fragments  of  the  others,  including  the 
'Somnium  Scipionis*  (q.v.,  chiefly  pre- 
served in  a  commentary  by  Macrobius, 
q.v.)  which  formed  the  conclusion  of  the 

The  dialogue  is  modelled  to  some  extent 
on  Plato's  'Republic*  (q.v.).  It  is  sup- 
posed to  take  place  during  three  days,  in 
the  garden  of  Scipio  Aemilianus  (q.v.), 
and  the  principal  interlocutors  are  Scipio 
and  Laelius  (q.v.).  Cicero  declares  that  he 
had  a  report  of  the  conversation  from 
P.  RutUius  Rufus  (who  had  served  under 

Scipio).  After  a  preface  by  Cicero,  in 
defence  of  patriotic  statesmanship,  the 
dialogue  begins  with  a  conversation  on 
astronomy.  At  the  request  of  those  pre- 
sent Scipio  then  sets  forth  the  three  typical 
forms  of  government,  monarchy,  aristo- 
cracy, and  democracy,  with  their  degener- 
ate counterparts,  and  the  ideal  form,  which 
is  a  combination  of  all  three.  The  Roman 
Republic  is  an  instance  of  the  latter,  and 
serves  throughout  the  rest  of  the  discus- 
sion to  illustrate  his  doctrine.  The  Second 
Book  relates  the  evolution  of  the  Roman 
State  from  earliest  times  to  its  contem- 
porary form,  and  passes  to  the  necessity 
for  justice  and  harmony  in  the  State.  The 
Third  Book  opens  with  a  preface  by  Cicero 
of  which  much  is  lost.  Philus,  one  of  the 
interlocutors,  takes  upon  himself  to  pre- 
sent the  arguments  of  the  philosopher 
Carneades  (q.v.)  for  the  necessity  of  injus- 
tice. Laelius  and  Scipio  on  the  contrary 
maintain  that  the  commonwealth  cannot 
exist  without  justice.  Only  fragments  sur- 
vive of  Books  IV,  V,  and  VI.  Book  VI 
was  evidently  concerned  with  the  duties 
and  rewards  of  the  statesman  in  this  life, 
and  closed,  after  the  manner  of  Plato's 
*  Republic'  (the  story  of  Er  the  son  of 
Armenius),  with  an  exposition,  through 
the  Dream  of  Scipio,  of  the  life  of  the  soul 
after  death  (see  Somnium  Scipionis}.  The 
whole  work  is  thought  by  some  to  have 
had  real  influence  on  the  theory  and  prac- 
tice of  the  early  principate. 
De  Re  Publica  Athcniensium,  see 
Constitution  of  the  Athenians  (2). 

De  Re  Ru'stica,  (1)  of  M.  Porcius  Cato, 
see  DC  Agri  Cultura ;  (2)  of  Varro,  a  treatise 
on  farming,  written  by  M.  Terentius  Varro 
(q.v.)  when  his  eightieth  year  admonished 
him  '  that  he  must  be  packing  his  baggage 
to  depart  this  life '.  The  treatise  is  in  three 
books,  addressed  to  different  people  (the 
first  to  his  wife  Fundaria),  and  takes  the 
form  of  conversations,  to  some  extent  in 
a  dramatic  setting,  for  the  first  conversa- 
tion is  interrupted  by  news  of  a  murder, 
and  the  third  by  incidents  in  an  election. 
The  author  quotes  in  the  introduction  a 
large  number  of  previous  writers  on  the 
subject  of  agriculture.  Book  I  deals  with 
the  farm  itself,  its  buildings,  and  equip- 
ment, and  the  agricultural  operations  ap- 
propriate to  various  seasons  of  the  year. 
Book  II  deals  with  live  stock;  Book  III 
with  Roman  villas,  aviaries,  poultry,  game 
preserves,  and  fish-ponds.  The  work  is 
written  in  a  more  literary  form  than  that 
of  Cato,  and  is  animated  by  a  more  kindly 
and  liberal  spirit.  (3)  Of  Columella,  see 
De  Rerum  JVfffft'ro,  see  Lucretius* 

De  RJief  oribus 



De  Rh&to'ribus,  see  Suetonius. 
De  Seneeftl'te,  a  dialogue  on  old  ago  by 
Cicero,  whose  title  for  it  was  CATO  MAJOR, 
written  in  45  or  44  B.C.  The  work  is 
dedicated  to  Atticus  (q.v.).  The  conver- 
sation is  supposed  to  take  place  in  150 
B.C.,  when  M.  Porcius  Cato  the  Censor 
(q.v.)  was  in  his  eighty -fourth  year.  At 
the  request  of  his  young  friends  Scipio 
Aemilianus  and  Laelius  (qq.v.),  Cato  ex- 
pounds how  the  burden  of  old  ago  may  best 
be  borne,  describes  its  compensations  and 
consolations,  drawing  illustrations  from 
his  own  experience,  from  reminiscences  of 
old  men  he  has  known,  and  from  his  read- 
ing (notably  of  Plato  and  Xenophon).  Ho 
concludes  with  a  reasoned  statement  of 
his  belief  in  the  immortality  of  the  soul. 
The  early  part  of  the  dialogue  is  imitated 
from  the  conversation  of  Socrates  and 
Cephalus  in  Plato's  *  Republic*. 
De  Situ  Orbis,  see  Pomponius  Mela. 
De  Sophi'stids  Ete'nchis,  see  Aristotle, 

De  Tranquillita'te  A'nimi,  see  Seneca 
(the  Philosopher),  §  2. 

De  Verbo'ruin  Signified1 'tu,  see  Verrius 


De  Viris  Illu'stribus,  see  Suetonius. 

De  VI* ta  Bea'tit,  a  dialogue  by  Seneca  the 
Philosopher,  addressed  to  his  brother 
Novatus  (now  named  Gallio  by  adoption), 
in  which  the  author  discusses  in  what 
happiness  consists  and  how  to  attain  it. 
He  finds  the  answer  in  the  Stoic  doctrine 
that  happiness  lies  in  living  according  to 
nature,  virtuously,  with  a  just  estimate  of 
the  true  value  of  things,  thus  acquiring 
peace  and  harmony  of  spirit.  There  is  a 
justification  of  the  possession  of  wealth  if 
wisely  used,  which  suggests  that  the  essay 
was  written  at  a  comparatively  late  date, 
perhaps  A.D.  58  or  59.  The  work  as  we 
have  it  is  incomplete. 
De  Vt'ta  Cae'sarum,  see  Suetonius. 

De  Fl'to  Po'puli  Romo'm*,  see  Varro 

Dea  Dia,  see  Arval  Priests. 
Decele'a  (Dekelda),  an  Attic  demo  on  the 
slopes  of  Parnes,  NW.  of  Athene,  famous 
as  having  been  occupied  and  fortified  in 
the  Peloponnesian  War  (q.v.),  at  the  sug- 
gestion of  Alcibiades,  by  the  Spartans, 
giving  them  a  stranglehold  on  Athens. 
For  the  origin  of  the  name  see  Dioscuri. 

Dece'mviri  stli'tibus  (an  old  form  of 
lUibus)  judica'ndis,  at  Rome,  a  board 
of  ten  who  (under  the  later  republic) 
acted  as  jury  in  cases  relating  to  freedom 
and  citizenship.  See  Law  (Roman),  §  2. 

De'cius  (De"ciu3)  Mus,  PUBLIUS,  one  of 
the  Roman  consuls  at  the  time  of  the  Latin 
War  of  340  B.C.  According  to  legend  ho 
gained  the  victory  for  his  side  by  solemnly 
devoting  himself  and  the  enemy's  forces 
to  destruction  in  the  battle,  and  rushing 
on  death. 

His  son,  of  the  same  name,  played  a 
similar  part  at  the  battle  of  Sentinum 
(295    B.C.)    against   the    Samnites.     The 
legend  about  the  earlier  battle  is  probably 
based  on  the  later  act  of  self-sacrifice. 
DSclamati&'n&s,  see  Quintilian. 
De'cuma,  see  Fates. 
Deft'xio,  see  Magic. 
Dei  Conse'ntes,  see  Di  Conscntes. 

De'iani'ra  (DBianeira),  the  wife  of  Hera- 
cles (q.v.). 

De'idami'a  (Deidamela),  the  mother  of 
Neoptolemus  by  Achilles  (q.v.). 
Deina'rchus,  see  Dinarchus. 

Dei'phobe,  the  name  of  tho  Cumaean 
Sibyl  (Virg.  Aen.  vi.  36) ;  see  Sibyls. 

Dei'pnosophi'stai,  see  Athenaeus. 
De'lian  Confederacy,  see  Delos. 

De'los,  a  small  island  in  the  Aegean,  in 
the  midst  of  the  Cycladcs,  according  to 
myth  the  birthplace  of  Artemis  and  Apollo 
(see  Leto).  It  became  an  important  centre 
of  the  worship  of  Apollo  and  the  seat  of  an 
oracle  of  the  god.  For  the  great  festivals 
at  Delos  ii»  honour  of  Apollo  and  Artemis 
see  Festivals,  §  6.  When  Theseus  (q.v.) 
set  out  for  Crete  to  slay  the  Minotaur,  the 
Athenians  vowed  that  if  he  was  successful 
they  would  send  annually  a  sacred  em- 
bassy to  Delos,  and  they  observed  their 
vow.  During  the  absence  of  tho  ship  on 
this  mission  Athens  was  kept  in  a  state  of 
ceremonial  purity,  and  no  criminal  might 
be  executed.  It  was  this  which  delayed 
the  execution  of  Socrates  (q.v.).  Delos  was 
chosen  as  tho  centre  of  the  maritime 
alliance,  founded  in  478  B.C.  and  known 
as  tho  Delian  Confederacy,  originally 
directed  against  tho  Persians  under  the 
leadership  of  Athens.  The  allies,  consist- 
ing of  the  Ionian  islands  of  the  Aegean, 
the  cities  of  Eubooa,  and  a  few  Ionian 
and  Aeolian  cities  of  Asia  Minor,  while 
retaining  their  autonomy,  paid  contribu- 
tions (a  few  at  first  supplied  ships)  for 
tho  common  purpose  (see  Aristidcs) ;  the 
treasure  of  tho  Confederacy  was  kept, 
and  its  assemblies  held,  in  the  island  of 
Delos.  A  series  of  tribute-lists,  more  or 
less  mutilated,  survive  in  inscriptions 
from  454  to  415.  They  show  at  first 
about  265  tributaries.  The  original  assess- 
ment gave  a  total  of  460  talents,  but  tho 




amount  received  in  the  earlier  period 
appears  to  have  fallen  short  of  400  talents. 
When  tho  alliance,  after  the  danger  from 
Persia  had  come  to  an  end,  was  converted 
into  an  Athenian  empire  (see  Athens,  §4), 
most  of  the  allies  lost  their  independence 
and  the  treasure  was  transferred  to  Athens. 
The  assessment  to  tribute  was  then  very 
greatly  raised,  probably  to  about  1,000 
talents,  perhaps  to  nearly  1,500.  The 
number  of  tributaries  appears  to  have 
been  about  300.  The  inhabitants  of  Delos 
were  removed  in  422  as  a  measure  of  puri- 
fication, but  allowed  to  return  in  421  by 
direction  of  tho  Delphic  oracle.  Delos  had 
always  had  commercial  importance  owing 
to  the  business  transacted  there  during 
tho  festival  of  Apollo.  In  tho  3rd  c.  B.C., 
with  tho  development  of  Asia,  this  impor- 
tance grew  and  Delos  became  a  great 
corn-market.  It  was  adorned  with  porti- 
coes by  Hellenistic  kings.  It  attained 
great  prosperity  after  1G6  B.C.,  when,  in 
order  to  oust  Rhodes  from  its  position  as 
the  chief  centre  of  transit  trade  in  the 
Mediterranean,  Rome  made  Delos  a  free 
port  (i.e.  abolished  all  duties  there  on  the 
movement  of  goods)  under  Athenian  rule. 
Many  Italians  settled  in  the  island,  and 
there  were  contingents  there  of  traders 
from  most  peoples  of  the  East.  The  grow- 
ing demand  for  slaves  for  the  great  estates 
of  Italy  was  met  at  Delos,  where,  we  are 
told,  as  many  as  10,000  slaves  might  bo 
sold  in  a  day.  The  slaves  were  provided 
by  pirates.  This  golden  age  of  Delos  soon 
came  to  an  end.  Tho  island  was  sacked 
in  86  by  Mithridates'  admiral,  and  finally 
devastated  by  corsairs  in  69  B.C.  Its  place 
as  tho  chief  centre  of  Italian  trade  with 
the  East  was  taken  by  Putcoli. 

De'lphi  (Delphoi),  a  very  ancient  oracular 
shrine  and  precinct  of  Apollo,  situated  in 
a  deep  rocky  cleft  on  tho  SW.  spur  of  Mt. 
Parnassus  in  Phocis  (sco  PI.  8).  The  temple 
and  tho  numerous  subsidiary  buildings 
occupied  steep  semi-circular  terraces, 
forming  a  sort  of  natural  theatre,  at  the 
foot  of  a  tremendous  cliff,  a  scene  of 
gloomy  grandeur  in  strong  contrast  to  the 
smiling  plain  of  Olympia,  the  other  great 
Greek  religious  centre.  Pausanias  refers 
to  tho  steepness  and  difficulty  of  the 
highway  to  Delphi;  it  was  on  this  road 
that  Oedipus  was  supposed  to  have  killed 
his  father.  Delphi  was  originally  known  as 
Pytho  and  in  pre- Hellenic  times  appears 
to  have  been  a  shrine  of  Mother  Earth, 
guarded  by  a  dragon  or  serpent  (Pyth5n). 
Apollo  (q.v.),  according  to  legend,  slew 
the  Python,  ousted  the  deity,  and  estab- 
lished at  Delphi  his  famous  oracle  (see 
Delphic  Oracle).  This  obtained  a  very  wide 

reputation  and  became  extremely  wealthy 
as  a  result  of  the  gifts  presented  to  it.  The 
ancient  temple  of  Apollo  (attributed  to 
the  legendary  architects  Trophonius  (q.v.) 
and  his  brother)  was  burnt  down  in  548 
B.C.,  and  reconstructed  with  great  magni- 
ficence out  of  subscriptions  collected  in 
many  lands.  The  work  was  carried  out  by 
the  Alcmaeonids  (q.v.).  It  was  destroyed 
again  early  in  the  4th  c.,  and  sacked  by 
tho  barbarian  allies  of  Mithridates  in  the 
First  Mithridatic  War  (88-84  B.C.).  It 
stood  on  one  of  tho  higher  terraces  of  tho 
precinct,  with  tho  theatre  and  tho  stadium 
above  it.  On  it  were  inscribed  some  of 
tho  maxims  of  the  Seven  Sages  (q.v.),  such 
as  'Know  thyself,  'Nothing  in  excess*. 
In  its  inner  shrine  (adytum)  was  the  chasm 
or  underground  chamber  in  which  the  ora- 
cles of  the  god  were  uttered.  In  (or  near) 
tho  temple  stood  the  Omphalos,  a  conical 
block  of  stone,  regarded  as  the  central 
point  of  the  earth;  its  sacred  character 
dated  perhaps  from  pre-Hellenio  times. 
In  the  temple  enclosure  tho  various 
Greek  States  erected  'treasuries',  build- 
ings resembling  small  temples,  often  decor- 
ated with  beautiful  sculptures,  in  which 
votive  offerings,  relics,  and  trophies  were 
displayed.  The  Athenian  treasury  was 
erected  shortly  after  490  to  commemorate 
the  victory  of  Marathon.  There  were 
also  many  thank-offerings  set  up  by  the 
various  Greek  States,  some  of  them  for 
victories  over  one  another,  for  instance  tho 
Spartan  portico  with  statues  of  Lysander 
and  his  captains,  commemorating  the 
victory  of  Aegospotami.  Another  famous 
memorial  was  a  golden  tripod  erected,  out 
of  the  booty  of  Plataea,  on  a  bronze  column 
formed  of  three  serpents  intertwined.  The 
column,  17  ft.  high,  was  removed  by  Con- 
stantino to  the  Hippodrome  of  his  new 
capital  Constantinople,  where  it  may  still 
be  seen.  Among  tho  inscriptions  that  have 
been  found  in  tho  precinct  of  the  temple 
arc  those  on  the  pedestal  of  Gelon's  offer- 
ing for  his  great  victory  at  Himera  over 
the  Carthaginians  (see  Syracuse,  §  1),  and 
on  that  of  Aemilius  Paullus  for  his  victory 
over  Perseus  of  Macedonia.  Above  the 
temple  on  the  mountain  side  was  tho 
Lcschc  or  club -room  of  the  Cnidians, 
which  Plutarch  made  the  scene  of  one  of 
his  dialogues  ('Do  defectu  oraculorum'). 
It  was  adorned  with  famous  paintings 
by  Polygnotus  (q.v.).  Delphi  was  a  centre 
of  tho  cult  of  Dionysus  as  well  as  of  Apollo. 
The  ecstatic  worship  of  Dionysus  had  been 
regulated  by  Delphi  and  ho  was  supposed 
to  be  buried  there.  Of  the  two  peaks  of 
the  neighbouring  Parnassus,  one  was  held 
sacred  to  Dionysus.  Neoptolemus  (q.v.) 
also  was  believed  to  be  buried  at  Delphi. 

Delphic  Oracle 


Demetrius  of  Phalerum 

What  purpose  took  him  there  is  variously 
stated;  but  there  he  was  killed  by  the 
contrivance  of  Orestes,  because  he  had 
robbed  Orestes  of  Hermione  (see  Andro- 
mache, Euripides'  play).  Near  Delphi,  at 
a  point  not  identified  with  certainty  but 
probably  to  the  SW.  of  the  precinct, 
was  the  Pylaea  or  meeting-place  of  the  Am- 
phictyonic  Council,  where  Aeschines  (q.v.) 
stirred  his  hearers  against  the  people  of  Am- 
phlssa,  with  ultimate  consequences  fatal 
to  the  liberty  of  Greece  (see  Sacred  Wars). 

Delphic  Oracle,  the  oracular  shrine  of 
Apollo  in  his  temple  at  Delphi  (q.v.). 
Here  the  priestess  of  the  god,  called  the 
Pythia,  seated  on  a  tripod  over  a  fissure 
in  the  rock,  uttered  in  a  divine  ecstasy 
incoherent  words  hi  reply  to  the  questions 
of  the  suppliants.  These  words  were  inter- 
preted by  a  priest  in  the  form  of  verses 
(usually  hexameters,  sometimes  contain- 
ing errors  of  metre  and  diction,  which,  as 
emanating  from  Apollo,  the  ancients  found 
puzzling).  The  Delphic  Oracle  was  prima- 
rily concerned  with  questions  of  religion, 
how  in  particular  circumstances  men  were 
to  be  reconciled  with  the  gods,  and  evil 
averted.  In  such  matters  this  oracle  was 
the  supreme  authority  in  Greece.  It  regu- 
lated the  rites  of  purification  and  expia- 
tion, and  its  influence,  being  on  the  side 
of  law  and  order  and  respect  for  human 
life,  was  a  beneficent  one.  On  questions 
of  morality  likewise  its  answers  were 
sometimes  guided  by  high  ethical  prin- 
ciples, notably  in  the  case  of  the  Spartan 
Glaucus  who  inquired  of  the  oracle  whether 
he  might  by  perjury  acquire  certain 
property  and  received  a  fulminating  reply 
(Hdt.  vi.  86).  The  oracle  was  said  by  some 
to  have  revealed  to  Lycurgus  the  laws  of 
Sparta,  and  Plato  in  his  '  Laws '  shows  the 
importance  traditionally  attached  to  it  as 
a  legislator.  In  more  worldly  matters  its 
pronouncements  were  a  curious  mixture  of 
wisdom,  charlatanry,  and  triviality.  So 
far  as  they  dealt  with  the  future,  they 
were  often  obscure  and  equivocal,  capable 
of  being  interpreted  in  accordance  with  the 
event.  Their  political  sentiment  was  gen- 
erally aristocratic  and  pro-Dorian.  They 
frequently  exerted  an  influence  on  the 
policy  of  colonization,  on  which  the  priests 
of  Delphi  wore  specially  competent  to 
advise,  thanks  to  the  information  gathered 
from  inhabitants  of  all  parts  of  the  Greek 
world  and  of  other  neighbouring  countries 
who  visited  the  shrine.  The  oracle  was 
often  consulted  on  other  political  ques- 
tions also  by  Greek  States,  and  oven  by 
foreigners,  especially  before  the  Persian 
Wars.  By  the  end  of  the  5th  c.  B.C.  its 
authority  and  reputation  had  much  de- 

clined, but  a  response  is  recorded  as  late  as 
the  time  of  the  Emperor  Julian,  A. D. 353-63. 
Delphin  Classics,  see  Editions. 
Deme'ter  (Dimeter),  according  to  Hosiod 
a  daughter  of  Cronus  and  Rhea  (qq.v.), 
and  sister  of  Zeus,  goddess  of  the  corn  and 
patroness  of  agriculture  in  general,  identi- 
fied by  the  Romans  with  Ceres  (q.v.).  She 
was  the  mother  of  Persephone  (q.v.). 
When  the  latter  was  carried  off  by  Hades, 
Demoter  sought  her  all  over  the  world, 
lighting  her  torches  at  the  fires  of  Etna  as 
she  pursued  her  search;  and  the  earth 
became  barren  because  of  her  neglect.  In 
her  wanderings  she  came  to  Eleusis,  where, 
in  the  guise  of  an  old  woman,  she  was 
hospitably  received  by  Celeus,  king  of  the 
place,  and  Metaueira  his  wife,  and  tended 
their  new-born  child  Demoph(o)6n  (ac- 
cording to  some  authorities  Triptolemus). 
She  was  Interrupted  while  holding  the 
child  hi  the  fire  to  purge  away  its  mortal- 
ity and  make  it  immortal.  She  explained 
her  action  by  revealing  her  divinity,  and 
ordered  that  rites,  known  thereafter  as 
the  Eleusinian  Mysteries  (see  Mysteries), 
should  be  instituted  at  Eleusis  in  her 
honour.  She  also  sent  Triptolcmus,  who 
may  have  been  the  child  above  referred 
to,  or  another  son  of  Celeus  and  Metaneira, 
or  at  least  an  Eleusinian,  about  the  world 
in  her  dragon-drawn  chariot,  teaching  the 
art  of  agriculture.  See  also  Plutus.  The 
worship  of  Demeter,  goddess  of  agricul- 
ture (her  name  may  mean  'earth -mother* 
or  *  corn -mother'),  perhaps  inherited  from 
a  pre-Hellcnic  people,  became  general 
among  the  Greeks.  Only  the  initiated 
were  admitted  to  her  mysteries,  but  any 
Greek,  even  slaves,  might  be  initiated. 
Demeter  is  the  subject  and  title  of  a  poem 
by  Robert  Bridges  (1905). 
Deme'trius  of  Phalerum  (c.  354-c.  283 
B.C.),  a  pupil  of  Theophrastus  (q.v.)  and 
a  man  eminent  in  literature  and  politics. 
Besides  many  political  and  oratorical 
works,  he  wrote  on  Homer,  made  a  collec- 
tion of  Aesop's  fables,  and  compiled  a  list 
of  Athenian  archons.  From  317  to  307  he 
governed  Athens  as  viceroy  for  Cassander 
(see  Macedonia,  §  2),  and  proved  an  en- 
lightened ruler.  When  the  city  fell  to 
Demetrius  Poliorcetcs  in  307  he  went 
into  exile  and  later  joined  the  court  of 
Ptolemy  I  at  Alexandria,  where  he  exer- 
cised great  influence  and  perhaps  sug- 
gested the  foundation  of  the  Museum 
(q.v.)  at  Alexandria.  He  is  thus  a  link 
between  Athens  and  Alexandria  as  succes- 
sive centres  of  Greek  culture.  There  is  a 
life  of  him  by  Diogenes  Laertius. 
Deme'trius  Poliorce'tes,  see  Macedonia, 
§  2,  Athena,  §  1,  and  Rhodes. 




Demiu'rgus  (Demiourgos),  a  name,  in 
the  Platonic  philosophy,  for  the  Creator  of 
the  world.  See  Demogorgon. 
Demo'critus  (Demofcrifos),  a  Greek  philo- 
sopher, born  at  Abdera  about  460  B.C. 
He  travelled  hi  Egypt  and  Asia  and  lived 
to  a  great  age.  He  wrote,  in  an  early  but 
well-developed  prose,  praised  by  Cicero 
and  Plutarch,  on  natural  philosophy, 
mathematics,  morals,  and  music.  Only 
short  fragments  of  his  works  survive,  but 
his  philosophical  doctrine  was  analysed 
by  Aristotle. 

He  adopted  and  developed  the  atomistic 
doctrine  of  Leucippus  (see  Philosophy,  §  1), 
and  was  opposed  to  the  school  of  Hera- 
clitus  and  the  Eleatic  school  of  Parmenides 
(qq.v.).  He  held  that  the  atoms  of  which 
the  universe  is  composed,  similar  in  qual- 
ity but  differing  in  volume  and  form,  move 
about  in  space  and  arc  variously  grouped 
into  bodies;  and  that  whereas  the  latter 
decay  and  perish,  the  atoms  themselves 
are  eternal.  The  soul  is  a  subtle  form  of 
fire  (itself  composed  of  the  most  subtle 
atoms)  animating  the  human  body.  In 
some  respects  his  doctrine  approaches  to 
modern  scientific  notions.  In  ethics  he 
held  that  happiness  is  to  be  sought  in 
moderation  of  desire  and  in  recognizing 
the  superiority  of  tho  soul  over  the  body. 
Juvenal  (x.  33)  speaks  of  him  as  ever 
laughing  at  tho  follies  of  mankind,  'per- 
petuo  risu  pulmonem  agitare  solebat',  and 
he  is  sometimes  known  as  the  'laughing 
philosopher*  in  opposition  to  the  melan- 
choly Heraclitus. 

Demo'docus  (Dvmodokos),  in  the  '  Odys- 
sey ',  a  minstrel  at  tho  court  of  Alcinous ; 
in  the  'Aencid'  (x.  413)  a  companion  of 

De'mogo'rgon.  Statius  in  his  *  Thebais ' 
refers  to  triplicis  mundi  swnmum,  quern 
scire  nefastum,  'the  Most  High  of  the 
triple  universe,  whom  it  is  unlawful  to 
know*.  To  this  the  scholiast  (Lactantius  ? ) 
added  the  note  that  'Demogorgon'  is 
meant.  This  is  the  first  known  mention  of 
'  Demogorgon ',  which  is  perhaps  a  mistake 
for  Demiurgus,  the  Creator.  Demogorgon 
is  described  in  Boccaccio's  'Genealogia 
Deorum'  as  tho  primeval  god  of  ancient 
mythology,  and  this  appears  to  be  the 
sense  of  the  word  hi  modern  literature 
(Spenser,  Milton,  Shelley,  &c.).  In  Shel- 
ley's 'Prometheus  Unbound',  Demogor- 
gon is  an  eternal  principle  or  power  which 
ousts  the  gods  of  a  false  theology.  The 
Countess  of  Saldar's  'Demogorgon'  (in 
Meredith's  'Evan  Harrington')  is  tailor- 

Demo'nax,  a  Stole  philosopher;  see 

Demo'sthenes  (1),  a  prominent  Athenian 
general  at  the  time  of  the  Peloponnesian 
War.  It  was  he  who  conducted  tho  opera- 
tions at  Pylos  in  425  B.C.  which  terminated 
in  the  surrender  of  the  Spartan  force  hi 
Sphacteria  (see  Clean).  He  was  sent  with 
reinforcements  to  Nicias  at  Syracuse  in 
413,  but  was  unable  to  persuade  that 
general  to  take  tho  decisive  course  neces- 
sary to  save  the  Athenian  forces.  He 
commanded  the  rear  of  the  army  in  the 
retreat,  was  forced  to  surrender,  and  prob- 
ably was  put  to  death. 
Demo'sthenes  (2)  (383-322  B.C.),  a  great 
Athenian  orator  and  statesman. 

§  1.  Biography 

He  was  the  son  of  a  wealthy  manufac- 
turer of  arms  of  the  same  name.  He  was 
born  at  Athens,  of  the  deme  Paoania.  His 
father  died  when  he  was  seven,  appointing 
by  his  will  three  guardians  for  his  son. 
These  misappropriated  tho  property  left 
in  their  charge.  Demosthenes,  when  ho 
reached  the  ago  of  18,  sought  during  three 
years  to  obtain  restitution.  In  363,  having 
meanwhile  studied  under  Isaous  (q.v.),  he 
brought  an  action  against  them,  and  won 
it,  though  he  probably  recovered  little. 
According  to  tradition,  his  first  appear- 
ance as  a  speaker  in  the  Assembly  proved 
unsuccessful  (it  is  said  that  he  coiild  not 
pronounce  the  letter p) ;  ho  thereupon  made 
strenuous  efforts  to  improve  his  delivery, 
and  studied  literature  and  the  orators. 
He  also  wrote  speeches  for  litigants  in 
civil  and  political  cases  and  had  pupils. 
In  355  or  354  ho  appeared  in  person  in  the 
case  against  Leptines  (see  below,  §  3).  His 
first  political  speeches  followed,  but  it 
was  not  till  351  that  he  became  prominent 
as  a  politician,  on  the  side  of  the  opposi- 
tion. Philip  of  Maccdon  (q.v.)  had  been 
extending  his  power  over  the  cities  of  the 
N.  coast  of  the  Aegean.  He  had  sought 
to  interfere  in  tho  sacred  war  against 
Phocis  and  had  been  stopped  at  Thermo- 
pylae, but  had  resumed  his  threatening 
movements  in  Thrace.  It  was  at  this 
moment  that  Demosthenes  appears  in 
tho  First  Philippic  as  the  advocate  of 
a  vigorous  policy  of  resistance.  But  tho 
peace  party,  led  by  Eubulus,  was  in  power 
at  Athens,  and  such  efforts  as  it  made  to 
check  Philip  proved  ultimately  unavailing. 
It  was  during  this  period  of  Philip's  grow- 
ing power  that  Demosthenes'  three  Olyn- 
thiacs  (see  below)  were  delivered.  Peace 
became  necessary  and  Demosthenes  was 
one  of  the  negotiators;  but  the  improvi- 
dence of  his  colleagues  and  the  astute 
delays  of  Philip  made  the  terms  of  the 
'  Peace  of  Philocrates '  more  onerous  than 
had  been  expected,  and  the  Assembly  was 




disposed  to  reject  them.  The  speech  of 
Demosthenes  'On  the  Peace*  (345)  con- 
vinced it  that  it  would  be  prudents  to  give 
way.  But  the  aggressions  of  Philip  were 
renewed  and  by  341  he  was  threatening 
the  Chersonese.  The  Second  and  Third 
Philippics  and  the  speech  *On  the  Cher- 
sonese* belong  to  this  period.  From  340 
to  338  the  party  of  Demosthenes  was  in 
power,  and  during  these  years  his  political 
speeches  cease.  Shortly  alter  Chaeronea 
(338),  CtSsiphon  carried  a  motion  in  the 
Council  that  Demosthenes  should  bo  hon- 
oured with  a  golden  crown  for  his  services 
to  the  State.  Aeschinos  thereupon  laid  an 
accusation  against  Ctesiphon  alleging  the 
illegality  of  the  proposal.  The  matter 
remained  in  abeyance  until  330,  when  it 
came  to  trial.  Aeschines  in  his  speech 
reviewed  the  career  of  Demosthenes  and 
laid  to  his  charge  all  the  recent  misfortunes 
of  Athens.  The  reply  of  Demosthenes  '  On 
the  Crown*  secured  an  overwhelming  vote 
in  his  favour.  The  latter  part  of  Demos- 
thenes' career  was  clouded  by  the  dis- 
creditable affair  of  Harpalus,  the  fugitive 
treasurer  of  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.,  §  8). 
He  had  come  to  the  coast  of  Attica  with 
thirty  ships,  mercenaries,  and  5,000  talents, 
to  stir  up  revolt  against  Alexander,  but 
the  Athenians  had  refused  to  receive  him. 
Leaving  his  ships  and  men  at  Cape  Taena- 
rum,  he  came  again  to  Athens,  bringing 
700  talents.  On  the  advice  of  Demosthenes 
he  was  arrested  and  the  money  impounded. 
Harpalus  presently  escaped,  and  it  was 
discovered  that  of  the  money,  deposited 
in  the  Acropolis  under  charge  of  commis- 
sioners of  whom  Demosthenes  was  one, 
one  half  had  disappeared.  What  had  hap- 
pened remains  obscure.  Demosthenes,  if 
guilty  of  nothing  more  serious,  had  at  least 
been  grossly  negligent.  As  the  result  of  an 
inquiry  held  at  his  own  request  ho  was 
condemned  to  pay  fifty  talents,  lie  was 
imprisoned,  but  escaped  into  exile.  After 
the  death  of  Alexander  ho  returned  to 
Athens.  The  defeat  at  Crannon  (322,  soo 
Athens,  §  7)  led  to  the  demand  for  the 
surrender  to  Antipator  of  the  chief  agita- 
tors against  Macedon.  Demosthenes  fled 
to  the  island  of  Calaureia  off  the  coast  of 
Argolis.  He  was  pursued  by  the  agents 
of  Antipater  and  took  poison. 

§  2.  Orations  of  Demosthenes.  The  first 


Sixty -one  speeches  have  come  down  to 
us  under  the  name  of  Demosthenes,  but 
the  authenticity  of  some  of  these,  particu 
larly  in  the  category  of  civil  cases,  has 
been  contested.  Among  those  generally 
accepted  as  authentic,  the  following  are 
the  most  important.  The  first  were  de- 

livered against  his  fraudulent  guardian 
Aphobus  (363).  By  these  Demosthenes 
obtained  an  ineffectual  verdict,  and  they 
were  followed  by  speeches  against  Onetor, 
brother-in-law  of  Aphobus,  in  further 
fruitless  proceedings  to  obtain  the  re- 
covery of  his  property. 

§  3.  Speeches  in  public  prosecutions 
(a)  'Against  Androtion*  (355),  (6) 
'Against  TimocrateV  (353-2),  (c)  'Against 
Aristocrates*  (352),  all  three  composed 
for  various  prosecutors  on  charges  of 
illegal  proposals;  (d)  'Against  Leptines' 
(354),  spoken  by  Demosthenes  himself. 
Leptines  had  proposed  to  abolish,  in  view 
of  the  financial  difficulties  of  the  State,  all 
exemptions  from  taxation  granted,  in  the 
past  and  in  the  future,  as  a  reward  for 
public  services.  Demosthenes  argues  that 
the  proposal  is  contrary  to  good  policy 
and  that  the  resulting  economy  will  be 
negligible,  (e)  'Against  Meidias*  (347). 
This  speech  was  never  delivered.  Meidias, 
a  wealthy  and  arrogant  political  opponent, 
had  assaulted  Demosthenes  hi  public.  The 
proceedings  taken  by  the  latter  were  de- 
layed through  the  influence  of  Meidias, 
and  finally  dropped,  perhaps  owing  to  the 
party  truce  which  resulted  in  the  embassy 
of  346  (sec  below). 

§  4.  Other  speeches  on  public  policy 
(a)  'On  the  Naval  Boards'  (Sum- 
moriai)  (354).  The  duty  of  equipping 
triremes  had  been  laid  in  357  on  tho 
1,200  richest  citizens,  divided  into  twenty 
Boards,  the  members  of  which  paid  the 
same  share  of  tho  cost,  whatever  the 
property  of  each  might  be.  This  system 
worked  unfairly  and  Demosthenes  pro- 
poses its  reform.  At  the  same  time  he 
opposes  a  demand,  put  forward  at  that 
moment  by  a  party  at  Athens,  for  war 
with  Persia,  as  inexpedient  in  tho  circum- 
stances.' (6)'FortheMegalopolitans'(353). 
ThcbeB  at  this  time  was  hampered  by  her 
'Sacred  War*  (q.v.)  with  the  Phocians, 
and  Sparta  had  taken  the  opportunity  to 
put  forward  a  proposal  whose  object  was 
to  enable  her  to  recover  control  of  the 
Arcadians  and  Megalopolis  their  centre. 
The  Mcgalopolitans  had  appealed  to  Athens 
for  support.  Part  of  the  Assembly,  actu- 
ated by  hostility  to  Thebes,  was  averse  to 
any  action  unfavourable  to  Sparta.  Demos- 
thenes takes  the  opposite  view,  and  urges 
the  maintenance  of  a  balance  of  power 
between  Thebes  and  Sparta.  If  Sparta 
reduces  Arcadia,  she  will  become  too 
strong,  (c)  'For  the  Rhodians*  (352  or 
351).  Rhodes,  at  the  instigation  of  Mauso- 
lus  (q.v.)  of  Caria,  had  revolted  from  the 
Athenian  Confederacy.  A  Carian  garrison 




had  been  placed  in  the  island,  and  the 
democratic  party  had  been  driven  into 
exile.  Those  now  asked  Athens  to  assist 
in  their  restoration  and  the  liberation  of 
Rhodes.  Demosthenes  urges  that  in  spite 
of  the  grievance  that  Athens  has  against 
Rhodes,  and  in  spite  of  possible  complica- 
tions with  Artemisia  (successor  of  Mauso- 
lus)  and  the  Persians,  Athens  should 
follow  her  traditional  role  of  liberator. 

§  5.  The  Philippics  and  other  speeches 
on  the  Macedonian  question 

(a)  'First  Philippic'  (351).  Philip's 
aggressive  policy  had  reached  the  point 
of  invading  the  territory  of  Olynthus  and 
of  menacing  the  Athenian  hold  on  the  Cher- 
sonese. Demosthenes  urges  the  Athenians 
to  awake  from  their  slothful  apathy,  and 
details  the  measures  they  ought  to  take: 
the  immediate  dispatch  of  a  small  expedi- 
tion, and  the  preparation  of  a  larger  per- 
manent force  to  meet  the  sudden  thrusts 
of  Philip  in  any  direction.  Moreover  the 
citizens  themselves  must  form  part  of  the 
force,  and  they  must  not  rely  entirely  on 
mercenaries.  (6)  The  three  'Olynthiacs' 
(349).  Philip  had  resumed  his  threat  to 
Olynthus,  and  had  captured  some  towns 
of  the  Olynthian  League,  but  his  attack 
on  Olynthus  itself  was  delayed  until  348. 
The  Olynthians  appealed  to  Athens,  and 
the  latter  entered  into  alliance  with  them. 
In  the  first  speech  Demosthenes  urges  the 
immediate  dispatch  of  assistance  and  ener- 
getic opposition  to  Philip  while  ho  is  still 
far  from  Attica;  also  the  formation  of  a 
citizen -army.  The  second  is  a  speech  of 
encouragement  and  enforcement  of  the 
same  theme.  The  third  contains  a  pro- 
posal to  revoke  the  laws  relating  to  the 
Theoric  (q.v.)  or  Festival  Fund,  so  as  to 
make  it  available  for  military  purposes. 
Ho  contrasts  the  public  spirit  that  ani- 
mated tjie  State  in  former  days  with  the 
indolence  induced  by  the  policy  of  doles 
distributed  without  regard  to  public  ser- 
vice, (c)  'On  the  Peace'  (346).  The  Peace 
of  Philocrates  had  been  adopted,  but  for 
reasons  explained  below  (see  'On  the 
Embassy'),  Philip  had  extended  his  con- 
quests in  Thrace,  advanced  into  Greece, 
subdued  the  Phocians,  and  secured  a  place 
on  the  Amphictyonic  Council.  The  As- 
sembly, feeling  itself  outwitted,  was  indig- 
nant. Demosthenes  had  done  what  he 
could  to  avert  these  misfortunes,  but  he 
thought  that  resistance  at  the  moment 
was  impossible,  and  in  this  speech  he 
counsels  a  pacific  policy,  (d)  'Second 
Philippic*  (344).  After  an  interval  Philip 
had  resumed  his  interference  in  Greece, 
strengthening  himself  in  Thessaly,  and 
supporting  the  Argives  and  Messenians 

against  Sparta.  Athens  had  sent  envoys 
to  the  Peloponneso  to  counteract  the  lat- 
ter measures  and  Philip  had  protested. 
This  speech  is  the  reply  of  Demosthenes 
to  Philip's  protests.  He  exposes  Philip's 
imperial  designs  and  proposes  a  reply  to 
him  (the  text  has  not  survived),  (e)  'On 
the  Embassy*  ('  De  Falsa  Legatione')  (343). 
There  had  been  grave  dissensions  between 
Demosthenes  and  his  fellow  ambassadors 
at  the  time  of  the  conclusion  of  the  Peace 
of  Philocrates.  The  terms  agreed  upon 
were  that  Athens  and  Macedon  should 
each  retain  the  territories  in  their  posses- 
sion at  the  time  the  peace  was  concluded. 
As  Philip  was  constantly  engaged  on  fresh 
conquests,  it  was  urgent,  when  once  Athens 
had  accepted  the  terms,  that  the  second 
embassy,  which  was  to  receive  Philip's 
oath  to  observe  them,  should  proceed  with 
all  speed.  In  spite  of  the  remonstrances  of 
Demosthenes,  the  ambassadors  delayed, 
and  Philip  delayed  further,  and  when  the 
Peace  was  ratified  Thrace  had  been  sub- 
dued by  Macedon.  Moreover,  on  the  re- 
turn of  the  embassy  to  Athens,  Aeschines 
gave  so  flattering  an  account  of  the  inten- 
tions of  Philip  in  regard  to  Athenian 
interests,  that  the  Assembly  voted  the 
extension  of  the  treaty  to  Philip's  descen- 
dants, allowed  Philip  to  occupy  Thermo- 
pylae, and  abandoned  the  Phocians  to 
their  fate.  In  343,  when  feeling  at  Athens 
had  been  roused  by  the  continuance  of 
Philip's  aggressive  policy,  Demosthenes 
impeached  Aeschines  on  the  ground  of  the 
injury  done  to  Athens  as  a  consequence 
of  his  delay  on  the  embassy,  and  of  his 
false  reports,  and  suggested  that  bribery 
was  the  cause  of  his  pro -Macedonian  policy. 
The  reply  of  Aeschinos  (which  we  possess) 
secured  a  decision  in  his  favour  by  thirty 
votes,  in  a  jury  of  probably  1,501  mem- 
bers. (/)' On  the  Chersonese '(341).  Philip 
was  in  Thrace,  in  dangerous  proximity  to 
the  Chersonese  and  projecting  an  attack 
on  Byzantium.  Athens  had,  after  the 
Peace  of  Philocrates,  sent  settlers  to  the 
Chersonese  under  Diopeithes.  The  town 
of  Cardia  refused  them  admission,  and 
Philip  sent  an  expedition  for  its  protection. 
Diopeithes,  ill-provided  with  funds  from 
Athens,  made  piratical  raids  hi  various 
directions,  among  others  into  Philip's 
Thracian  territory,  and  Philip  sent  a  pro- 
test to  Athens.  In  this  speech  Demos- 
thenes urges  that  Diopeithes  should  be 
vigorously  supported.  Philip,  though  pre- 
tending to  be  at  peace,  is  hi  fact  at  war 
with  Athens,  and  all  his  operations  and 
intrigues  are  designed  ultimately  to  com- 
pass her  destruction.  The  longer  his  pro- 
ceedings are  tolerated,  the  more  difficult 
he  will  be  to  overcome.  The  speech  is 



remarkable  both  for  its  statesmanlike  sub- 
stance and  for  the  variety  with  which  the 
orator's  passion  is  expressed,  (g)  'Third 
Philippic*  (341,  a  few  months  after  the 
previous  speech).  The  threat  to  the  Cher- 
sonese and  Byzantium  was  closer.  Demos- 
thenes proposes  to  unite  the  Greek  States 
against  Philip,  and  urges  the  immediate 
dispatch  of  reinforcements.  He  tries  to 
arouse  the  Athenians  to  the  imminence 
of  their  danger.  This  is  one  of  the  finest 
of  the  speeches  of  Demosthenes,  marked 
by  a  tone  of  gravity  and  deep  anxiety. 
There  is  a  remarkable  passage  where  ho 
contrasts  the  ancient  spirit  of  Athens  with 
the  present  state  of  corruption,  (h) '  On  the 
Crown*  ('Do  Corona')  (330),  'the  greatest 
oration  of  the  greatest  of  orators'  (Lord 
Brougham).  The  policy  recommended  in 
the  Third  Philippic  was  adopted  in  its 
main  lines  and  met  with  some  temporary 
success.  War  between  Athens  and  Philip 
was  declared  in  340  and  ended  in  the 
defeat  of  Chaeronea.  The  circumstances  in 
which  this  speech  was  delivered  have  been 
stated  above  (§  1).  On  the  technical  point 
as  to  the  illegality  of  Ctcsiphon's  proposal, 
Aeschines  was  probably  right;  but  the 
case  really  turned  on  Acschines'  general 
indictment  of  the  policy  of  Demosthenes, 
and  this,  from  the  Peace  of  Philocrates 
to  Chaoronca,  Demosthenes  defends  in 
detail,  maintaining  that  the  counsel  he 
has  given  has  been  in  accord  with  the 
honourable  tradition  of  Athens,  which  has 
never  'preferred  an  inglorious  security  to 
the  hazardous  vindication  of  a  noble 
cause*.  Ho  interposes  a  virulent  attack 
on  Aeschines,  ridiculing  (perhaps  without 
strict  regard  to  the  truth  of  the  gossip  ho 
repeats)  his  humble  parentage  and  early 
circumstances,  and  endeavouring  to  prove 
from  the  facts  of  his  career  that  he  was  a 
traitor  to  his  country,  bought  by  the  gold 
of  Philip.  Two  passages  are  especially 
famous:  the  description  of  the  confusion 
at  Athens  on  receipt  of  the  news  that 
Philip  had  occupied  Elateia  (169  et  seq.), 
and  the  invocation  of  the  men  who  had 
fought  at  Marathon,  Salamis,  and  Plataea 

§  6.  The  oratory  of  Demosthenes 
Demosthenes  is  generally  regarded  as  the 
greatest  of  Greek  orators,  combining  nobi- 
lity of  thought  and  diction  with  simplicity 
of  language.  His  speeches  are  marked 
by  a  passionate  earnestness,  expressed 
in  a  great  variety  of  tones,  anger,  irony, 
sarcasm,  invective;  pathos  and  humour 
rarely  appear.  The  development  of  his  argu- 
ment and  arrangement  of  his  topics,  though 
often  intricate,  show  great  rhetorical  skill. 
A  striking  feature  of  his  eloquence  is  that 

it  is  at  once  elevated  and  practical :  there 
is  no  fine  speaking  for  its  own  sake ;  all  is 
directed  to  the  persuasion  of  his  hearers, 
and  in  a  form  calculated  to  appeal  to  a 
popular  audience.  He  uses  a  pure  Attic 
speech,  bold  metaphors,  and  vivid  ex- 
amples: the  Athenians  in  their  warfare 
with  Philip  are  like  barbarians  boxing, 
*  Hit  one  of  them,  and  ho  hugs  the  place ; 
hit  him  on  the  other  side,  and  there  go  his 
hands ;  but  as  for  guarding,  or  looking  his 
opponent  in  the  face,  he  neither  can  nor 
will  do  it'  (Phil.  i.  40,  Transl.  Pickard- 
Cambridge).  The  principal  criticisms  on 
his  oratory  relate  to  a  certain  artificiality 
in  his  speeches — they  were  certainly  care- 
fully prepared — and  to  the  sophistical  cha- 
racter of  some  of  the  arguments. 

The  method  of  Demosthenes  has  been 
studied  by  subsequent  orators  of  all  ages. 
He  exercised  a  great  influence  on  Cicero. 
Quintilian  regarded  him  as  by  far  the 
greatest  of  Greek  orators  and  thought  that 
his  speeches  should  not  only  be  examined 
but  learnt  by  heart  by  students  of  rhetoric 
(Inst.  Or.  x.  i.  105).  In  modern  times 
traces  of  his  influence  may  be  found  in  tho 
speeches  of  Chatham,  Burke,  Fox,  and 
Pitt  (see  Sandys,  'Demosthenes').  He 
received  high  praise  from  Lord  Brougham 
('The  Eloquence  of  tho  Ancients').  Milton 
refers  to  him  in  the  lines, 

Thence  to  tho  famous  Orators  repair, 

Those  ancient  whose  resistless  eloquence 

.  . .  ful  mined  over  Greece 

To  Macedon  and  Artaxcrxes'  throne. 

P.  11.  iv.  267-71. 

There  is  a  fine  statue  of  Demosthenes  in 
the  Vatican,  believed  to  be  a  copy,  with 
variations  of  detail,  of  the  statue  by 
Polyeuctus  which  stood  in  the  Agora  at 

Denta'tus,  MINIUS  Ctraius,  see  Curius 

Deorum  Conci'lium,  see  Lucian. 
.Deorum  Dia'logi,  see  iMcian. 

Deuca'lion  (Deukalion),  in  Greek  mytho- 
logy, son  of  Prometheus  (q.v.).  Zeus, 
being  angered  with  tho  crimes  of  men, 
decided  to  destroy  them  by  a  flood. 
Deucalion,  warned  by  Prometheus,  built 
a  boat  for  himself  and  his  wife  Pyrrha,  in 
which  they  escaped  the  flood;  when  the 
waters  fell  they  landed  on  Mt.  Parnassus. 
They  were  advised  by  an  oracle  to  throw 
over  their  shoulders  'the  bones  of  their 
mother '.  Understanding  by  this  the  stones 
of  Mother  Earth  they  did  as  they  were 
directed,  and  from  the  stones  thrown  by 
Deucalion  there  sprang  up  men,  and  from 
those  thrown  by  Pyrrha  women.  The 
eldest  son  of  Deucalion  and  Pyrrha  was 




Hellen,  the  legendary  ancestor  of  the 
Hellenic  race  and  father  of  Dorus,  Xuthus, 
and  Aeolus,  the  legendary  progenitors  of 
the  Dorian,  Ionian,  and  Aeolian  Greeks 
(see  Migrations). 

Devo'tio  see  Magic. 

Di  Conse'ntes,  in  Roman  religion,  the 
twelve  great  gods,  six  male  and  six  female ; 
according  to  two  lines  of  Ennuis: 
Juno,  Vesta,  Minerva,  Ceres,  Diana,  Venus, 

Mercurius,    Jovi',    Neptunus,    Volcanus, 


Di  Manes,  Pare'ntes,  see  Manes,  Paren- 

Diae'resis  ('taking  asunder'),  the  pro- 
nunciation of  two  successive  vowels  as 
separate  sounds,  not  as  a  diphthong; 
indicated  in  modern  printing  by  "  over  one 
of  the  vowels. 

Dia'dochi  (Diadochoi),  a  name  given  to 
the  rulers  who  succeeded  to  various  parts 
of  the  empire  of  Alexander  the  Great  (q.v.). 
See  Macedonia,  §  3  (for  Antigonids),  Atta- 
lids,  Ptolemies,  Seleucids. 
Dia'goras  (Diagords),  a  famous  boxer  of 
Rhodes ;  see  Pindar  (under  Ol.  vii). 

Dia'krioi,  see  Athens,  §  3. 
Dialects,  GREEK,  see  Migrations. 
Dialogue,  a  form  of  literature  in  which 
the  author  seeks  to  convey  information, 
or  inculcate  some  lesson,  under  the  sem- 
blance of  a  viva-vocc  discussion.  The 
earliest  examples  of  the  form  are  the 
dialogues  of  Plato,  followed  by  those  of 
Xenophon,  and  later  by  those  of  Aristotle 
(qq.v.).  Many  other  dialogues,  some  of 
them  only  known  to  us  by  their  titles  or 
by  references,  were  written  in  Greek  dur- 
ing the  subsequent  centuries,  on  philo- 
sophical and  other  subjects.  One  of  the 
longest  examples  of  the  form  is  the 
'Doipnosophistai'  of  Athcnaeus  (q.v.),  but 
the  principal  writer  of  dialogues  of  the 
later  period  of  Greek  literature  is  Lucian 
(q.v.),  who  made  them  a  vehicle  of  satire. 
In  Roman  literature  the  chief  examples 
of  the  dialogue  are  to  bo  found  in  Cicero's 
political,  rhetorical,  and  philosophical  trea- 
tises, and  the  'Dialogus  de  Oratoribus'  of 

Dialogues  of  the  Dead,  of  the  Gods,  of 
the  Sea- Gods,  see  Lucian. 

Dfa'logus  de  &r8to'ribu8t  a  dialogue 
on  the  causes  of  the  decline  of  oratory, 
attributed  to  Tacitus  and  now  generally 
accepted  as  his  work,  hi  spite  of  differences 
of  the  style  from  that  of  his  later  writings. 
The  discussion  is  supposed  to  have  taken 
place  about  A.D.  75  and  appears  to  have 

been  written  about  A.D.  81,  before  Domi- 
tian's  reign.  It  is  thus  the  earliest  work  of 
Tacitus  that  we  have. 

The  scene  is  laid  hi  the  house  of  Curia- 
tius  Maternus,  a  poet,  and  the  other  inter- 
locutors are  Marcus  Aper,  a  distinguished 
advocate,  of  Gallic  birth;  Julius  Secun- 
dus,  a  historian ;  and  Vipstanus  Messalla, 
a  Roman  noble.  The  first  twenty-seven 
chapters  are  introductory.  Aper,  a  prac- 
tical utilitarian  lawyer,  maintains  the 
superiority  of  oratory  over  poetry,  for  the 
rewards  it  brings.  Maternus,  a  meditative 
idealist,  disdains  wealth  and  power,  and 
prefers  the  quiet  life  and  the  companion- 
ship of  the  Muses.  Aper  admits  no  decline 
in  oratory.  Messalla,  a  champion  of  the 
ancients,  criticizes  the  modern  speakers. 
At  the  request  of  Maternua  he  passes 
(c.  28)  to  the  causes  of  the  alleged  decline, 
which  for  the  purposes  of  the  discussion 
is  to  be  assumed.  These  causes  Messalla 
finds  in  the  lax  education  of  the  young, 
contrasted  with  the  careful  methods  of 
former  days ;  and  in  the  defective  training 
given  to  orators  by  the  so-called  rhetori- 
cians. After  a  lacuna  in  the  manuscript 
some  one  else  (probably  Maternus)  is 
speaking.  He  urges  that  the  decline  in 
oratory  is  due  to  the  changed  conditions 
of  public  life.  Oratory  throve  in  the  stir- 
ring days  of  the  republic,  hi  times  of  dis- 
order and  revolution,  when  orators  were 
inflamed  by  party  enthusiasm.  The  calm 
of  the  empire  has  removed  those  incen- 
tives, but  has  brought  compensations. 

It  will  be  scon  that  in  this  dialogue  ora- 
tory is  discussed  from  a  point  of  view 
different  from  that  of  Quintilian,  who  is 
concerned  rather  with  its  technical  and 
literary  aspects.  Poggio  heard  of  the 
existence  of  a  manuscript  of  the '  Dialogus' 
in  1425 ;  but  the  monk  who  offered  it  failed 
to  produce  it.  It  was  recovered  in  1451. 

Dia'na  (Dldnd),  a  Latin  goddess  who  had 
from  very  early  times  a  temple  at  Rome 
on  the  Aventine,  where  she  was  associated 
with  the  plebeian  class  and  with  slaves; 
the  construction  of  the  temple  was  ascribed 
to  Servius  Tullius.  Diana  was  supposed  to 
promote  the  union  of  communities.  There 
appear  to  have  been  Greek  elements  in  her 
primitive  cult,  and  she  was  identified  with 
the  Greek  Artemis  (q.v.)  at  an  early  date. 
She  was  especially  worshipped  by  women. 
She  was  perhaps  originally  a  spirit  of  the 
woods  and  of  wild  nature,  brought  into 
friendly  relation  with  the  Italian  farmer 
and  his  family.  For  a  short  account  of 
her  functions  see  Catullus's  hymn  to 
Diana,  poem  34. 

Her  most  famous  cult,  as  Diana  Ne~ 
morensis  ('of  the  grove'),  was  at  Aricla 




in  the  Alban  hills  where  her  shrine  stood 
in  a  grove  and  where  she  was  wor- 
shipped jointly  with  a  male  god  of  the 
forest  named  Virbius,  later  identified  with 
Hippolytus  (q.v.).  It  was  the  custom  for 
the  priesthood  of  this  shrine  to  be  given 
to  a  runaway  slave  after  he  had  plucked 
a  branch  from  a  certain  tree  in  the  grove 
and  killed  in  single  combat  the  priest  who 
previously  occupied  the  office.  The  impli- 
cations of  this  strange  custom  have  been 
explained  in  Sir  J.  Frazer's  *  Golden 
Bough*.  Compare  Aen.  vi.  136  et  seq., 
where  Aeneas  plucks  the  Golden  Bough 
before  descending  to  the  nether  world.  It 
is  the  sight  of  this  bough  that  constrains 
Charon  to  ferry  Aeneas  across  Acheron. 

From  her  association  with  Artemis, 
Diana  took  over  the  character  of  a  moon- 
goddess  ;  and,  since  Hecate  was  sometimes 
identified  with  Artemis,  of  an  earth- 
goddess.  She  bad  the  cult-title  Trivia 
from  being  worshipped,  like  Hecate,  at 
the  crossways. 

Dicaea'rchus  (Dikaiarclios)  of  Mcsscne, 
a  pupil  of  Aristotle,  a  geographer  and 
historian  whoso  works  are  lost.  He  wrote 
in  particular  a  treatise  on  life  in  Greece 
('Bios  Hellados').  Some  lively  and  in- 
teresting fragments  of  a  topographical 
description  of  Greece,  which  are  extant, 
have  been  attributed  to  him,  but  these  are 
probably  by  a  writer  of  later  date. 

Di'casts,  see  Judicial  Procedure,  §  1. 

Dicta'tor,  at  Rome,  a  magistrate  who  in 
grave  emergencies  might  be  elected  for  a 
period  of  six  months,  on  the  nomination 
of  the  consuls.  Ho  had  supreme  military 
and  judicial  authority,  and  could  not  be 
called  to  account  for  his  actions.  He 
appointed  as  his  assistant  a  Master  of  the 
Horse  (magister  equitum).  The  dictator- 
ship was  introduced  at  Rome  about  430 
B.C.,  probably  in  imitation  of  the  practice 
of  the  Latins,  among  whom  an  office  of 
this  name  already  existed.  Among  famous 
early  dictators  wore  Cincinnatus,  M. 
Furius  Camillus,  and  Q.  Fabius  Maximus 
Cunctator  (qq.v.).  The  office  ceased  to  be 
held  towards  the  end  of  the  3rd  c.  B.C.,  but 
was  revived  by  Sulla,  who  was,  however, 
appointed  dictator  rei  publicae  consti- 
tuendae,  I.e.  for  an  indefinite  period. 
Similarly  Julius  Caesar  was  appointed 
dictator  (i)  In  49  for  the  specific  purpose 
of  holding  the  elections  for  48 ;  (ii)  in  48, 
perhaps  indefinitely,  or  perhaps  for  one 
year;  (iii)  In  46  for  ten  years;  and  (iv)  in 
44,  perpetually.  The  dictatorship  was 
formally  abolished  after  Caesar's  murder 
and  Augustus  refused  to  revive  it. 

Di'cte  (Diktt),  a  mountain  in  the  E.  part 

of  Crete,  in  a  cave  on  which,  according  to 
Hesiod,  Zeus  was  born.  D.  G.  Hogarth  in 
his  'Accidents  of  an  Antiquary's  Life* 
relates  how  ho  excavated  in  1900  a  great 
grotto  on  Mt.  Lasithi  in  Crete,  a  mountain 
over  6,000  ft.  high,  now  identified  with 
Dicte,  and  found,  in  the  numerous  votive 
offerings  discovered  there,  proof  that  it 
was  the  cave  traditionally  associated 
with  the  above  legend.  To  Dicte  also, 
according  to  Lucian,  Zeus  led  the  maiden 
Europa  (q.v.),  whom  he  had  carried  off. 

Dictionaries,  GREEK  AND  LATIN.  The 
first  to  prepare  a  work  of  this  description 
appears  to  have  been  Aristophanes  of 
Byzantium  (q.v.),  who  compiled  a  list  of 
unusual  Greek  words  with  their  meanings. 
Only  a  fragment  of  this  survives.  Other 
early  scholars  such  as  Pamphilus  of  Alex- 
andria (of  the  1st  c.  A.D.)  followed  in  his 
footsteps,  and  the  practice  was  extended 
in  the  2nd  c.  A.D.  owing  to  the  prevailing 
tendency  to  imitate  the  great  Attic  writers. 
Thus  Aelius  Dionysius  prepared  a  lexicon 
of  Attic  words  with  examples  of  their  use 
(known  to  us  through  Eustathius).  Nota- 
ble examples  of  work  of  this  kind  in  later 
centuries  are  the  lexicons  of  Hesychius 
of  Alexandria  (q.v.,  known  to  us  in  an 
abridged  form)  and  of  Hesychius  of  Mil- 
etus (6th  c.,  known  through  Suidas,  q.v.). 
Both  these  works  are  valuable  for  the  light 
they  throw  on  Greek  texts  and  on  the 
meaning  of  rare  words  (e.g.  d^na  in 
Aesch.  Ag.  419)  by  the  excerpts  which 
they  quote.  In  the  9th  c.  three  lexicons 
appear  to  have  been  prepared  under  the 
direction  of  the  patriarch  Photius  (see 
Byzantine  Age),  in  two  of  which  (known 
as  the  *  Etymologicurn  gcnulnum*  and  the 
'  Etymologicum  parvum')  attention  was 
paid  to  the  etymology  of  words.  In  the 
10th  c.  came  the  great  lexicon  or  en- 
cyclopaedia of  Suidas  (q.v.). 

Among  the  lexicographers  of  the  Renais- 
sance mention  must  be  made  of  Robert 
Estienne  (Stephanus),  a  French  publisher, 
author  of  a  '  Thesaurus  Linguae  Latinae ', 
the  best  Latin  dictionary  of  the  time, 
1532;  and  of  his  son  Henri,  author  of  a 
*  Thesaurus  Graecae  Linguae*  (1572). 

In  modern  times  the  Greek  dictionary 
of  Liddell  and  Scott  first  appeared  in  1843 
(8th  ed.,  1897,  revised  edition  1924-  ). 
The  authors  were  H.  G.  Liddell  (1811-98), 
headmaster  of  Winchester  and  Dean  of 
Christ  Church,  and  Robert  Scott  (1811- 
87),  Master  of  Balliol  and  Dean  of  Roches- 
ter. The  dictionary  had  its  origin  in  the 
German  work  of  F.  Passow.  There  are 
also  some  important  special  lexicons  deal- 
ing with  particular  authors,  such  as  that 
of  Bonitz  on  Aristotle. 


Among  modern  Latin  dictionaries  are 
those  of  R.  Ainsworth  (Latin-English) 
1736;  J.  M.  Gesner  (Latin)  1749,  under- 
taken as  a  new  edition  of  Stephanus,  but 
in  effect  a  new  work ;  E.  Forcellini  (Latin- 
Italian)  1771,  translated  by  J.  Bailey  1828, 
revised  (in  Latin)  by  V.  De-Vit  1858-75; 
I.  J.  G.  Scheller  (Latin-German)  1783-4, 
translated  by  J.  E.  Riddle  1835;  W. 
Freund  (Latin-German)  1834-40,  trans- 
lated by  E.  A.  Andrews  1852,  revised  (in 
English)  by  White  and  Riddle  1862,  and 
again  by  Lewis  and  Short  1879.  W.  Smith 
based  his  dictionary  (Latin -English,  1855, 
&c.)  on  Forcellini  and  Freund.  Of  the 
'Thesaurus  Linguae  Latinae',  a  larger 
work  than  any  of  the  above,  produced  by 
the  five  German  Universities,  the  first 
part  was  published  in  1900,  and  the  work 
is  now  proceeding. 

Dicty'nna  (Diktunna),  see  Britomartis. 

Di'ctys  Crete'nsis,  said  to  have  accom- 
panied Idomeneus  (q.v.)  to  the  Trojan 
War,  and  to  have  written  a  diary  of  the 
events  thereof.  It  was  said  further  that 
this  was  transliterated  from  Phoenician 
Into  Greek  characters  in  the  days  of  Nero. 
In  the  4th  c.  A.D.  a  certain  Quintus  Sop- 
timius  put  out  an  *  Ephomeris  Belli  Troiani ' 
by  Dictys  Cretensis  which  was  a  Latin 
translation  of  this  Greek  version.  This 
fantastic  work,  with  that  attributed  to 
Dares  (q.v.),  provided  the  principal  mate- 
rials for  medieval  writers  on  the  story  of 

Didactic  poetry,  poetry  designed  to  give 
instruction.  Before  writing  came  into 
general  use,  instruction  was  conveniently 
expressed  in  verse,  as  thus  more  easily 
remembered;  poets,  moreover,  regarded 
themselves  to  some  extent  as  teachers, 
and  were  so  regarded  by  others.  The 
'  Works  and  Days '  of  Hesiod  and  the  lost 
poem  of  Empedocles  on  Nature  are  early 
examples  of  didactic  poetry.  This  form 
of  composition  ceased  during  the  great 
Athenian  literary  period,  but  was  revived 
in  the  Hellenistic  Age,  for  instance  in  the 
astronomical  and  meteorological  poem  of 
Aratus  (q.v.),  which  was  translated  into 
Latin  by  Cicero  and  (part  of  it)  by  Ger- 
manicus  and  Avicnus;  also  in  Callima- 
chus's  poem  on  '  Origins '.  Didactic  poetry 
was  a  favourite  form  with  the  Romans, 
and  we  find  examples  of  it  as  early  as  the 
aphorisms  of  Appius  Claudius  Caecus  and 
the  *Epicharmus'  of  Ennius.  Later  we 
have  the  great  poem  of  Lucretius,  the 
'Georgics*  of  Virgil,  the  'Fasti*  of  Ovid, 
the  'Astronomica*  of  Manilius,  and  the 
'Aetna*  of  an  unknown  author  (qq.v.). 

Didasca'lia  (Didaskalid),  a  Greek  word 

145  Digamma 

(from  8i8ao-/ca>,  I  teach)  meaning  the  re- 
hearsal or  performance  of  a  drama,  and 
later  a  record  of  a  dramatic  performance 
with  the  name  of  the  poet  and  choregus 
(see  Chorus).  From  such  records  Aristotle 
drew  up  a  collection  of  *Didascaliae*  (now 
lost  except  for  fragments),  on  which  simi- 
lar works  by  Callimachus  and  Aristo- 
phanes of  Byzantium  (qq.v.)  were  based. 
The  information  contained  in  them  was 
sometimes  included  in  the  Arguments  pre- 
fixed to  plays  by  the  Scholiasts  and  has 
come  down  to  us. 

Dl'do,  originally  the  name  of  a  Phoenician 
goddess;  later  the  name  borne  by  Elissa, 
the  legendary  daughter  of  the  Tyrian 
king  Matgenos  or  Belus.  She  was  married 
to  her  uncle  Sychaeus,  a  man  of  great 
wealth.  Her  brother  Pygmalion,  coveting 
his  riches,  murdered  Sychaeus.  Dido,  the 
story  goes,  after  the  death  of  her  husband 
fled  to  Africa,  and  obtained  from  larbas, 
king  of  Mauretania,  the  grant  of  so  much 
land  as  might  bo  covered  by  an  ox -hide. 
By  the  device  of  cutting  the  hide  into 
narrow  strips,  she  secured  space  to  found 
the  city  of  Carthage  (q.v.).  To  escape 
marriage  with  larbas  she  took  her  life 
on  a  funeral-pyre.  For  Virgil's  adaptation 
of  her  story,  see  Aeneid. 

Di'dymus  (Didumos)  (c.  65  B.C.-A.D.  10) 
of  Alexandria,  nicknamed  Chalkenteros 
('Brazen-guts')  on  account  of  his  enor- 
mous industry,  was  the  author  of  a  com- 
mentary on  Homer  embodying  the  opinions 
of  Aristarchus,  Zenodotus,  and  Aristo- 
phanes of  Byzantium.  Extracts  from  an 
epitome  of  this  survive  in  the  Codex 
Venetus  of  Homer  and  are  the  chief 
source  of  our  knowledge  of  the  work  of  the 
Alexandrian  commentators.  Part  of  a. 
commentary  on  Demosthenes  by  Didymus 
has  survived. 

Diga'mma,  the  late  Greek  name  for  the 
Greek  consonant  F,  which  survives  in 
inscriptions  and  must  have  formed  part 
of  certain  words  when  the  Homeric  poems 
were  composed,  for  the  metre  requires  it. 
Similarly  it  must  have  occurred  in  the 
poems  of  Hesiod.  There  is  evidence  for 
its  occurrence  also  in  certain  passages  of 
Sappho  and  Alcaeus,  and  it  came  to  be 
regarded  as  a  peculiarly  'Aeolic*  letter. 
The  letter  subsequently  fell  into  disuse. 
It  was  called  'digamma'  because  its  form 
was  that  of  two  capital  gammas  com- 
bined. Its  sound  was  probably  similar  to 
that  of  our  W.  It  is  preserved  in  lan- 
guages cognate  to  Greek,  e.g.  Latin  vinum 
beside  Greek  (F)otvo?;  English  work 
beside  (F)€pyov;  English  sweet  beside 
(aF)r)8v$.  Bentley  (see  Texts  and  Studies, 
§  10)  first  noticed  that  it  must  have  been 




in  use  when  the  Homeric  poems  were 

Di'gest  (Digesta),  see  Justinian. 

Di'meter,  a  verse  of  two  units;  see 
Metre,  §  1. 

Dlna'rchus  (Deinarchos)  (b.  c.  360  B.C.), 
a  distinguished  Attic  orator,  born  at 
Corinth,  was  a  writer  of  speeches  for  the 
courts.  Three  of  these  survive,  against 
Demosthenes,  Aristogeiton,  and  Philocles, 
charged  with  receiving  bribes  from  Har- 
palus.  See  Demosthenes  (2),  §  1. 

Dindorf,  KARL  WILHELM  and  LUDWIG, 
see  Editions. 

Dindyme'ne  (Dindumene'),  a  name  of  the 

goddess  Cybele  (q.v.),  from  Mt.  Dindymon 

in  Phrygia*  where  stood  one  of  her  early 


Dio,  see  Dion. 

Diodd'rus  Si'culus  (c.  40  B.C.),  a  Sicilian 
contemporary  of  Julius  Caesar,  wrote  in 
Greek  'Bibliotheke  Historike',  a  history 
of  the  world,  with  Rome  for  centre,  from 
mythical  times  to  Caesar's  conquest  of 
Gaul.  Of  the  forty  books  of  which  it 
consisted  fifteen  survive  (including  those 
dealing  with  the  important  period  480- 
323  B.C.).  It  is  an  uncritical  compilation 
from  the  works  of  previous  writers.  Dio- 
dorus  is  one  of  the  sources  of  our  know- 
ledge of  the  legends  of  mythology.  He 
traces  to  Egypt  the  origin  of  many  of  the 
mythological  gods.  In  others  he  sees  mor- 
tals who  have  attained  immortality  by 
discovering  the  arts  and  benefits  of  civi- 
lization, e.g.  Apollo  the  inventor  of  music, 
Poseidon  of  ships,  Dionysus  the  discoverer 
of  wine.  Cf.  Euhemerus. 

Dio'genes  of  Oenoanda,  see  Epicurus. 

Dio'genes  of  Sinopo  on  the  Euxine  (4th 
c.  B.C.),  the  principal  representative  of 
the  Cynic  (q.v.)  school  of  philosophy.  He 
lived  at  Athens  and  Corinth,  and  his 
extravagantly  simple  mode  of  life  and 
repudiation  of  civilized  customs  made  him 
the  subject  of  many  anecdotes.  He  is  said 
to  have  lived  in  a  large  earthenware  tub 
in  the  Metroum  or  Sanctuary  of  the  Mother 
of  the  Gods  at  Athens.  His  tomb  was 
shown  at  Corinth.  See  also  Alexander  the 
Great,  §  1.  Landor  has  an '  Imaginary  Con- 
versation* between  Diogenes  and  Plato. 

Dio'genes  Lae'rtius  (c.  A.D.  200-250),  of 
Laerte  in  Cilicia,  about  whose  life  nothing 
is  known,  was  the  author  of  *  Lives  and 
opinions  of  eminent  philosophers  •  in  Greek, 
the  date  of  which  from  internal  evidence 
may  conjecturally  be  placed  within  the 
above  period.  The  work,  in  ten  books,  pur- 
ports to  give  an  account  of  the  principal 

Greek  thinkers  (including  in  the  term  such 
men  as  Solon  and  Periander),  eighty -two  in 
number,  from  Thales  to  Epicurus.  The 
author  was  an  industrious,  though  not 
always  accurate,  compiler  from  the  works 
of  earlier  biographers  and  epitomizers  of 
philosophical  doctrines.  His  'Lives'  are 
largely  taken  up  with  anecdotes,  some 
good,  some  trivial,  designed  to  bring  out 
the  character  of  the  philosopher  concerned. 
Occasionally  they  have  historical  impor- 
tance by  reason  of  the  authorities  whom 
he  quotes.  Some  of  his  portraits  are  excel- 
lent, and  there  is  much  that  is  interesting 
(e.g.  the  wills  of  some  of  the  philosophers) 
and  entertaining  in  the  work.  But  the 
chief  service  he  rendered  to  posterity  was 
the  preservation  of  three  epistles  and  the 
*  Sovran  Maxims'  of  Epicurus  (q.v.).  Ho 
also  preserved  the  beautiful  epigram  of 
Callimachus  (q.v. )  on  Heraclitus.  Diogenes 
was  himself  a  poetaster  and  had  produced 
a  collection  of  epigrams  on  famous  men; 
some  of  these  indifferent  verses  he  intro- 
duces in  the  'Lives'. 

Diome'des,  in  Greek  mythology,  son  of 
Tydeus,  and  leader  of  the  men  of  Argos 
and  Tiryns  in  the  Trojan  expedition;  an 
impetuous,  fiery»  and  chivalrous  captain, 
one  of  the  principal  warriors  in  the  *  Iliad* 
(q.v.),  where  many  of  his  exploits  are 
recounted.  Among  these  was  the  wound- 
ing of  Ares  and  Aphrodite.  Owing  to  the 
resentment  of  the  latter,  Diomedes  on  his 
return  home  found  that  his  wife  Aigialeia 
had  been  unfaithful  to  him.  He  left  his 
home  and  wandered  to  Italy,  where  he  was 
reputed  to  have  founded  various  towns  in 
Apulia,  and  to  have  been  buried  in  the 
Islands  of  Diomedes,  near  the  Apulian 
coast.  In  Aon.  xi,  225  et  seq.,  Diomedes 
refuses  to  join  in  the  resistance  to  Aeneas. 
See  also  Epigoni,  Olaucus  (4),  Palladium. 
For  the  Horses  of  Diomedes  (a  different 
person,  king  of  the  Bistones  in  Thrace)  see 
under  Heracles  (Labours  of). 

Di'on  (Dion),  see  Syracuse,  §  2. 
Dio(n)  Ciassius,  see  Cassius. 

Di'on  (Dion)  Chry'sostom  (Chrftsosto- 
mos,  'golden-mouthed')  (Istc.  A.D.),  born 
at  Prusa  in  Bithynia,  was  a  philosopher 
and  an  orator.  He  lived  at  Rome  under 
Domitian,  but  showed  himself  an  opponent 
of  that  emperor's  tyrannical  rule  and  of  the 
tendency  of  the  Flavians  to  make  the  em- 
pire dynastic,  that  is  to  say  the  property  of 
a  particular  family.  In  this  he  shared  a 
view  common  to  the  Stoics  and  Cynics  of 
his  day.  He  was  in  consequence  banished 
from  Rome  and  from  his  native  Bithynia, 
and  travelled  widely.  He  was  held  in  high 
esteem  by  Nerva  and  Trajan.  He  has  left 




a  collection  of  discourses  in  Greek  on 
political,  philosophical,  and  literary  sub- 
jects. His  political  discourses,  in  which 
he  rallies  his  audiences  with  a  pleasant 
irony,  were  directed  to  remedy  the  defects 
of  the  particular  city  whore  each  was 
delivered.  Among  his  other  speeches  is 
the  'Olympic*  oration,  in  which  Phidias 
(q.v.)  is  represented  expounding  the  prin- 
ciples on  which  his  statue  of  the  Olympian 
Zeus  was  designed. 

Dio'ne,  whose  name  is  the  feminine  of 
Zeus  (q.v.),  appears  in  some  poets  (not 
Heeiod)  as  a  consort  of  Zeus  and  mother 
of  Aphrodite  (q.v.). 

Diony'sia  (Diontisia),  see  Festivals,  §  4. 
Diony'sius  (Diontisios)  I  and  II,  tyrants 
of  Syracuse ;  see  Syracuse,  §§  2  and  3. 
Diony'sius  (DionUsios)  of  Halicarnassus 
(Jl.  c.  25  B.C.),  a  Greek  writer  who  lived  in 
Rome  in  the  days  of  Augustus.  He  was 
both  a  literary  critic  of  good  judgement 
and  wide  knowledge,  and  a  historian.  In 
the  former  capacity  ho  wrote  in  Greek  a 
number  of  treatises,  *  On  the  arrangement 
of  words',  'On  the  Ancient  Orators',  'On  the 
Eloquence  of  Demosthenes',  'On  Dinar- 
chus',  'On  Thucydides',  &c.  which  have 
survived,  and  which  contributed  to  the  tem- 
porary revival  at  Rome  of  good  Attic  prose. 
To  the  first  of  these  treatises  we  owe  the 
preservation  of  Sappho's  '  Ode  to  Aphro- 
dite', and  the  'Danae*  of  Simonides. 
Dionysius  also  wrote  'RomaikS  Archaio- 
logia*  or  'Early  History  of  Rome*  in 
twenty  books  (of  which  ten  and  parts  of 
others  survive),  designed  to  be  an  intro- 
duction to  Polybius ;  it  is  mainly  a  pains- 
taking compilation  from  the  Roman 
annalists,  and  is  valuable  for  the  evi- 
dences of  Roman  tradition  that  it  has 
preserved.  It  contains  the  observation 
(i.  3),  which  has  since  been  repeated,  that 
the  style  is  the  man  (eiVova?  efvai  rrjs 
€Kaarov  tfrvxys  rov$  Adyouj.  The  well-known 
words  of  BufCon  were,  'Le  style,  c'est 
1'homme  mdme'). 

Diony'sius  the  Thracian  (Dionftsios 
Thrax)  (b.  c.  166  B.C.),  a  pupil  of  Aristarchus 
(q.v.)  of  Samothrace,  wrote  in  Greek  a 
short 'Techne  Grammatike',  still  extant, 
which  appears  to  have  been  the  first 
systematic  Greek  Grammar,  and  remained 
a  standard  work  for  many  centuries.  In 
it  we  find  the  verb  rvrrroj  used  to  exemplify 
voices,  numbers,  and  persons ;  but  the  full 
paradigm,  with  all  the  possible  moods 
and  tenses,  was  introduced  later. 

Diony'sus  (Dtonftsos),  in  Greek  my- 
thology, son  of  Zeus  and  Semele,  the 
daughter  of  Cadmus  son  of  Agendr,  king 
of  Tyre.  Semele  was  loved  by  Zeus, 

and  at  the  instigation  of  the  jealous 
Hera  prayed  Zeus  to  visit  her  hi  all 
the  splendour  of  a  god.  This  he  did  and 
she  was  consumed  by  his  lightning.  But 
Zeus  rescued  her  unborn  child  from  the 
ashes  and  placed  him  in  his  thigh,  from 
which  in  due  time  he  was  born.  He  was 
entrusted  to  Ino,  sister  of  Semele  and  wife 
of  Athamas  (q.v.);  but  Hera,  pursuing 
her  vengeance,  drove  them  mad,  so  that 
Athamas  killed  his  son  Learchus,  and 
Ino  leapt  into  the  sea  with  her  other  child 
Melicertes  (q.v.).  Ino  was  transformed 
into  a  sea-goddess  Leucothea,  and  Meli- 
certes became  the  sea-god  Palaemon. 
Dionysus  was  now  handed  over  to  the 
nymphs  of  Nysa,  a  mountain  whose  local- 
ity is  variously  stated.  When  he  grew  up 
ho  was  persecuted  by  those  who  refused 
to  recognize  his  divinity,  but  overcame 
them  and  extended  his  conquests  far  into 
Asia.  The  most  famous  of  these  persecu- 
tions was  that  of  PcntheHs,  king  of 
Thebes,  which  forms  the  subject  of  the 
'Bacchae*  (q.v.)  of  Euripides.  The  daugh- 
ters of  Proctus  (see  Bellerophon),  king  of 
Argos,  also  opposed  him,  and  were  driven 
mad,  destroying  their  own  children.  Their 
madness  was  cured  by  the  intervention 
of  the  seer  Melampus  (q.v.).  For  another 
similar  legend,  see  Minyas.  Dionysus  is 
represented  as  accompanied  on  his  con- 
quests by  a  rout  of  votaries,  male  and 
female,  Satyrs,  Sileni,  Maenads,  Bassarids 
(qq.v.),  dancing  about  him,  tearing  ani- 
mals to  pieces,  intoxicated  or  possessed. 
They  were  known  generally  as  Bacchi 
(Bakchoi,  fern.  Bacchae,  Bakchai),  from 
Bacchus,  one  of  the  names  of  the  god. 
The  Seventh  Homeric  Hymn  relates  that 
he  was  seized  and  bound  by  Tyrrhenian 
pirates ;  but  the  bonds  fell  off  him,  a  vine 
grew  about  the  mast,  and  the  captive 
turned  into  a  lion.  The  pirates  in  terror 
jumped  into  the  sea  and  were  transformed 
into  dolphins.  Other  legends  concerning 
Dionysus  will  be  found  under  Ariadne  and 

Dionysus  was  probably  to  origin  a 
Thracian  deity.  He  is  of  little  importance 
to  Homer,  who  does  not  include  him  among 
the  Olympian  gods.  Later  he  appears  as 
a  god  of  vegetation,  a  suffering  god,  who 
dies  and  comes  to  life  again,  particularly 
as  a  god  of  wine,  who  loosens  care  (Lyaeus, 
iMaioa)  and  inspires  to  music  and  poetry. 
Hence  his  connexion  with  the  dithyramb, 
tragedy,  and  comedy  (qq.v.).  With  him 
were  introduced  into  Greek  religion  the 
elements  of  ecstasy  and  mysticism  that 
are  found  to  his  cult  (see  also  Dionysus 
Zagreua,  Orphtem).  Dionysus  is  frequently 
represented  as  a  youth  of  rather  effeminate 
expression,  with  luxuriant  hair,  reposing 

Dionysus  148 


with  grapes  or  a  wine-cup  in  his  hand,  or 
holding  the  thyrsus,  a  rod  encircled  with 
vines  or  ivy.  The  Greeks  identified  him 
with  the  Egyptian  god  Osiris  (q.v.);  and 
the  Romans  with  their  wine-god  Liber, 
also  called  Bacchus.  Goats  were  sacrificed 
to  Dionysus,  either  because  the  goat  nib- 
bled vine-shoots  and  injured  the  vine, 
or  perhaps  sacramentally,  the  god  being 
sometimes  conceived  as  a  goat.  See  also 
lacchos.  For  the  festivals  of  Dionysus, 
see  Festivals,  §  3. 

Dionysus,  THEATRE  OF.  The  theatre  at 
Athens  stood  within  the  sanctuary  of 
Dionysus,  and  so  was  known  as  the  theatre 
of  that  god.  The  sanctuary  was  at  the  SE. 
foot  of  the  Acropolis.  The  first  permanent 
theatre  there  is  said  to  have  been  built  at 
the  beginning  of  the  5th  c.  in  consequence 
of  an  accident  in  which  spectators  were 
hurt  by  the  collapse  of  a  temporary 
scaffolding.  It  was  reconstructed,  or  a  new 
theatre  built,  in  the  middle  of  the  4th  c., 
the  work  being  completed  about  330  B.C. 
The  seats  of  the  auditorium  were  hewn  out 
of  the  rock  of  the  Acropolis,  or  were  built 
of  stone,  the  front  row  consisting  of  marble 
chairs  reserved  for  magistrates  and  priests, 
the  central  chair  for  the  priest  of  Dionysus. 
There  was  accommodation,  it  has  been 
calculated,  for  some  27,000  spectators. 
The  orchestra,  circular  in  shape,  was 
78  ft.  wide.  At  first,  and  probably  until 
Roman  times,  there  was  no  permanent 
stage,  but  a  long  building  with  two  wings 
appears  to  have  faced  the  auditorium 
beyond  the  orchestra;  the  scenery  was 
set  up  between  these  wings,  a  space 
of  66  ft.  The  theatre  was  adorned  with 
statues  of  poets,  among  them  the  three 
great  tragedians  and  Menander  (alone 
among  the  great  comic  dramatists),  also 
of  Themistocles  and  Miltiades.  The  theatre 
was  used  not  only  for  dramatic  representa- 
tions, but  for  ceremonies  of  many  kinds 
and  even  for  meetings  of  the  Assembly  (it 
was  hi  the  theatre,  for  example,  that 
Phocion,  q.v.,  according  to  Plutarch,  was 
sentenced  to  death). 

Dionysus  Za'greus.  According  to  an 
Orphic  (see  Orphism)  form  of  the  legend 
of  Dionysus,  Zagreus  was  the  son  of  Zeus 
and  Persephone  (q.v.).  At  the  instigation 
of  the  jealous  Hera,  the  Titans  destroyed 
and  devoured  him,  but  Athene  saved  his 
heart  and  took  it  to  Zeus,  who  burnt  up 
the  Titans  with  his  lightning.  From  their 
ashes  sprang  the  race  of  men,  who  there- 
fore have  hi  them  some  portion  of  the 
divine  nature.  Zeus  swallowed  the  heart 
of  Zagreus,  and  out  of  it  was  later  born  a 
new  Dionysus  Zagreus,  son  of  Semele 

part  in  the  Orphic  ritual  (see  Mysteries). 
Zagreus  is  a  barbarian  name,  perhaps 
Phrygian  or  Thracian,  signifying  'torn  in 

Dio'scuri  (Jtos  Kovpoi,  'sons  of  Zeus'),  in 
Greek  mythology,  Castor  and  Polydeuces 
(Lat.  Pollux),  twin  sons  of  Zeus  and  Leda 
(q.v.),  regarded  as  mortals  in  epic  poetry, 
but  also  worshipped  as  deities,  protectors 
of  seamen,  to  whom  they  appeared  in 
storms  in  the  form  of  the  electrical  pheno- 
menon now  known  as  St.  Elmo's  fire.  They 
were  also  famous  for  their  bravery  and 
skill  in  fighting.  When  their  sister  Helen 
was  carried  off  as  a  child  by  Theseus  (q.v.), 
they  rescued  her,  her  place  of  concealment 
having  been  revealed  by  Academus,  who 
was  honoured  as  a  hero  in  consequence, 
or  by  Decelus,  the  eponymous  hero  of 
Decelea.  They  took  part  in  the  expedition 
of  the  Argonauts  (q.v.,  and  seo  Amyous). 
They  carried  off  the  two_  daughters  of  a 
certain  Leucippus,  Hilaeira  and  Phoebe, 
who  werejbetrothed  to  their  cousins  Idas 
and  Lynceus.  In  the  fight  which  arose  in 
consequence  of  this  (or  of  a  cattle  raid), 
Castor  was  killed.  Polydeuces,  who  was 
immortal  and  was  devoted  to  his  brother, 
asked  to  be  allowed  to  die  also.  Zeus 
granted  that  they  should  together  spend 
alternate  days  in  Hades  and  in  Heaven 
(or  that  they  should  take  turns  to  go  to 
Hades).  It  may  be  noticed  that  Homer 
(II.  iii.  243-4)  speaks  of  them  both  as 
mortal.  In  later  legend  they  were  identi- 
fied with  the  constellation  Gemini  (the 

In  Roman  religion  Castor  and  Pollux 
were  introduced  perhaps  from  Tusculum ; 
Castor  seems  to  have  been  introduced 
before  Pollux  and  was  always  the  more 
popular.  Their  temple  at  Rome  (nearly 
always  known  as  the  temple  of  Castor) 
was  vowed  by  the  dictator  Aulus  Postu- 
mius  at  the  battle  of  Lake  Regillus  (496 
B.C.).  Legend  related  that  they  then 
fought  at  the  head  of  the  Roman  army 
and  after  it  brought  the  news  of  the  vic- 
tory to  Rome;  they  were  seen  watering 
their  steeds  at  the  Lacus  Juturnae,  of 
which  the  remains  exist  to  this  day  beside 
the  Temple  of  Vesta.  (They  also  announced 
the  capture  of  Perseus  (168  B.C.),  on  the  day 
that  he  was  taken,  to  one  Publius  Vatinius, 
who  reported  it  to  the  Senate  and  was 
thrown  into  prison  for  a  liar,  until  his 
statement  was  confirmed  by  the  dis- 
patches.) The  temple  was  rebuilt  by 
Tiberius  hi  A.D.  6,  andit  is  of  this  recon- 
struction that  remains  are  still  to  be  seen. 
The  mad  Caligula  made  it  a  portico  of  his 
palace,  opening  a  door  to  it  between  the 

(q,v.).   The  legend  played  an  important  I  figures  of  the  gods  and  making  them,  he 

Dioscu  rides 



remarked,  his  doorkeepers.  The  temple 
was  a  place  where  weights  and  measures 
were  tested,  as  many  inscriptions  on  these 
show.  The  oaths  mecastor  and  edepol  are 
evidence  of  the  popularity  of  these  gods. 
Aulus  Gellius  (xi.  vi)  states  that  in  very 
ancient  times  oaths  by  Castor  or  Pollux 
were  used  only  by  women,  but  that  by 
degrees  men  began  to  use  the  oath  edepol. 

Dioscu'rides  (Dioskourides),  less  cor- 
rectly Dioscorides,  a  Greek  physician  who 
served  as  a  doctor  in  the  Roman  army  and 
was  author  in  the  reign  of  Nero  of  a 
Materia  Medico,  (Peri  Hules  latrikes)  in 
Greek,  in  five  books,  in  which  he  described 
some  six  hundred  plants  and  their  medical 
properties.  This  work  survived,  and  at 
the  time  of  the  revival  of  learning  was 
regarded  as  the  chief  source  of  the  science 
of  pharmacy. 

Di'philus  (Dlphilos),  see  Comedy,  §  4. 
Diplo'mata  milita'ria,  sceEpigraphy,  §  9. 

Di'pylon  (Dipulon,  'Double  Gate'),  the 
principal  gate  of  Athens,  on  the  NW.  of 
the  city.  See  Athens,  §  1  and  PL  13a. 

Di'rae  or  FU'RIAE,  the  Roman  counter- 
parts of  the  Greek  Erinyes  or  Eumenides 
(see  Furies). 

Dlrae  ('Furies'),  a  poem  in  hexameters 
attributed  by  Donatus  and  Servius  to 
Virgil  (q.v.),  but  probably  by  another 
hand.  Its  subject  suggested  Virgil  as  the 
author.  The  singer  imprecates  curses  on 
the  soldiers  who  have  dispossessed  him  of 
his  farm,  and  bids  farewell  to  his  fields. 

Di'rce  (Dirke),  see  Antiope. 

Dis  (Dis),  in  Roman  religion,  the  male  god 
of  the  underworld,  the  equivalent  of  the 
Greek  Pluto,  of  whose  name  Dis  (Dives) 
is  perhaps  a  translation.  The  cult  of  Dis 
and  Proserpine  was  founded  in  249  B.C. 
(during  the  second  Punic  War)  by  order  of 
the  Sibylline  Books.  In  later  literature 
both  Dis  and  Orcus  (his  synonym)  tend  to 
fade  into  mere  symbols  of  the  lower  world. 

niscipll'nae,  see  Varro  (M.T.). 

Di'thyramb  (Dlthurambos),  a  Greek 
choral  lyric  (q.v.)  originally  connected 
with  the  worship  of  Dionysus,  sung  by  a 
'circular  choir*  (KVK\IOS  p^opo?)  probably 
of  fifty  singers.  That  the  chorus  were 
dressed  as  satyrs,  as  is  sometimes  sup- 
posed, is  not  established.  The  name,  of 
uncertain  origin,  is  perhaps  connected 
with  thriambos,  the  Lat.  triumphus.  Or 
dithurambos  may  have  been  a  non-Hellenic 
ritual  epithet  of  Dionysus  used  as  a  refrain, 
becoming  the  name  of  the  song  itself 
(J.  M.  Edmunds). 
The  dithyramb  was  probably  hi  its  origin 

a  revel  song  led  off  by  the  leader  (If  a 
of  a  band  of  revellers  either  in  traditional 
or  improvised  words,  and  answered  by 
the  others  hi  a  traditional  refrain.  It  is 
thought  to  have  originated  hi  Phrygia  and 
to  have  come  to  Greece  with  the  cult  of 
Dionysus.  It  appears  to  have  been  con- 
verted to  a  literary  composition  by  Arion 
(q.v.)  at  Corinth,  who  first  instituted  the 
stationary  circular  chorus,  perhaps  round 
an  altar,  and  made  them  sing  a  regular 
poem  with  a  definite  subject.  This  was 
accompanied  on  the  flute.  The  dithyramb, 
it  further  appears,  was  first  cultivated  in 
Dorian  lands,  but  attained  its  full  develop- 
ment at  Athens  under  PisiBtratus  and  his 
sons  in  connexion  with  Dionysiac  festi- 
vals. It  was  also  adopted  at  festivals  of 
other  gods,  especially  Apollo.  The  earliest 
dithyrambic  contests  appear  to  have  taken 
place  at  Athens  about  509  B.C.,  perhaps 
promoted  by  Lasus  of  llermione  (q.v). 
The  successful  choregus  (see  Chorus)  was 
allowed  to  erect  a  commemorative  tripod. 
Apart  from  one  poem  by  Bacchylidcs 
(q.v.),  which  is  in  dramatic  form,  the 
dithyramb  appears  to  have  taken  the  nar- 
rative form.  Down  to  this  stage,  the 
names  of  poets  chiefly  connected  with  tho 
dithyramb  are  Arion,  Lasus,  Simonides  of 
Ceos,  Bacchylidcs,  and  Pindar  (qq.v.). 
The  Pindaric  dithyramb  was  an  anti- 
strophic  (see  Strophe)  composition  dealing 
with  some  mythological  theme,  but  also 
celebrating  Dionysus. 

The  chief  features  in  the  later  history  of 
the  dithyramb  were  the  growth  of  greater 
metrical  freedom  and  the  abandonment 
of  the  antistrophic  arrangement  BO  as  to 
depict  emotion  more  realistically,  and  the 
elaboration  of  the  music,  which  came  to 
predominate  over  the  verse  and  to  assume 
a  tumultuous  character.  The  verse  of  the 
dithyramb  became  proverbial  for  lack  of 
sense.  The  names  chiefly  associated  with 
these  changes  are  those  of  MELA.NIPPIDES 
the  elder  of  Mclos  (/Z.  c.  480),  who  in- 
troduced lyric  solos;  PHILOXENUS  of 
Cythera  (c.  436-380),  who  introduced  hi 
his  'Cyclops*  a  solo  to  the  lyre ;  CINESIAB 
(q.v.)  of  Athens;  and  TIMOTHEUS  (q.v.)  of 

DIus  Fi'dius,  the  'god  of  faith',  perhaps 
an  old  Italian  religious  conception  of  the 
sanctity  of  contracts  and  human  relations. 
He  was  identified  with  Hercules,  perhaps 
because  the  oaths  medium  fldius  and 
mehercle  were  interchangeable.  There  was 
a  temple  to  this  god  on  the  Quirinal, 
dedicated  by  Sptirius  Postumius  hi  466  B.C. 
Diver'bium,  see  Comedy,  §  5. 

Divination,  the  gift  or  art  of  discover- 
ing the  future,  was  called  by  the  Greeks 



Domus  Publica 

mantike.  It  took  various  forms.  It  might 
be  based  on  direct  inspiration  by  a  deity, 
either  through  dreams  or  through  a  state 
of  ecstasy,  such  as  that  in  which  the 
Pythian  priestess  delivered  the  oracles  of 
the  god.  Or  it  might  consist  in  the  inter- 
pretation of  prophetic  signs  of  various 
kinds  (see  Omens),  or  of  unusual  pheno- 
mena such  as  eclipses  and  meteors.  Divina- 
tion by  throw  of  dice  was  practised  at  the 
temple  of  Heracles  near  Bura  in  Achaia; 
and  other  forms  of  the  art  are  referred  to, 
e.g.  chiromancy  or  palmistry.  The  Greeks 
had  skilled  interpreters  of  omens,  espe- 
cially of  those  connected  with  sacrifices. 
There  also  grew  up  a  science  of  the  inter- 
pretation of  dreams,  on  which  a  certain 
Artemidorus  of  Daldis  in  Lydia  wrote  a 
treatise  in  five  books,  entitled  Onlrocritica, 
in  the  2nd  c.  A.D.  It  is  stated  by  Plutarch 
that  a  grandson  of  Aristides  (q.v.)  made  a 
living  by  interpreting  dreams. 

For  divination  at  Rome,  see  Augury  and 
Haruspices ;  also  Sortes  Virgilianae. 

Do'chmius  or  Do'chmiac,  see  Metre,  §  1. 

Dddd'na,  see  Oracles. 


§  1.  In  Greece 

Dogs  were  kept  by  the  Greeks  for  hunt- 
Ing,  to  guard  houses  and  herds,  and  as 
companions.  The  Greek  fondness  for  dogs 
is  attested  as  early  as  the  time  of  Homer 
by  the  touching  incident  of  A.rgos,  the  dog 
of  Odysseus,  who  recognizes  his  master 
after  twenty  years'  absence,  wags  his  tail, 
but  has  not  strength  to  draw  near  him.  See 
also  the  reference  to  Icarius's  dog  Maera 
under  Icarius.  Xenophon,  in  his  treatise 
on  'Hunting',  has  much  to  say  on  the 
points,  training,  and  even  the  names  of 
hounds.  They  were  used  for  hunting  hares, 
deer,  and  wild  boars  (this  was  done  gener- 
ally on  foot).  There  are^f  requent  references 
in  Greek  literature  to  house-dogs.  For 
instance  there  is  in  Aristophanes'  'Wasps' 
the  amusing  description  of  the  trial  of  the 
dog  Labcs,  suspected  of  stealing  some 
cheese.  Plutarch  relates  that  Alcibiades 
(q.v.)  had  an  uncommonly  large  and 
beautiful  dog,  whose  principal  ornament 
was  his  tail.  Yet  he  caused  the  tail  to  be 
cut  off,  that  the  Athenians  should  talk  of 
this  piece  of  eccentricity  rather  than  find 
something  worse  to  say  of  him.  The 
memory  has  been  handed  down  of  the  dog 
of  Xanthippus  (father  of  Pericles)  which 
swam  by  his  master's  galley  to  Salamis 
when  the  Athenians  were  obliged  to  aban 
don  their  city,  and  was  buried  by  his 
master  on  a  promontory  known  as  Cynos- 
sezna  (Dog's  Grave).  Alexander  is  said  to 
have  founded  a  city  called  Peritas  in 

memory  of  a  favourite  dog  of  that  name. 
The  Greek  anthology  contains  several 
touching  epitaphs  on  dogs,  showing  the 
affection  with  which  they  were  often  re- 
garded. One  even  is  attributed  to  the 
great  Simonides,  on  a  Thessalian  hound, 
beginning, '  Surely  even  as  thou  liest  dead 
in  this  tomb  I  deem  the  wild  beasts  yet 
fear  thy  white  bones,  huntress  Lycas*.  It 
may  be  mentioned  that  greyhounds  figure 
on  certain  Sicilian  coins.  Sacred  dogs  were 
kept  in  the  sanctuary  of  Asclepius  at  Epi- 
daurus,  which,  like  the  sacred  serpents, 
were  supposed  to  heal  patients  by  licking 
them ;  and  Asclepius  was  sometimes  repre- 
sented as  attended  by  a  dog. 

§  2.  At  Rome 

The  Romans  valued  the  dog  as  a  pro- 
tector; the  figure  of  a  dog  stood  between 
the  images  of  the  Lares  (q.v.)  Praestiies 
of  the  State.  The  Romans  had  Laconian 
hounds  and  Molossians,  the  latter  resemb- 
ling mastiffs.  Pliny  refers  to  a  small  white 
'Melitaean*  terrier  or  lap-dog,  perhaps 
from  Malta  or  the  Dalmatian  island  of 
Molita.  His  'Natural  History*  has  many 
anecdotes  of  the  fidelity  of  the  dog  as 
companion  and  protector ;  one  resembling 
the  story  of  the  dog  of  Montargis,  which 
brought  to  justice  the  murderer  of  its 
master.  He  also  lays  stress  on  its  use  as 
a  pointer.  There  is  in  the  British  Museum 
the  tombstone  of  a  hunting  dog  named 
Margarita,  which  was  much  loved  by  its 
master  and  mistress.  Columella  (q.v.) 
believed  that  shortening  a  dog's  tail  was 
a  preventive  of  rabies.  This  disease,  accord- 
ing to  Pliny  (xxv.  77),  could  be  cured  by 
the  root  of  the  dog-rose  (cynorrhodon,  so 
named,  it  is  said,  for  this  reason).  Ovid 
in  the  3rd  Bk.  of  the  'Metamorphoses' 
gives  appropriate  names  to  thirty-seven 
hounds  of  Actaeon.  British  dogs  were 
famous  and  were  exported  during  the 
empire;  an  Irish  wolf-hound  (cants 
Scoticus)  was  used  in  the  Circus  against 
wild  beasts. 

Dokima'sia,  see  Athens,  §  9. 

Do'lon  (Ddlon),  in  the  'Iliad'  and  the 
'Rhesus*  (q.v.),  a  Trojan  spy,  slain  by 
Odysseus  and  Diomedes. 

Domidu'ca,  in  Roman  religion,  the  spirit 
(numen)  that  conducted  the  bride  to  the 
bridegroom's  house. 

Domi'tian  (Titus  Fldvius  Domitianus), 
Roman  emperor  A.D.  81-96,  younger  son 
of  Vespasian,  and  the  last  of  the  Flavian 
emperors.  See  Rome,  §  11. 

Domus  Au'rea  of  Nero,  see  Golden  House. 
Domus  Pu'blica,  see  Pontifex  Maximua. 




Don&'tus,  AELIUS,  a  Latin  grammarian 
and  rhetorician  of  the  middle  of  the  4th 
o.  A.D.,  author  of  an  *  Ars  Grammatica'  or 
Latin  grammar  which  remained  in  use 
throughout  the  Middle  Ages.  (The  word 
'Donat*  is  used  in  Middle  English  writings 
to  signify  a  text-book.)  Donatus  also 
wrote  a  commentary  on  Terence  which 
appears,  combined  with  the  notes  of  other 
commentators,  in  the  extant  scholia  on 
that  author ;  and  a  commentary  on  Virgil 
from  which  there  are  quotations  in  the 
commentary  of  Sorvius  (q.v.). 

There  was  another  grammarian  of  the 
name  of  Donatus,  TIBERIUS  CLAUDIUS 
DONATUS,  who  about  the  end  of  the  4th 
c.  wrote '  Interpretationes '  of  the  *  Aeneid ', 

Do'rians,  see  Migrations  and  Dialects  and 


Do'richa,  see  Sappho. 

Do'rus  (Doras),  the  legendary  progenitor 

of  the  Dorians ;  see  Hellenes  and  Deucalion. 

Dra'co  (Drakon),  an  Athenian  legislator, 
who  received  in  621  B.C.  special  authority 
to  codify  and  promulgate  the  laws.  While 
basing  himself  on  existing  laws,  he  sys- 
tematized and  amended  them  according 
to  his  views  and  the  need  of  the  period. 
His  principal  object  was  to  replace  private 
vengeance  for  crime  by  strictly  public 
justice;  hence  the  proverbial  severity  of 
his  code,  a  severity  which  was  probably 
exaggerated  in  later  accounts.  He  en- 
trusted trials  for  murder  to  the  Areopagus 
(q.v.)  and  instituted  other  tribunals  for 
lesser  crimes.  All  his  laws,  except  that 
dealing  with  homicide  (a  reformulation  of 
which,  published  in  409  B.C.,  survives:  see 
Tod,  'Gk.  Historical  Inscriptions',  I)  were 
abolished  by  Solon.  The  constitution  at- 
tributed to  Draco  by  Aristotle  in  the  Ath. 
Pol.  ch.  4,  providing  for  the  franchise  for 
all  who  bore  arms,  elective  magistrates, 
and  a  council,  is  rejected  by  most  modern 
scholars  as  a  later  compilation. 
Dragons,  see  Monsters. 

Drama,  see  the  articles  on  Theatre, 
Tragedy ,  Comedy,  Mime,  and  Pantomime. 
For  the  musical  accompaniment  of  plays, 
see  Music.  For  Roman  dramatic  perform- 
ances see  also  LudiScaeniti  under  Ludi,  §  1. 

Dra'nces,  in  the  'Aeneid'  (xl.  336  et seq.), 
the  Italian  chief  who  taunts  Turnus.  Virgil 
is  said  to  have  modelled  him  on  Cicero. 

Dreams  (Gk.  Oneiroi),  according  to 
Hesiod  daughters  of  Night.  Later  poets 
gave  the  god  of  dreams  a  name,  Morpheus, 
(whence  our  word  'morphia');  also  Icelus 
or  PhobetOr  ('the  Terrifler').  According 
to  Homer  (Od.  xlx.  562)  there  were  two 
Gates  of  Dreams,  one  of  ivory,  the  other 

of  horn,  through  which  false  and  true 
dreams  respectively  issue.    There  is  a 
reference  to  this  in  Aen.  vi.  894  et  seq. 
See  also  Divination. 
Dress,  see  Clothing. 

Druids,  see  Gaul,  §  2,  and  Britain,  §§  2 
and  3. 

Dru'sus.  For  the  various  members  of  the 
Julio-Claudian  family  who  bore  this  name 
see  Germanicus  and  Drusus.  See  also 
below  for  Drusus  Caesar  and  Drusus  (Nero 

Drusus  Caesar  (15  B.C.-A.D.  23),  son  of 
Tiberius  and  Vipsania  Agrippma  (see 
Julio-Claudian  Family  and  Germanicus 
and  Drusus,  B  1 ).  His  original  name  before 
the  adoption  of  his  father  by  Augustus  is 
not  known.  After  the  death  of  Germanicus 
in  A.D.  19  he  became  the  principal  col- 
laborator of  his  father  Tiberius  and  ap- 
pears to  have  been  designated  to  succeed 
him;  but  his  early  death  in  A.D.  23 
(attributed  by  Tacitus  to  Sejanus)  de- 
feated the  project. 

Drusus,  MARCUS  Hvius,  (1)  tribune  of 
the  plebs  La  122  B.C.,  a  supporter  of  the 
aristocracy  against  C.  Gracchus  (q.v.); 
(2)  his  son,  tribune  of  the  plebs  in  91, 
who  proposed,  besides  various  democratic 
measures,  to  give  the  franchise  to  the 
Italian  allies.  The  failure  of  this  proposal 
was  the  occasion  of  the  Social  or  Marsian 
War  (see  Rome,  §  6). 

Drusus,  NERO  CLAUDIUS  (38-9  B.C.), 
younger  son  of  Ti.  Claudius  Nero  and 
Livia  (and  consequently  step -son  of 
Augustus),  younger  brother  of  Tiberius 
(see  Julio-Claudian  Family  and  Ger~ 
manicus  and  Drusus,  A  1).  He  married 
Antonia  Minor  (daughter  of  Mark  Antony 
and  Octavia),  and  was  father  of  Germani- 
cus and  of  the  emperor  Claudius.  He 
carried  on  a  series  of  brilliant  campaigns 
against  Germany  during  the  years  12-9 
B.O.,  and  died  in  the  latter  year  from 
injuries  due  to  a  fall  from  his  horse. 
Dry'ads  (Druades)  or  HAMADRY'ADS, 
nymphs  (q.v.)  of  trees;  the  life  of  each 
was  associated  with  that  of  her  own  tree, 
and  ceased  when  the  tree  died. 


Eccle'sia  (EkkMsid),  at  Athens,  the  as- 
sembly of  all  the  people,  summoned  for 
political  and  occasionally  for  Judicial 
purposes  (see  Solon  and  Cleisthenes).  It 
decided  questions  of  peace  and  war,  named 
the  strategi  (q.v.),  and  determined  the 
forces  to  be  mobilized.  It  elected  such 



magistrates  as  were  not  chosen  by  lot, 
and  was  the  master  of  all  of  them,  however 
appointed.  It  was  the  legislative  body  in 
the  State,  passing  decrees  after  receiving 
the  report  upon  them  (probouleumd)  of  the 
Boule  (q.v.).  It  exercised  judicial  func- 
tions in  cases  of  grave  crimes  threatening 
the  safety  of  the  State  (see  also  Ostracism). 
At  first  citizens  were  not  paid  for  their 
attendance  at  the  Ecclesia.  About  390  B.C. 
a  fee  of  3  obols  for  each  day  of  attendance 
was  introduced,  subsequently  raised  to 
1  drachma  and  for  some  meetings  to  9 
obols.  The  meetings  were  held  at  the 
Pnyx  (q.v.)  soon  after  dawn,  and  were 
begun  by  prayers  and  a  sacrifice.  They 
took  place,  at  first  once,  later  four  times, 
in  the  period  of  each  prytany  (see  Clei- 
sthenes),  and  were  presided  over  by  the 
prytany  and  a  chairman  chosen  by  lot  for 
the  day. 

EcelG'sfatvu'sae  (Ekklesiazoumi,*  Women 
at  the  Assembly'),  a  comedy  by  Aristo- 
phanes, produced  about  392  B.C.  A  new 
century,  and  with  it  a  new  social  era,  had 
come  since  Aristophanes  wrote  the  'Lysi- 
strata*.  There  is  a  good  deal  in  the  play 
that  shows  its  late  date.  There  is  no 
parabasis.  the  role  of  the  chorus  is  much 
reduced,  the  boisterous  attacks  on  states- 
men have  gone,  and  there  is  a  new  style 
of  quiet  witty  dialogue  of  the  kind  found 
later  in  the  New  Comedy.  The  philoso- 
phic ideas  advanced  suggest  that  the 
author  was  aware  of  the  views  on  com- 
munism and  women's  rights  subsequently 
published  In  Plato's '  Republic '.  lie  makes 
fun  of  them  after  his  fashion. 

As  the  result  of  a  conspiracy  of  women 
led  by  Praxagora,  she  and  her  fellow  con- 
spirators, disguised  as  men,  take  their 
places  at  the  Assembly,  and  carry  by  a 
large  majority  a  motion  by  which  the 
affairs  of  the  State  are  to  be  entrusted  to 
the  women.  Praxagora,  having  been  ap- 
pointed head  of  the  new  Government, 
returns  to  her  husband,  who  has  been  put 
to  great  inconvenience  by  her  having 
borrowed  his  clothes.  She  explains  the 
new  social  system  that  is  to  be  introduced, 
community  of  property,  community  of 
women  and  children;  and  goes  off  to  the 
Agora  to  arrange  for  the  reception  of  all 
private  property  and  the  feasting  in  com- 
mon. The  simpleton  hastens  to  hand  in 
his  property;  the  sceptic  waits  to  see 
what  will  come  of  the  new  system.  A 
young  man  arrives  to  find  his  sweetheart, 
but  three  old  hags  assert  their  prior  rights 
to  him,  and  one  succeeds  hi  carrying  him 
off.  The  chorus  hurry  away  to  a  com- 
munal dinner,  where  one  of  the  dishes  has 
a  name  seven  lines  long. 

Echi'dna,  in  Greek  mythology,  a  monster, 
half  woman  half  serpent,  daughter  of 
Chrysaor  (see  Oorgons).  She  dwelt  in  the 
nether  world  and  was  mother  by  Typhon 
(q.v.)  of  the  dogs  Orthrus  and  Cerberus, 
the  Chimaera,  the  Thoban  Sphinx  (qq.v.), 
the  Lernaean  Hydra,  and  the  Nemean  lion 
(see  Heracles,  Labours  of).  The  double 
forms  and  many  members  attributed  to 
some  of  these  creatures  (see  Monsters), 
suggest  an  oriental,  non-Greek  origin  of 
the  myth.  Compare  the  representations 
of  Hindu  deities,  and  the  monsters  of 
Assyrian  art. 

Echo  (Echo),  see  Narcissus  and  Pan. 
Eclogue  (eldogc),  a  'selected*  poem,  taken 
out  of  a  larger  collection;  a  term  used 
under  the  Roman  empire  for  an  idyll  or 
satire,  and  especially  applied  to  tho  pas- 
toral poems  of  Virgil.  In  tho  'General 
Argument*  to  Spenser's  'Shepheards 
Calender*  the  word  eclogue  is  wrongly 
derived  from  alywv  or  alyovofjiuv  Aoyot, 
i.e.  goatherds'  tales. 

Eclogues  (Eclogae,  Pucolica)  of  Virgil, 
the  earliest  of  the  poet's  published  works, 
a  collection  of  ten  short  unconnected 
poems  in  hexameters.  They  were  com- 
posed between  42  and  37  B.C.  and  pub- 
lished in  the  latter  year.  Eclogues  ii,  ill,  v, 
and  perhaps  vii,  appear  to  be  the  first  in 
date  of  composition.  These  are  all  imita- 
tions of  the  Idylls  of  Theocritus ;  even  the 
scenery  described  appears  to  be  that  of 
Sicily — at  any  rate  not  that  of  the  Lom- 
bard plain.  In  the  Second  Eclogue  the 
shepherd  Corydon  laments  his  unrequited 
love  for  Alexis;  the  Third,  in  dialogue, 
contains  the  banter  and  musical  contests 
of  shepherds,  and  a  sarcastic  reference  to 
the  bad  poets  Bavius  (q.v.);  and  Maevius 
in  the  Fifth  two  shepherds  celebrate  the 
death  and  deification  of  Daphnis,  perhaps 
symbolizing  Julius  Caesar,  whose  birthday 
was  first  observed  with  religious  rites  in 
42  B.C.  ;  the  Seventh  is  a  poetical  contest 
between  two  shepherds.  These  poems, 
telling  of  peaceful  pastoral  scenes,  are  in 
strange  contrast  with  the  violent  political 
drama  that  was  being  enacted  when  they 
were  composed,  if  they  are  rightly  assigned 
to  the  year  of  Philippi.  They  are  highly 
artificial  and  conventional  hi  character, 
for  the  life  of  Italian  shepherds  at  this 
time  can  have  had  little  resemblance  to 
that  depicted. 

Eclogues  i  and  ix  are  thought  from 
internal  evidence  to  belong  to  the  year  41. 
The  usual  interpretation  of  them  is  that 
they  refer  to  the  confiscation  of  Virgil's 
farm ;  the  territory  of  CremSna,  assigned  to 
grants  of  land  for  soldiers  of  the  Triumvirs, 
had  proved  insufficient,  and  had  been  sup- 



Editions  of  Classics 

plemented  by  Mantuan  territory  (*  Mantua 
vae  misorae  nimium  vicina  Cremonae*); 
the  dialogue  of  the  shepherds  depicts  the 
misery  of  the  dispossessed  inhabitants. 
The  lines  7-9  in  Eclogue  ix  may  be  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  scenery  of  Virgil's  farm,  and 
the  dialogue  appears  to  take  place  on 
the  road  between  the  farm  and  Mantua. 
Eclogue  i  contains  the  line,  'formosam 
resonare  doces  Amaryllida  silvas ',  of  which 
Johnson  said  that  all  the  modern  lan- 
guages cannot  furnish  one  so  melodious. 

Virgil,  expelled  from  his  old  home,  where 
he  had  composed  his  earlier  Eclogues,  took 
refuge  at  the  villa  of  his  teacher  Siron,  and 
the  Sixth  Eclogue  was  probably  written 
there.  It  consists  mainly  of  a  song  of 
Silenus,  who  tells  of  the  creation  of  the 
world,  his  account  being  partly  mytho- 
logical, partly  in  accord  with  the  doctrine 
of  Lucretius.  The  Fourth  Eclogue  was 
written  in  40  B.C.,  the  year  of  the  consul- 
ship of  Asinius  Pollio  (q.v.),  and  shows 
no  imitation  of  Theocritus.  The  poet 
addresses  Pollio  and  predicts  the  return, 
under  his  guidance,  of  a  golden  age ;  a  new- 
born child  shall  rule  a  pacified  world  with 
the  virtues  of  his  father.  Early  Christian 
writers  supposed  that  Virgil,  under  divine 
inspiration,  was  referring  to  the  Christian 
era.  The  child  referred  to  has  been  va- 
riously thought  to  be  either  the  expected 
child  of  Octavian  and  Scribonia,  or  a  child 
of  Antony  and  Octavia,  or  the  son  of 
Pollio,  Asinius  Gallus,  born  in  this  year, 
and  destined  to  a  part  of  some  importance 
in  the  reign  of  Tiberius.  The  Eighth 
Eclogue,  likewise  addressed  to  Pollio,  was 
written  in  39 ;  it  contains  the  songs  of  two 
shepherds,  of  which  the  first  is  a  lament 
for  the  faithlessness  of  the  shepherd's  mis- 
tress, the  second,  in  imitation  of  the  Second 
Idyll  of  Theocritus,  represents  the  incanta- 
tions by  which  a  country  wife  seeks  to 
recover  her  truant  husband  from  the  town. 
This  Eclogue  contains  the  exquisite  lines 
beginning  (1.  37): 

Saepibus  in  nostris  parvam  te  roscida 

The  Tenth  Eclogue,  probably  written  in  37, 
has  for  its  subject  Virgil's  active  and  ambi- 
tious friend,  the  soldier-poet,  C.  Cornelius 
Gallus  (q.v.),  whom  he  represents  as  dying 
for  unrequited  love  of  LycOris  (the 
Cytheris  of  Gallus's  own  poems)  and 
mourned  by  the  woods  and  rocks.  The 
opening  was  imitated  by  Milton  in  his 

The  'Eclogues'  of  Virgil,  with  the '  Idylls ' 
of  Theocritus,  have  been  the  principal 
models  of  pastoral  poetry  and  the  inspirers 
of  pastoral  romance  and  pastoral  drama 
in  later  ages.  We  see  the  influence  first  in 

the  Latin  Eclogues  of  Petrarch  and  the 
Italian  Eclogues  of  Boccaccio,  and  later 
in  the  Latin  Eclogues  of  Mantuan  (1448- 
1516).  We  find  it  in  a  different  form  in  the 
pastoral  romances  of  Boccaccio  and  Sanna- 
zarro,  and  in  the  pastoral  drama,  such  as 
Tasso's'Aminta*  and  Guarini's  'II  Pastor 
Fido'.  Through  these,  or  directly,  the 
influence  reached  English  literature,  and  is 
seen  for  instance  in  Spenser's '  Shepheards 
Calender ',  in  Sidney's '  Arcadia',  in  Lodge's 
'Rosalynde',  in  Shakespeare's  'As  You 
Like  It',  hi  the  'Faithfull  Shepheardesse ' 
of  Fletcher,  and  the  'Sad  Shepherd*  of 
Ben  Jonson. 

Economic  Conditions  in  Athens  and 
Rome,  see  Athens,  §  10,  Rome,  §  13. 

Editions  of  Collections  of  the  Classics, 

FAMOUB.  Aldus  Manutius  (Aldo  Manuzio, 
1449-1515),  who  gave  his  name  to  the 
ALDINE  edition,  was  the  first  to  print 
(between  1494  and  1504)  a  series  of  the 
works  of  Greek  authors.  His  press  was 
at  Venice.  In  1501  he  started  the  small 
octavo  edition  of  the  Greek  and  Latin 
authors,  which,  by  replacing  the  cum- 
brous folio,  did  a  great  deal  to  popu- 
larize the  classics.  In  this  edition  was 
first  adopted  the  sloping  type,  known 
as  Italic,  based  on  the  handwriting  of 
Petrarch.  Henri  ESTIENNE  (Stephanas, 
1531-98),  the  French  printer,  is  famous  for 
the  editions  of  the  classics  that  he  issued, 
but  his  texts  have  been  condemned  as  un- 
critical. The  ELZEVIKRS  (Louis  Elzevier, 
1540-1617,  and  his  sons  and  grandson) 
were  famous  printers  at  Leyden  and  subse- 
quently at  Amsterdam,  who  issued  beauti- 
ful editions  of  classical  authors  from  1595 
to  1681.  The  DELPHIN  Classics,  in  usum 
Delphini,  were  prepared  about  1670-80 
under  the  direction  of  Pierre  Daniel  Huet 
for  the  education  of  the  Grand  Dauphin, 
son  of  Louis  XIV.  They  included  some 
sixty  volumes  by  thirty-nine  editors. 
Benedict  Gotthelf  TEUBNEB  (1784-1856) 
was  the  founder  of  a  publishing  and  book- 
selling business  in  Leipzig,  famous  for  the 
'Bibliotheca  Scriptorum  Graecorum  et 
RomanorumTeubneriana',  begun  in  1849, 
which  attained  high  renown  as  containing 
the  best  available  texts  of  the  classics. 
Much  of  the  editing  of  the  Greek  texts 
of  this  edition  was  done  by  the  scholars 
Karl  Wilhelm  Dindorf  (1802-83)  and  his 
brother  Ludwig.  Another  important  col- 
lection is  that  known  as  the  OXFORD  CLAS- 
SICAL TEXTS,  published  by  the  Oxford  Uni- 
versity Press  from  1898  onwards  with  many 
distinguished  editors  including  J.  Burnet, 
I.  Bywater,  A.  C.  Clark,  W.  M.  Lindsay, 
Gilbert  Murray,  A.  C.  Pearson,  J.  P.  Post- 
gate,  and  U.  v.  Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. 




Among  other  recent  collections  of  classical 
texts  is  that  known  as  the  Buoti  edition, 
in  course  of  publication  in  France ;  its 
name  commemorates  Guillaume  Bude 
(Budaeus,  1467-1540)  one  of  the  chief 
French  humanists  of  his  time.  The  LOEB 
Classical  Library  of  Greek  and  Latin 
authors,  now  in  course  of  issue,  gives  the 
original  text  and  the  translation  on  op- 
posite pages;  it  was  founded  in  1912  by 
James  Loeb  (1867-1933),  an  American 


%  I.  In  Greece 

The  early  introduction  of  schools  in 
Greek  lands  is  shown  by  the  statement  of 
Herodotus  that  at  the  beginning  of  the 
5th  c.  B.C.  one  hundred  and  nineteen  chil- 
dren were  killed  at  Chios  by  the  collapse 
of  a  school  building.  There  were  probably 
schools  at  Athens  even  in  the  6th  c.  B.C., 
for  Aeschines  (c.  Tim.  6-12)  attributes  to 
Draco  and  Solon  laws  regulating  such 
matters  as  school  hours.  It  is  evident  that 
the  institution  of  ostracism  (q.v.)  could 
hardly  have  been  established  if  the  great 
majority  of  the  citizens  had  not  been  liter- 
ate ;  the  man  who  could  not  write  the  name 
of  Aristides  (q.v.)  must  have  been  excep- 
tional. But  schoolmasters  and  parents 
were  left  free  as  to  the  character  of  the 
education.  School  fees  were  low  and 
schoolmasters  held  a  humble  situation. 
Elementary  schooling  began  at  the  age  of 
six  and  included,  besides  reading  and  writ- 
ing, the  learning  to  recite  passages  of 
Homer  and  the  other  poets.  In  Xeno- 
phon's  *  Symposium',  one  of  the  guests 
could  recite  the  whole  of  the  'Iliad'  and 
'Odyssey'.  Simple  arithmetic  was  prob 
ably  also  taught,  with  the  help  of  the 
abacus  or  counting-board.  (The  British 
Museum  has  a  Greek  schoolboy's  wax 
tablet,  with  the  multiplication  table  up 
to  3X10  =  30  written  on  one  half  of  it, 
and  a  spelling  exercise  on  the  other  half.) 
Children  were  taken  to  school  by  their 
paedagoguSt  a  slave  charged  to  see  that 
they  got  into  no  mischief.  The  education 
of  the  poor  did  not  extend  beyond  this 
primary  stage,  and  probably  ceased  at 
about  the  ago  of  10-14.  The  children  of 
the  wealthy  continued  their  schooling 
until  18,  the  age  of  military  service.  For 
them,  music  (playing  on  the  lyre  and  sing- 
Ing)  and  gymnastics  were  considered  an 
essential  part  of  education,  and  instruction 
in  them  was  given  in  separate  schools 
(see  Palaestra  and  Gymnasium),  With  the 
development  of  civilization  in  the  5th  c. 
came  the  demand  for  knowledge  of  a  wider 
kind,  and  geometry,  geography,  and  draw 
ing  were  added  to  the  school  curriculum. 

A  further  extension  of  education,  espe- 
cially for  adults,  was  provided  by  the 
sophists  (q.v.),  who  coming  from  all  parts 
of  the  Greek  world  gave  for  a  fee  courses 
of  higher  instruction  in  the  arts  of  reason- 
ing and  speaking  and  in  social  and  political 
questions,  designed  to  flt  men  for  their 
duties  as  citizens  of  a  democratic  State. 
For  education  at  Sparta,  see  under  Sparta. 
There  was  some  advance  in  education 
in  the  Greek  cities  of  the  Hellenistic  Ago 
(q.v.).  It  was  supervised  by  a  magistrate 
known  as  the  gymnasiarch.  The  gym- 
nasium came  to  hold  the  same  kind  of 
position  in  Greek  life  that  the  public 
schools  hold  in  England.  Some  of  the 
gymnasia  possessed  libraries,  but  the 
teaching  in  them  does  not  appear  to  have 
gone  beyond  grammar,  poetry,  and  some 
rhetoric.  Higher  education,  in  science  or 
philosophy,  had  to  be  sought  from  some 
special  teacher. 

§  2.  At  Rome 

Education  at  Rome  in  the  earlier  repub- 
lican times  was  very  limited  in  extent,  and 
chiefly  given  in  the  home.  There  was  a 
good  training  in  religious  cults,  duty  to 
the  State,  modesty  of  demeanour,  and 
physical  activity ;  an  education  calculated 
to  produce  frugal,  hardy,  patriotic,  indus- 
trious citizens,  but  intellectually  narrow. 
Children  were  shown  the  imagines  or  busts 
of  their  ancestors  and  taught  to  read  the 
inscriptions  recounting  their  exploits.  They 
were  taken  to  hear  the  encomiums  on  great 
Romans  who  died.  They  learnt  by  heart 
the  Twelve  Tables  (q.v.)  of  the  law.  We 
read  that  old  Cato  himself  taught  his  son 
his  letters,  the  laws  of  Rome,  and  bodily 
exercises.  Later,  as  a  result  of  contact 
with  Hellenic  civilization,  education  was 
entrusted  to  a  tutor  or  a  school;  the 
teachers  were  often  slaves  or  freedjnen, 
frequently  Greeks,  and  the  pupils  were 
taught,  among  other  things,  sententiae  or 
moral  maxims,  besides  reading,  writing, 
and  calculation.  A  characteristic  figure, 
introduced  under  Greek  influences,  was 
the  paedagogus,  a  slave  who  attended  the 
boy  to  school,  waited  for  him  there,  and 
brought  him  home ;  he  taught  the  boy  to 
speak  Greek  and  looked  after  his  manners 
and  morals.  There  was  also  the  higher 
school  of  the  grammaticus,  where  the  teach- 
ing was  literary*  in  Latin  and  Greek,  lan- 
guage, grammar,  metre,  style,  and  the 
subject-matter  of  poems.  Under  Greek 
influences  music  and  dancing  were  intro- 
duced into  education;  these,  and  espe- 
cially the  latter,  were  not  looked  upon 
with  favour  by  conservative  Romans.  The 
only  physical  training  that  they  approved 
of  was  such  as  would  fit  young  men  for 




war.  After  a  Roman  youth  had  assumed 
the  toga  virilis  (see  Clothing,  §  3),  he  might 
be  attached  as  a  pupil  to  an  advocate  or 
sent  to  receive  training  in  oratory  under 
a  rhetorician.  He  might  also  study  philo- 
sophy at  Rome,  or  go  for  this  purpose  to 
Athens,  Rhodes,  or  some  other  Greek  edu- 
cational centre ;  Caesar,  Cicero,  Octavian, 
Horace,  all  went  abroad  for  study.  The 
effect  of  the  rhetorical  education  of  later 
republican  and  early  imperial  times  is  seen 
even  in  Virgil,  more  in  Ovid,  and  espe- 
cially in  Lucan  and  Seneca.  It  may  be 
added  that  it  was  not  until  the  middle  of 
the  1st  c.  A.D.  that  the  State  attempted 
any  control  of  education;  Vespasian  in- 
stituted State  professorships  at  Rome  in 
Greek  and  Latin  rhetoric,  and  Hadrian 
founded  a  chair  of  Greek  rhetoric  at 
Athens.  The  salary  assigned  by  Vespasian 
to  the  professors  was  100,000  sesterces 
(say  about  £800),  equal  to  the  salaries  hi 
the  second  grade  of  the  Roman  civil  service. 

£ge'ria,  hi  Roman  religion,  a  goddess  of 
fountains,  and  also  of  childbirth.  She  had 
a  sacred  spring,  whence  the  Vestals  drew 
water  for  their  ritual,  near  the  Porta 
Cap6na.  It  was  at  this  spring  that  accord- 
ing to  legend  Egeria  used  to  meet  King 
Numa  by  night  and  aid  him  with  her 
counsels.  According  to  one  account  she 
was  Numa's  wife. 

Egypt  (Aiguptos,  L.  Aegyptu&).  The  rela- 
tions between  Egypt  and  the  Greek  world 
date  from  the  earliest  known  times.  There 
is  evidence  that  during  the  greater  part  of 
the  3rd  millennium  B.C.  there  was  trade 
between  Egypt  and  Crete ;  and  hi  the  2nd 
millennium  there  was  intercourse  between 
Egypt  and  Mycenae  (q.v.).  Mycenaean 
vases  found  their  way  to  Egypt;  Egyp- 
tian porcelain  and  an  Egyptian  scarab, 
bearing  names  of  Egyptian  rulers,  have 
been  discovered  in  Mycenaean  tombs.  In 
Homeric  times  we  have  the  story  of  the 
visit  of  Menelaus  to  Egypt  (Od.  iv.  351  et 
seq.).  Coming  to  historical  times  wo  read 
that  in  the  7th  c.  mail-clad  lonians  and 
Carians  helped  Psammetichus  I  of  Egypt 
in  his  revolt  against  the  Assyrians,  and 
that  these  were  quartered  at  'Daphnae' 
on  the  Pelusiac  or  eastern  mouth  of  the 
Nile.  Psammetichus  II  took  Greek  mer- 
cenaries with  him  in  his  expedition  to 
Nubia ;  of  this  there  is  curious  evidence  in 
the  graffiti  left  by  some  of  these  mercen- 
aries on  one  of  the  statues  of  the  temple 
of  Abu-Simbel  (see  Epigraphy,  §  5).  Amasis, 
king  of  Egypt  (570-525),  subscribed  to 
the  rebuilding  of  the  temple  of  Delphi.  He 
confined  Greek  traders,  now  numerous, 
to  the  single  settlement  at  Naucratis 
(q.v.),  on  the  Canopic  or  western  month 

of  the  Nile.  It  was  here,  no  doubt,  that 
Charaxus,  brother  of  Sappho  (q.v.),  be- 
came entangled  with  the  Egyptian 
courtesan  Doricha.  Solon,  Thales,  and 
Hocataeus  are  said  to  have  visited  Egypt. 
Herodotus  certainly  did  so,  and  devoted 
the  second  book  of  his  history  to  a  de- 
scription of  the  country.  Egypt  was 
conquered  by  the  Persian  Cambyses  in 
525,  and  the  Persian  rule  lasted  for  two 
centuries.  There  were  many  attempts  at 
revolt.  That  led  by  the  Libyan  InarOs  in 
462  was  assisted  by  an  Athenian  expedi- 
tion, which  came  to  an  inglorious  end  in 
454.  In  361  the  Spartans  under  Ag6silaus 
supported  a  revolt  against  ArtaxerxSs. 
All  these  risings  were  unsuccessful  and 
the  Persian  dominion  endured  until  it  was 
overthrown  in  332  by  Alexander  the  Great 
(q.v.),  the  founder  of  Alexandria  (q.v.). 
Then  followed  the  rule  of  Egypt  by  the 
Macedonian  kings  known  as  the  Ptolemies 
(q.v.),  during  which  Alexandria  became  an 
important  centre  of  Greek  culture  (see 
Hellenistic  Age).  This  rule  was  in  turn 
brought  to  an  end  by  the  Roman  annexa- 
tion of  Egypt  in  30  B.C. 

In  Egypt  the  ruler  had  been  the  owner 
of  the  soil,  and  the  tillers  had  been  his 
tenants  (except  that  under  the  Ptolemies 
property  in  newly  reclaimed  land  was 
granted  to  settlers).  This  position  was 
inherited  by  Augustus  and  was  a  source 
of  great  wealth  to  the  emperors.  Egypt 
under  the  empire,  in  fact,  was  looked 
upon  rather  as  a  personal  possession  of 
the  emperor  than  as  an  ordinary  province, 
and  was  governed  for  him  by  a  prefect  of 
equestrian  rank,  not  by  a  proconsul  or 
propraetor.  From  early  times  Egypt 
had  exported  pottery,  alabaster,  papyrus, 
unguents,  and  ivory  and  special  woods 
from  Central  Africa.  Under  the  Roman 
empire  she  continued  to  export  these 
goods,  and  also  linen,  and  moreover  be- 
came an  important  source  of  corn  supply. 
Egypt  was  also  an  intermediary  in  trade 
between  the  empire  and  India.  Though 
the  local  administration  retained  the 
Greek  character  it  had  acquired  under 
the  Ptolemies,  many  large  estates  on 
Egyptian  territory  were  held  by  mem- 
bers of  the  imperial  family,  and  a  middle 
class  of  traders,  manufacturers,  and  land- 
owners, most  of  them  attracted  to  the 
country  from  other  parts  of  the  empire, 
developed  with  the  encouragement  of  the 
Roman  government. 

Ehoi'ai,  see  Eoeae. 

Eido'thea  (Eidothea),  in  Greek  mythology, 
a  nymph,  daughter  of  Proteus  (q.v.). 
When  Menelaus  (q.v.)  was  becalmed  off 
the  coast  of  Egypt  and  nearly  starved,  sue 




showed  Mm  how  to  secure  her  lather,  in 
spite  of  his  attempts  to  escape  by  assum- 
ing: different  forms,  and  force  him  to  reveal 
the  cause  of  this  misfortune. 

Eileithyi'a  (EUeUhula),  according  to 
Hesiod  a  daughter  of  Zeus  and  Hera, 
was  the  Greek  goddess  of  childbirth. 
Homer  mentions  a  cave  sacred  to  her  in 
Crete  and  also  speaks  of  the  daughters 
of  Hera  (in  the  plural)  bearing  the  name. 
Hera  and  Artemis  were  sometimes  in- 
voked under  it.  The  Romans  identified 
their  Juno  (q.v.)  Lucina  with  Eileithyia. 

E'lea  (L.  Velio),  a  town  on  the  W.  coast 
of  Lucania,  founded  by  Phocaeans  c.  540 
B.C.  It  was  here  that  Parmenides  and  his 
successor  Zeno  (qq.  v. )  founded  the  ELEATIC 
SCHOOL  of  philosophy. 

Ele'ctra  (Meldra),  (1)  daughter  of  Aga- 
memnon and  Cly  temnestra,  see  Pelops  and 
the  articles  below;  (2)  daughter  of  Atlas, 
see  Dardanus. 

Electro,  a  tragedy  by  Sophocles,  of  uncer- 
tain date,  probably  an  early  play. 

For  the  legend  on  which  it  is  based  see 
Pelops.  Orestes  arrives  at  Mycenae,  with 
Pylades  (q.v.)  and  an  aged  attendant,  to 
avenge,  in  obedience  to  the  Pythian  oracle, 
the  death  of  his  father.  The  attendant 
is  sent  on  to  inform  Clytemnestra  that 
Orestes  has  been  killed  in  a  chariot  race, 
and  Orestes  and  Pylades  prepare  to  follow 
disguised,  bearing  an  urn  supposed  to  con- 
tain the  ashes  of  Orestes.  Meanwhile  Cly- 
temnestra, warned  by  an  ominous  dream, 
has  sent  her  daughter  Chrysothemis  to 
pour  libations  on  the  tomb  of  Agamem- 
non. Electra,  who  is  living  a  wretched 
lif e,  bullied  by  Clytemnestra  and  Aegisthus 
on  account  of  her  fidelity  to  her  father, 
meets  Chrysothemis  and  persuades  her  to 
substitute  for  the  offerings  of  Clytemnestra 
others  more  acceptable  to  their  father's 
tomb.  Clytemnestra  appears  and  rails  at 
Electra,  but  is  interrupted  by  the  arrival 
of  the  messenger  and  learns  with  scarcely 
concealed  joy  the  death  of  Orestes.  Electra, 
on  the  other  hand,  is  plunged  in  despair. 
The  announcement  of  Chrysothemis  that 
she  has  found  a  lock  of  hair,  probably  that 
of  Orestes,  on  Agamemnon's  tomb,  seems 
only  to  mock  her  sorrow.  She  determines, 
now  that  the  expected  help  of  Orestes  is 
lost,  to  kill  Clytemnestra  and  Aegisthus 
herself.  The  more  prudent  and  pliant 
Chrysothemis  refuses  to  share  in  the  deed. 
Orestes  and  Pylades  now  approach,  and 
Orestes  gradually  reveals  himself  to  Elec- 
tra. He  and  Pylados  enter  the  palace.  The 
death -shriek  of  Clytemnestra  is  heard. 
Aegisthus  then  approaches.  He  is  lured 
Into  the  palace  to  see  what  he  supposes 

to  be  the  corpse  of  Orestes,  but  finds  to  be 
that  of  Clytemnestra.  He  is  driven  at  the 
sword's  point  to  the  room  where  Agamem- 
non was  slain,  and  there  killed.  The  chorus 
of  Mycenean  women  rojoico  at  the  pass- 
ing of  the  curse  which  has  rested  on  the 
house  of  Atreus. 

Electra,  a  tragedy  by  Euripides,  produced 
about  413  B.C. 

The  theme  is  the  same  as  that  of 
Sophocles*  play  of  the  same  name  (q.v.), 
but  there  are  differences  of  detail.  Aegis- 
thus has  married  Electra  to  a  humble 
peasant  in  order  that  no  son  of  hers  may 
claim  the  throne.  This  peasant  is  a  fine 
character,  and  respects  Elcctra's  royal 
birth  and  misfortunes.  Electra  takes  her 
share  with  Orestes  in  the  murder  of  their 
mother,  an  act  of  justice  but  a  fearful  sin, 
and  the  play  is  a  deep  study  of  the  charac- 
ters of  the  exiled  Orestes  and  the  haunted 
and  down-trodden  Electra,  which  make 
them  capable  of  such  an  act. 

Ele'ctryon  (Elektruon),  see  Amphitryon. 
Elegi'ac,  sco  Metre,  §§  2  and  5. 

Elegy  (Elegeid),  a  word  whose  ultimate 
derivation  is  uncertain,  originally  the  name 
for  a  song  of  mourning,  whose  characteris- 
tic metre  consisted  of  alternate  hexameters 
and  pentameters  (see  Metre,  §2).  But  this 
elegiac  metre  was  early  adopted  by  poets 
for  the  expression  of  personal  sentiments 
(as  distinct  from  narrative),  for  exhorta- 
tions and  reflections  on  a  great  variety 
of  subjects,  grave  or  gay.  Gnomic  (q.v.) 
poetry  took  the  form  of  elegy.  Among  the 
principal  early  elegiac  poets  of  Greece  were 
Tyrtacus,  Mimnermus,  Solon,  Phocylides, 
Callinus,  and  Theognis  (qq.v.).  Elegiacs 
wore  occasionally  written  by  the  great 
Greek  authors  of  the  5th  and  4th  cc.,  and 
more  frequently  by  the  Alexandrians,  such 
as  Callimachua.  The  elegiac  was  first 
associated  with  love  poems  by  Mimner- 
mus, and  later  by  the  Alexandrians. 

The  principal  Roman  writers  of  elegiacs 
were  Gallua,  Tibulhis,  Propertius,  and 
Ovid  (qq.v.). 

Elephants.  Alexander  the  Great  was  the 
first  European  ruler  to  acquire  elephants. 
There  were  elephants  in  the  Persian  army 
opposed  to  him  at  Gaugamela  (q.v.)  and 
he  is  said  to  have  obtained  a  number  in 
India.  But  it  is  doubtful  whether  he  ever 
employed  elephants  except  as  baggage 
animals.  They  were  dangerous  to  use  in 
fighting  because  if  terrified  they  might  do 
more  damage  to  their  owners  than  to  the 
enemy.  Nevertheless,  after  Alexander's 
death  his  successors  made  frequent  use 
of  them  in  their  wars  with  each  other. 
Seleucus  is  said,  for  instance,  to  have  had 

Eleusinian  Mysteries 



480  elephants  at  the  battle  of  Ipsus  (see 
Macedonia,  §2).  Some  of  these  Indian 
elephants  came  into  the  possession  of 
Pyrrhus  (q.v.),  were  taken  by  him  to  Italy, 
and  were  the  first  of  which  the  Romans 
had  experience.  Pyrrhus  had  twenty  in 
his  army  at  the  battle  of  Heraclea  (280 
B.C.)  and  the  Romans  captured  four  at 
Beneventum.  When  the  Romans  flrst  saw 
the  elephant  in  Lucania,  knowing  neither 
the  animal  nor  its  name,  they  called  it  the 
'Lucanian  ox*  (bos  Luca).  Ptolemy  II 
appears  to  have  been  the  first  to  train 
African  elephants  for  war.  He  and  Ptole- 
my III  organized  elephant  hunting  grounds 
on  the  African  coast  of  the  Red  Sea.  The 
African  elephant  is  distinguishable  from 
the  Indian  by  its  huge  flapping  ears,  some- 
times as  much  as  4  ft.  across,  and  convex 
forehead.  The  Indian  elephant  has  rela- 
tively small  ears  and  a  concave  forehead. 
At  the  battle  of  Raphia  (217  B.C.)  Ptolemy 
IV had  73  African  elephants  against  the  102 
Indian  elephants  of  Antiochus  the  Groat, 
and  Polybius  (v.  84)  describes  the  fierce 
fighting  of  some  of  the  beasts  (but  most  of 
the  African  elephants  turned  tail).  In  the 
reign  of  Antiochus  V  the  Romans  ordered 
the  destruction  of  the  Syrian  elephants ;  the 
sight  of  the  maimed  animals  so  infuriated 
the  people,  that  a  certain  Leptines  mur- 
dered the  Roman  envoy.  It  was  perhaps 
from  the  Ptolemies  that  the  Carthaginians 
adopted  the  idea  of  employing  elephants 
for  military  purposes.  They  had  a  hun- 
dred elephants  in  the  army  which  defeated 
Regulus.  Hannibal  started  from  Spain 
with  fifty  elephants,  but  many  perished 
in  the  Alps.  The  remainder  were  useful 
to  him  at  the  Trebia,  but  wore  gradually 
destroyed.  At  Zama  the  Romans,  imitat- 
ing Alexander  the  Great,  arranged  lanes 
in  their  infantry,  into  which  the  enemy's 
elephants  wore  lured ;  they  were  then  sur- 
rounded and  dispatched.  Carthage  was 
obliged  to  surrender  all  her  elephants  after 
Zama,  to  the  great  grief  of  the  Cartha- 
ginians, who  went  about  the  streets  calling 
their  lost  elephants  by  their  names,  for 
they  were  very  fond  of  them.  The  Romans 
occasionally  used  elephants  in  their  subse- 
quent wars ;  for  instance  Aemilius  Paullus 
had  some  Indian  elephants  at  Pydna.  But 
they  never  played  an  important  part  in 
the  Roman  army.  On  the  other  hand  they 
were  much  used,  especially  under  the 
empire,  in  processions  and  in  the  Games 
of  the  Circus  and  amphitheatre  (see  Vena- 
ttones).  Some  of  the  names  given  to  ele- 
phants are  recorded,  such  as  Achilles  and 
Patroclus;  the  bravest  elephant  in  the 
Carthaginian  army  was  called  Sums. 

Eleusi'nian  Mysteries,  see  Mysteries. 

Eleu'sis,  a  town  of  Attica,  standing  close 
to  the  sea,  about  ten  miles  NW.  of  Athens. 
It  owed  its  fame  to  a  groat  sanctuary  of 
Demeter  (q.v.)  where  the  Elousinian  mys- 
teries (see  Mysteries)  were  performed.  It 
is  mentioned  in  the  Homeric  hymn  to 
Demeter.  The  sanctuary  was  destroyed 
by  the  Persians  and  rebuilt  or  re-designed 
in  the  ago  of  Pericles.  Considerable  re- 
mains of  it  are  still  to  be  seen,  including 
those  of  a  Propylaea  modelled  on  that 
of  the  Acropolis,  and  of  a  gieat  Hall  of 
Initiation  (as  rebuilt  probably  in  Roman 
times)  about  170  ft.  square.  The  roof  of 
this  was  supported  by  six  rows  of  columns 
and  round  the  hall  were  eight  tiers  of  steps 
on  which  the  worshippers  probably  sat 
watching  the  performance  of  the  mysteries 
in  the  body  of  the  hall. 

Eleusis  was  originally  independent  of 
Athens ;  and  it  is  improbable  that  she  was 
incorporated  in  the  latter  without  a 
struggle.  For  a  mythological  reflection  of 
this  see  Erechtfieus. 

Eleuthe'ria,  see  Festivals,  §  6. 

Eleven,  THE,  at  Athens,  police-magi- 
strates. See  Athens,  §  9. 

Elgin  Marbles,  see  Parthenon. 

£'lis,  a  State  in  the  NW.  of  the  Pelopon- 
neso,  whoso  chief  importance  lay  in  its 
including  Olympia  (q.v.).  In  historical 
times  Elis,  with  a  democratic  constitu- 
tion, was  a  menace  to  Sparta.  She  was 
a  member  of  the  Quadruple  Alliance 
against  that  State  from  420  to  417,  and 
after  the  end  of  the  Peloponnesian  War 
was  reduced  and  subjected  to  severe  condi- 
tions by  the  Spartan  King  Agis  in  399  B.C., 
when  Sparta  was  at  the  height  of  her 
power.  It  was  at  Scillus  in  Elean  territory 
that  Xenophon  (q.v.)  lived  in  exile. 
Elision,  the  'thrusting  out*  of  a  vowel  at 
the  end  of  one  word  before  a  vowel  at  the 
beginning  of  the  next;  in  Greek  confined 
chiefly  to  the  short  final  vowels  a,  e,  o,  hi 
Latin  extended  to  long  vowels  and  to 
syllables  ending  in  m.  (Cf.  Crasis). 

Eli'ssa,  see  Dido. 

Elpe'nor,  a  companion  of  Odysseus  (q.v.) 
in  his  wanderings,  who  fell  off  the  roof  of 
Circe's  dwelling  and  was  killed  and  left 
unburied.  His  is  the  first  shade  that 
Odysseus  meets  in  the  nether  world;  he 
asks  for  burial  and  that  his  oar  may  be 
planted  on  his  grave. 
Ely'sium  (Elusion),  also  known  as  the 
ISLANDS  OF  THE  BLEST  (makaron  nesoi), 
in  Greek  mythology  the  place  where  those 
favoured  by  the  gods  (in  later  conception 
heroes  and  patriots)  enjoy  after  death  a 
full  and  pleasant  life  (of.  Hades).  Its 




position  is  vague,  in  earlier  myth  quite  dis- 
tinct from  Hades,  somewhere  in  the  far 
West,  a  meadow  by  the  stream  Oceanus 
(q.v.),  or  'Islands  of  the  Blest*  in  that 
stream ;  in  later  myth  part  of  the  nether 
world.  It  was  ruled  over  by  Rhadamanthus 
(or  Cronus).  Virgil's  Elysium  is  in  the  nether 

E'lzevirs,  properly  Elzeviers,  see  Edi- 

Ema'thia  (Emathid),  the  part  of  Mace- 
donia between  the  Axius  (Vardar)  and  the 
Haliacmon  (Vistriza),  including  Pella.  The 
name  is  sometimes  extended  to  the  whole 
of  Macedonia  and  the  neighbouring  lands, 
and  the  epithet  'Emathian'  is  given  to 
Alexander  the  Great  (see,  e.g.,  Milton's 
eighth  Sonnet). 

Embassy,  On  the  (De  Falsa  Legdtione),  a 
political  speech  by  Demosthenes.  See 
Demosthenes  (2),  §  5  (e). 

Embo'lima,  see  Tragedy,  §  3. 
Emmelei'a,  see  Tragedy,  §  2. 

Empe'docles  (Empedokles),  a  philosopher 
and  scientist  of  Acragas  (Agrigentum)  in 
Sicily,  born  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  5th 
c.  B.C.  He  belonged  to  a  rich  and  dis- 
tinguished family,  and  it  is  said  was  offered 
the  kingship  of  his  city  but  refused  it.  He 
was  a  most  versatile  genius,  interested  in 
biology,  medicine,  and  physics  (he  dis- 
covered that  air  is  a  substance,  distinct 
from  empty  space),  the  inventor  of  the  art 
of  rhetoric,  a  mystic  and  an  eccentric,  but 
he  is  chiefly  famous  for  his  philosophical 
doctrine.  He  endeavoured  to  reconcile  the 
perception  of  changing  phenomena  with 
the  logical  conception  of  an  underlying 
unchanging  existence,  and  found  the  solu- 
tion in  four  immutable  elements,  earth, 
air,  fire,  and  water,  whose  association  and 
dissociation  produce  the  various  changing 
objects  of  the  world  as  we  know  it.  This 
association  and  dissociation  result  from 
the  action  of  two  opposing  forces,  Love 
and  Discord,  which  eternally  construct, 
destroy,  and  reconstruct.  These  views  he 
embodied  hi  a  poem  in  hexameters,  and 
Aristotle  thought  them  of  sufficient  impor- 
tance to  be  combated.  He  also  left  a  poem 
on  purifications,  in  which  incidentally  he 
approved  the  doctrines  of  Pythagoras, 
especially  on  transmigration.  There  is  a 
warm  eulogy  of  his  works  by  Lucretius 
(q.v.).  Some  450  lines  of  them  survive, 
written  in  a  lucid  and  picturesque  style. 
His  death  is  variously  recounted ;  accord- 
ing to  one  story  he  threw  himself  into  the 
crater  of  Mt.  Etna  (see  M.  Arnold,  'Em- 
pedocles  on  Etna'). 

Ence'ladus  (Egkdados),  see  Giants. 

Enco'mium  (Egkdmion),  a  Greek  choral 
hymn  (see  Choral  Lyric),  in  celebration, 
not  of  a  god,  but  of  some  man.  The  word 
means  a  song  'at  the  komos*  (here  the 
revel  at  the  end  of  a  banquet),  and  thus 
suggests  a  eulogy  of  the  host.  From  this 
it  was  extended  to  eulogies  in  general. 
The  name  was  first  applied  to  certain 
poems  of  this  character  by  Simonides  of 
Ceos  (q.v.).  The  epinicion,  a  triumphal 
ode  for  a  victory  at  the  Games,  and  the 
threnos  or  funeral  dirge,  were  in  fact 
variations  or  developments  of  the  encomion. 

Endy'mion  (Endumiori),  son  of  CalycS  (a 
daughter  of  Aeolus,  q.v.)  and  her  husband 
Aethlios,  or  according  to  another  version 
a  shepherd  on  Mt.  Latinos  in  Caria.  He 
was  the  most  beautiful  of  men  and  was 
loved  by  Selene  (the  Moon).  By  her  con- 
trivance (or  at  his  own  request)  he  was 
thrown  into  a  perpetual  sleep,  and  the 
moon  descended  every  night  to  embrace 
him.  He  was  the  father  (not  by  Selene) 
of  Aetolus  (Aitdlos),  the  eponymous  hero 
of  Aetolia.  The  legend  of  Endymion  and 
the  Moon  forms  the  basis  of  Drayton's 
'Endimion  and  Phoebe*  (1593)  and  of 
Keats's  'Endymion'  (1818). 
E'nneads,  see  Plotinus. 
E'nnius,  QUINTUS  (239-169  B.C.),  one  of 
the  greatest  and  most  versatile  of  the  early 
Roman  poets,  was  born  at  Rudiae  in 
Calabria,  that  is  to  say  in  territory  that 
was  partly  Oscan,  partly  Greek.  He  spoke 
Oscan,  Gi^ek,  and  Latin.  He  served  in  the 
Roman  army,  in  Sardinia,  as  centurion, 
and  Cato,  who  was  praetor  in  Sardinia  hi 
198,  took  him  to  Rome.  Later  he  accom- 
panied M.  Fulvius  Nobilior  on  his  Aetolian 
campaign  in  189,  and  received  the  honour 
of  Roman  citizenship.  He  lived  in  modest 
stylo  on  the  Aventine,  teaching  and  writ- 
ing. He  was  an  intimate  friend  of  the  elder 
Scipio;  an  anecdote  told  by  Cicero  (De 
Oratore,  ii.  68)  shows  that  he  was  ac- 
quainted with  Scipio  Nasica.  His  principal 
works  were  his  tragedies  and  his '  Annales ' ; 
but  he  also  wrote  'Saturae*  or  miscel- 
laneous works,  epigrams,  one  or  two 
comedies  (for  which  he  seems  to  have  had 
little  gift),  and  a  fabula  praetexta  (q.v.) 
on  the  Rape  of  the  Sabines.  If  a  certain 
portrait  in  the  'Annales'  is,  as  Gellius 
states,  a  portrait  of  himself,  he  was  a 
learned,  honest,  cheerful  man,  courteous 
and  discreet.  His  works  show  him  tinged 
with  various  Greek  philosophies  and 
critical  of  the  traditional  Roman  beliefs. 

We  have  the  titles  and  fragments  of 
over  twenty  of  his  tragedies.  They  dealt 
mainly  with  themes  taken  from  the  Trojan 
cycle,  and  one  at  least,  the  'Medea',  was 
translated  from  Euripides.  The  fragments 


show  his  gift  for  the  expression  of  passion 
and  pathos,  and  for  vigorous  and  poetic 
dialogue.  The  plays  exhibited  the  prob- 
lems of  life  and  had  a  civilizing  and 
humanizing  influence.  They  were  written 
in  adaptations  of  the  Greek  dramatic 

The  'Annalcs',  in  eighteen  books  of 
hexameters,  were  the  work  of  his  later 
years.  They  presented  the  history  of  Rome 
from  its  mythical  beginnings,  through  the 
kings,  down  to  the  wars  of  his  own  day 
(but  omitting  the  First  Punic  War,  it 
appears,  which  Naevius  had  dealt  with), 
and  included  a  series  of  portraits  of  the 
great  Romans.  It  was  from  Ennius  that 
the  Roman  schoolboy  got  his  idea  of  the 
old  heroes.  Fragments  amounting  to 
some  600  lines  of  the  work  have  been 
preserved.  It  is  inspired  by  patriotic  faith 
in  Rome's  greatness,  and  is  marked  by 
gravity  of  style,  and  forcible,  imaginative, 
and  sonorous  diction.  The  versification 
Is  rough,  and  there  are  prosaic  passages 
and  some  eccentricities  natural  to  a  period 
of  unrefined  taste  (see  under  Tmesis, 
Alliteration,  Onomatopoeia).  It  was  the 
first  Roman  poem  hi  epic  hexameters  hi 
the  Homeric  manner.  It  contains  the 
famous  line  on  Fabius  Maximus  Cunctator 
(q.v.),  who  refused  to  be  drawn  into  open 
battle  with  Hannibal  : 

Unus  homo  nobis  cunctando  restituit  rem. 

The  'Saturae'  or  miscellaneous  works  in- 
cluded didactic,  humorous,  and  narrative 
pieces.  The  'Epicharmus*  (q.v.)  was  a 
poem,  in  anticipation  of  Lucretius,  on 
the  physical  constitution  of  the  universe  ; 
the  'Euhemerus*  adopted  the  theory  of 
the  origin  of  the  gods  expounded  by  the 
rationalist  of  that  name  (q.v.);  the 
'Heduphagctica*  was  a  mock-heroic  poem 
on  gastronomy. 

Ennius  was  regarded  by  the  Romans  as 
the  father  of  their  literature.  His  impor- 
tance rests  both  on  his  general  humanizing 
influence,  and  on  his  introduction  into 
Latin  of  the  quantitative  hexameter  in 
place  of  the  Saturnian,  and  also  of  the 
elegiac  couplet  (see  Metre,  §  5).  Lucretius, 
Virgil,  and  Ovid  borrowed  from  him; 
Cicero  admired  and  quoted  him.  He 
enjoyed  a  long,  but  not  quite  unbroken, 
period  of  esteem  among  Roman  critics 
of  later  ages. 

Eny'o  (Enuo),  (1)  one  of  the  Graiae  (q.v.); 
(2)  a  Greek  goddess  of  war,  secondary  in 
importance  to  Ares.  The  Roman  Bellona 
(q.v.)  was  identified  with  her. 

(£oiai  or  Ehoiai),  an  alternative 
title  of  the  'Catalogue  of  Women*  (q.v.), 
or  the  title  of  the  latter  part  of  it,  in 

159  Ephebl 

which,  after  an  opening  which  probably 
took  a  form  such  as  'Many  women  won 
the  love  of  the  gods,  such  as  .  .  .',  each 
succeeding  section  opened  with  the  words 
77  011?  ('Or  such  as  .  .  .')  from  which  the 
title  was  formed.  Fragments  of  the  poem 
survive.  See  also  Shield  of  Heracles. 

£'6s  or  £'6s,  the  goddess  of  dawn,  daugh- 
ter of  Hyperion  (q.v.)  or  of  Pallas,  the 
Titan  or  giant.  By  Tithonus  (q.v.)  she 
was  mother  of  Memnon  (q.v.),  for  whoso 
death  at  the  hands  of  Achilles  she  was 
thought  to  shed  tears  in  the  form  of  dew. 
See  also  Orion  and  Cephalus.  The  Romans 
called  her  Aurora. 

Epamino'ndas  (Epameindndds),  a  great 
Theban  commander,  borne.  420  B.C.,  who, 
with  his  friend  Pelopidas  (q.v.),  raised 
Thebes  to  be  for  a  time  the  most  power- 
ful State  in  Greece.  He  commanded  the 
Theban  army  at  the  victory  of  Leuctra 
(see  Sparta,  §4),  and  thereafter  carried 
out  four  invasions  of  the  Peloponnose, 
pushing  as  far  as  the  gates  of  Sparta  itself. 
Ho  supported  Arcadia  against  Sparta,  and 
founded  on  the  slopes  of  Mt.  Ithome  a  new 
Messeno  to  be  a  stronghold  for  the  Mes- 
scnians  against  their  Spartan  enemies. 
Epaminondas  was  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Mantinea  (362),  and  the  fact  that  in  spite 
of  the  crushing  victory  won  by  the  Thebans 
they  felt  constrained  to  make  peace  with 
Sparta  after  it,  shows  the  extent  to  which 
the  unity  and  strength  of  Bocotia  de- 
pended on  the  genius  of  the  man.  He  was 
buried  on  the  battle-field,  where  Pausanias 
five  centuries  later  saw  his  tomb.  There 
are  lives  of  him  by  Plutarch  and  Nepos. 

The  essential  feature  of  the  military 
tactics  invented  by  Epaminondas,  which 
enabled  hirn  to  defeat  a  superior  Pclopon- 
nesian  force  at  Leuctra,  and  again  at 
Mantinea,  was  the  massing  of  a  solid 
column,  fifty  deep,  on  one  flank,  which  he 
launched  against  the  enemy,  while  '  refus- 
ing* or  holding  back  the  rest  of  hie  lino. 
This  heavy  column  broke  through  the 
Peloponnesian  line,  twelve  deep,  and  threw 
it  into  confusion. 

EpeYos,  see  Trojan  Horse. 
Epeiso'dion,  see  Tragedy,  §  3,  Comedy,  §  2. 

Ephe'bi  (EpJieboi,  a  word  meaning 
'youths')*  under  an  institution  introduced 
at  Athens  in  the  last  third  of  the  4th  e. 
B.C.  (after  the  defeat  of  Chaeronea),  were 
the  young  citizens  of  18-20  enrolled  for 
military  training.  They  were  subjected  to 
strict  discipline,  messed  together  by  tribes, 
and  carried  out  guard  and  patrol  duties. 
They  wore  a  broad-brimmed  hat  and 
dark  mantle,  and  received  four  obols  a  day 
for  subsistence.  When  about  300  B.C. 




compulsory  military  service  was  abolished 
at  Athens,  the  ephebeia  was  remodelled  into 
a  school  where  philosophy  and  literature 
were  the  chief  subjects  taught. 

E'phesus  (Ephesos),  one  of  the  principal 
Ionian  cities  on  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor, 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Cayster.  Adjoining 
the  city  stood  a  famous  temple  of  Artemis 
(q.v.).  It  was  of  great  antiquity  (perhaps 
originally  dedicated  to  an  Eastern  goddess 
whom  the  Greeks  adopted  under  the  name 
of  Artemis)  and  was  more  than  once  re- 
constructed. In  the  new  temple  that  was 
erected  during  tho  rule  of  Croesus  (q.v.) 
over  Ionia,  Croesus  himself  dedicated 
thirty-six  sculptured  columns.  One  of 
these,  bearing  part  of  his  name,  may  be 
seen  in  the  British  Museum.  D .  G .  Hogarth, 
in  'Accidents  of  an  Antiquary's  Life',  has 
an  interesting  account  of  the  discovery  in 
the  pedestal  of  the  statue  of  the  goddess 
of  a  vast  number  of  jewels,  statuettes,  &c. , 
the  foundation  offerings  of  the  temple. 
Xenophon  (q.v.)  deposited  in  the  temple 
the  ransom  of  some  captives  taken  during 
the  retreat  of  the  Ten  Thousand.  When 
this  was  duly  restored  to  him,  he  built 
with  the  money  in  Elis  a  small  model  of 
the  great  temple,  and  placed  in  it  a  cypress- 
wood  image  of  the  goddess  modelled  on 
the  golden  image  at  Ephesus.  In  356  B.C. 
one  Herostratus,  to  make  his  name  immor- 
tal, burnt  the  temple  down  (it  is  said,  on 
the  day  that  Alexander  the  Great  was 
born).  Its  fame  extended  to  Christian 
times  (Acts  xix.  24  et  seq.).  Ephesus 
passed  at  various  times  under  the  domina- 
tion of  Croesus,  the  Persians,  the  Mace- 
donians, and  the  Romans.  It  formed  part 
of  the  Delian  Confederacy  (see  Athens,  §4), 
and  in  the  Peloponnesian  War  was  an  ally 
first  of  Athens,  and  later  of  Sparta.  It  was 
the  birthplace  of  Herach'tus  and  the  pain- 
ter Parrhasius  (qq.v.).  In  Koman  times 
Ephesus  became  the  chief  city  of  the 
province  of  Asia  (though  Pergamum  was 
the  formal  capital),  and  the  seat  of  the 

Ephia'ltes  (1)  in  Greek  mythology,  see 
Otus.  ( 2 )  The  Malian  who  at  Thermopylae 
showed  the  Persians  tho  mountain  path  by 
which  they  turned  the  Greek  position  (see 
Persian  Wars).  (3)  An  Athenian  statesman, 
the  friend  of  Pericles  and  opponent  of 
Cimon  (qq.v.),  chiefly  important  for  the 
democratic  reforms  that  he  introduced  in 
the  constitution,  notably  the  reduction  of 
the  ancient  powers  of  the  Areopagus.  He 
deprived  it  of  all  political  functions  and 
left  it  merely  jurisdiction  in  religious 
crimes,  particularly  premeditated  murder, 
and  the  administration  of  sacred  property. 
Its  other  powers  were  transferred  to  the 

Boule,  Ecclesia  (see  Cleisthenes)>  and  Heli- 
aea  (q.v.).  Ephialtes  was  murdered  in  the 
spring  of  461. 

E'phors,  at  Sparta  (q.v.,  §  2),  a  body  of 
five  magistrates  exercising  control  over 
the  kings. 

E'phorus  (Ephoros),  born  about  the  be- 
ginning of  the  4th  c.  B.C.  at  Cyme  in 
Aeolia,  was  a  pupil  of  Isocrates,  and  the 
author  of  a  history  of  the  ancient  world 
down  to  the  siege  of  Perinthus  by  Philip 
of  Macedon  (340)  in  thirty  books.  Only 
fragments  survive,  but  it  was  much  util- 
ized by  later  historians  (Diodorus,  Strabo), 
though  its  scientific  value  is  questionable. 

Epic,  narrative  poetry  of  exalted  style, 
celebrating  heroic  adventures,  mythical  or 
historical,  hi  poems  of  considerable  length. 
The  characteristic  metre  of  epic  poetry  is 
the  hexameter  (see  Metre,  §§  2  and  5). 

§  1.  Greek  Epic 

Epic  poetry  is  the  earliest  surviving 
form  of  Greek  literature.  It  existed  before 
drama,  history*  or  philosophy,  and  in 
some  sort  represented  all  three  for  the 
early  Greeks.  It  probably  had  its  origin 
in  hymns  celebrating  the  gods,  sung  at 
their  festivals,  composed  by  primitive 
poets,  among  whom  we  have  traces  of  such 
legendary  names  as  Orpheus,  Musaeus, 
and  Eumolpus.  To  such  hymns  dactylic 
verse  was  well  adapted.  Pausanias  (x.  7) 
asserts  that  the  earliest  contests  held 
at  Delphi  were  competitions  in  religious 
poetry  of  this  kind.  Epic  poetry,  like 
the  hymns  from  which  it  was  evolved,  was 
in  early  times  chanted  by  minstrels  to  the 
accompaniment  of  the  lyre.  It  was  de- 
veloped principally  in  Asia  Minor.  There 
must  have  been  a  great  mass  of  it,  but, 
apart  from  the  'Iliad'  and  the  'Odyssey* 
(qq.v.),  only  fragments  of  it  have  survived 
(see  Epic  Cycle).  In  course  of  time 
(probably  about  the  6th  c.  B.C.),  perhaps 
owing  in  part  to  tho  exhaustion  of  the 
original  subject-matter,  epic  poetry  gave 
place  to  the  greater  freedom  of  lyric 
poetry  (q.v.),  though  it  produced  an 
offshoot  in  the  philosophical  epic  of  Par- 
menides  and  Empedocles  (qq.v).  See 
also  Hesiodic  Poetry.  In  the  5th  c. 
PANTAS(S)IS  of  Halicarnassus,  uncle  of 
Herodotus  (q.v.),  wrote  an  epic  on  Heracles,